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BX  8992  .G6  1888 

Glasgow,  W.  Melancthon  1856- 

History  of  the  Reformed 

Prochvt  or -i  i^^n     rOniirch     in 





DEC  23  1931 


OF    THE 

Reformed  Presbyterian  Ktiurcli 








BY  ^^, 




HILL  &  HARVEY,  Publishers. 

Undertaken  with  the  approval  of  the  Synod  of  the  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Church  in .  America,  and  by  a  resolution  passed  in  its 
session   at  Newburgh,    New   York,   June   8,    1887. 


W.  M.  Glasgow, 


FiDDis,    Beatty    &    Co., 
Baltimore,  Md. 


lIUMAN  history  will  not  be  complete  until  man  has 
j  I  arrived  at  his  destination  to  give  in  the  final  testi- 
mony. Among  the  many  millions  of  human  beings, 
however,  who  have  come,  lived,  and  gone  from  earth,, 
there  have  always  been  some  to  fight  the  battles  of  right 
and  to  maintain  the  truth  of  God  against  error.  Before 
passing  hence,  each  generation  of  Christians  built  its  stone 
of  remembrance  into  the  rising  structure  of  the  Church 
of  God,  and  will  continue  to  do  so  until  the  gilded  dome 
of  this  divine  institution  shall  penetrate  the  heavens. 
Recognizing  this  fact,  no  apology  is  made  by  the  author 
for  presenting  to  the  members  and  friends  of  the  Re- 
formed Presbyterian  Church  this  contribution  to  her 
history,  and  offering  this  stone  of  remembrance  upon  her 
two  hundredth  anniversary.  No  history  of  this  Church 
has  been  written,  although  detached  sketches  have  been 
printed  in  the  magazines  of  the  Church  by  the  venerable 
historiographers,  the  Revs.  Drs.  James  R.  Willson  and 
Thomas  Sproull.  This  work  is  an  attempt  to  place  upon 
record  an  impartial,  authentic,  and  continuous  history  of 
the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  America.  It  in- 
cludes, also,  a  biographical  sketch  and  notice  of  every 
ordained  minister  and  licentiate  who  has  in  any  way  been 


connected  with  the  Church  in  America.  In  this  depart- 
ment, free  use  was  made  of  memoirs  of  the  older  min- 
isters, and  the  author  did  not  study  to  avoid  using  the 
exact  language  of  the  biographers  where  the  event  re- 
lated was  important,  or  where  the  sentiment  expressed 
suited  his  purpose.  Most  of  the  sketches,  however,  were 
obtained  directly  from  the  families  and  descendants  of 
the  subjects,  the  dates  being  carefully  compared  with  the 
ecclesiastical  records,  and  are  given  as  practically  correct. 
The  living  ministry  have  answered  for  themselves,  and 
delicacy  forbade  them  speaking  at  length.  Wherever  a 
life  was  out  of  tune,  the  chords  have  been  touched  as 
softly,  as  could  be  done  in  order  to  retain  the  truth  and 
yet  cause  the  whole  strain  to  be  heard  with  profit.  The 
Church  has  chosen  her  own  Moderators  of  Synods,  and 
these  have  been  selected  as  the  fairest  representatives  of 
the  Church  and  subjects  for  portraits,  so  far  as  the  like- 
nesses could  be  obtained.  All  the  Moderators  appear 
but  five,  and  these  never  had  any  pictures  taken,  viz. : 
James  Blackwood,  John  Cannon,  William  Gibson,  John 
Kell  and  Robert  Lusk.  Some  of  the  original  pictures 
were  in  a  very  bad  condition,  and  these  portraits  are 
pronounced  excellent  considering  the  old  faded  cards, 
oil  paintings,  and  daguerreotypes,  from  which  they  were 
made.  They  were  photographed  several  times  before  they 
were  made  into  copper  plates  of  a  uniform  size.  The 
"  Ives  Process, "  by  Crosscup  and  West,  Philadelphia,  a 
new  invention,  was  the  only  one  that  could  give  a  true 
likeness  at  a  reasonable  price.  These  fifty  illustrations 
have  greatly  added  to  the  expense,  but  correspondingly 
enhanced    the    value    of    the    book,    which    every    reader 


will  appreciate.  The  best  effect  will  be  received  by 
holding  the  portrait  at  a  little  distance  from  the  eyes. 
Distance  generally  lends  enchantment.  This  work  con- 
tains, furthermore,  a  sketch  of  every  Hving  and  extinct 
congregation ;  its  location,  date  of  organization,  successive 
pastors,  and  the  names  of  some  of  the  prominent  mem- 
bers. It  also  contains  a  history  of  every  Mission  con- 
ducted by  the  Church,  as  well  as  the  Theological  and 
Literary  Institutions,  Catalogue  of  Students  not  com- 
pleting the  course  in  the  Seminary  of  the  Church,  a 
Chronological  List  of  Synods,  and  the  Magazines  and 
Papers  conducted  in  the  interests  of  the  Church  and 
by    her    members. 

The  facts  comprising  much  of  the  local  history  were 
obtained  from  magazine  sketches,  and  often  the  mem- 
ories of  old  members  furnished  interesting  data.  Much 
information  of  dates  was  obtained  from  the  original  and 
printed  records  of  the  Church.  Many  of  the  latter  were 
found  in  ancient  musty  pamphlets  which  the  tidy  house- 
wife had  consigned  to  oblivion  in  the  old  trunk  in  the 
garret.  These  were  perseveringly  brought  to  light  from 
all  parts  of  the  Church,  and  used  in  furnishing  material 
for  this  volume.  The  principal  authorities  consulted  in 
the  historical  introduction  were  :  "  Hetherington's  History 
of  the  Church  of  Scotland  ; "  "  Wodrow's  History  of  the 
Sufferings  of  the  Church  of  Scotland;"  "Reid's  History 
of  the  Presbyterian  Church  of  Ireland;"  "Testimonies 
of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  Scotland,  Ireland 
and  America  ;  "  "Sprague's  Annals  of  the  American  Pul- 
pit;" "Lathan's  History  of  the  Associate  Reformed  Synod 
of  the  South  ;  "  "  Scouller's  Manual  of  the  United  Presby- 


terian  Church;"  "Dr.  SprouU's  Historical  Sketches,"  and 
minor  works  and  pamphlets  found  in  the  Congressional 
Library  at  Washington. 

To  the  many  kind  friends  in  Europe  and  America  who 
have  aided  in  the  preparation  of  this  volume,  the  author 
returns  his  sincere  thanks,  and  asks  their  pardon  for  the 
liberty  he  was  compelled  to  take  in  condensing  and  cor- 
recting some  of  the  sketches.  He  was  under  special 
obligation  to  the  late  Mrs.  Rebecca  Junkin,  of  Steuben- 
ville,  Ohio,  for  the  loan  of  a  copy  of  the  original  diary 
kept  by  the  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson ;  to  the  late  Rev. 
Dr.  John  Forsythe  for  references  ;  to  the  Rev.  Dr.  J.  B. 
Scouller  for  rare  documents  and  references  ;  and  to  Drs. 
Thomas  Sproull,  T.  W.  J.  Wylie,  Josias  A.  Chancellor, 
Hevs.  J.  W.  Sproull,  D.  B.  Willson,  C.  D.  Trumbull, 
J.  C.  K.  Milligan,  R.  M.  Sommerville,  D.  S.  Faris,  Henry 
Easson,  A.  M.  Stavely,  Robert  Dunlop,  and  Messrs. 
S.  R.  Burns,  J.  C.  McMillan,  W.  N.  Elder,  Dr.  S.  B.  W. 
McLeod,  and  others,  for  numerous  favors.  It  is  a  grat- 
ification to  know  that  among  the  many  hundreds  of 
letters  received,  no  less  touching  and  kind  were  those 
from  ministers  who  have  gone  out  from  the  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Church,  thus  showing  that  they  have  not 
forgotten  the  home  of  their  birth  and  training,  and  to 
which  they  are  much  indebted.  The  manuscript  prepared 
for  the  composition  of  this  book  was  sufficient  to  make 
two  volumes  each  of  the  present  size,  and  the  copy  had 
to  be  cut  down  about  one-half  in  order  that  the  whole 
scope  of  the  contemplated  work  might  be  included  in  one 
volume  of    reasonable  size  and  price. 

This  work  is  far  from  being  perfect,  and  the  writer  is 


just  as  cognizant  of  that  fact  as  any  of  his  critics. 
Indeed  the  result  of  his  Avork  gives  little  evidence  of 
the  time  and  labor  expended  upon  it,  and  he  only  regrets 
that  abler  hands  had  not  at  an  earlier  period  gathered 
and  published  what  is  attempted  in  this  volume.  If 
there  is  any  eloquence  in  this  book,  it  is  that  of  facts 
and  not  sentiment.  While  it  has  been  a  labor  of  years, 
it  has  also  been  a  labor  of  love.  While  it  has  been  a 
real  task,  it  has  also  been  a  great  pleasure  to  gather  up 
these  leaves  of  history  which  had  been  blown  in  all  direc- 
tions ;  to  remove  them  from  their  otherwise  unnoticeable 
destiny;  to  place  them  in  a  bundle  by  arranging  the 
stems  of  events  one  upon  the  other ;  to  unfold  the  incom- 
plete parts  by  explanation  ;  to  tie  them  together  with 
the  cord  of  publication  ;  and  now  hang  them  upon  the 
wall  of  memory  for  preservation  in  the  homes  of  the 
friends  of  the  Covenants.  And,  finally,  the  author  feels 
that  he  will  be  doubly  compensated  for  the  pains  he  has 
taken,  should  his  imperfect  work  prove  acceptable  and 
interesting  to  those  for  whom  it  has  been  gathered,  and 
to  whom  it  is  now  affectionately  dedicated. 


Baltimore,  Md.,  June,  1888. 

Table  of  Contents. 


Rise  of  Covenanter  Church — Claims — Ancient  Covenanting  Socie- 
ties— Position  of  early  Christian  Church — Presbyterian 
form  of  Government — Matter  of  worship — Persecuted  by 
Jewish  bigotry — Constantine  establishes  Christianity — De- 
fection— Prelacy — Papacy — Faithful  witnesses — Columba — 
Culdees  —  Waldenses  —  Albigenses  —  Persecution  —  Banish- 
ment— First  Reformation — Covenants — German  reformers 
— Protestants — Pope  at  London — Church  of  England — 
Puritans — Dissenters — Reformation  in  Scotland — Covenan- 
ters— Scottish  reformers — Knox — Covenants — Popery  ban- 
ished— Presbyterianism  established — National  Covenant — 
Duty  of  Nations — Reformation  overthrown — Episcopacy 
established — Liturgy — Use  of  Covenants — Covenants  re- 
newed —  Presbyterianism  restored  —  High  attainments — 
Purest  days — Westminster  Assembly — Church  Standards — 
Solemn  League  and  Covenant — Its  importance — Its  ne- 
cessity— Its  unjust  criticism — James  swears  the  Covenant 
— Second  Reformation  attainments — Object  of  the  Cov- 
enanter Church — Defection — Covenants  broken — Invasion 
of  Hamilton — Treachery  of  Charles  II — His  exile — Crom- 
well— Charles  II  recalled — Killing  times — Prelacy  restored 
— Terrible  persecution  of  Covenanters — Testimony  of  Cov- 
enanters— Ejected  Ministers — Defence  of  Martyrs — Bold 
Declarations — Ministers  executed — Destitute  condition — 
Ministerial  help — Revolution  settlement — Unsatisfactory  to 
Covenanters — Their  protests — Defection  of  Ministers — 
Without  a  Ministry — John  McMillan  joins  the  Cov- 
enanters— Others  espouse  the  cause — Associate  Presbytery 
— Constitution  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery — Testimonies 
emitted  in  Scotland  and  Ireland — Covenanters  in  America. 



Terms  of  Communion  in  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  of 
America — Position  of  this  Church  in  America — Dissent 
from  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States — Reasons  for 
it — Moral  support — Reformers — Church  and  State — Na- 
tional Reform  Association — Covenanter  Church  a  necessity 
— Social  Covenanting — Secret  Societies — Psalmody — Music 
— Forms  of  Church — Unpopular  position — Fidelity  to  Truth. 
Pages 52-6r 


Persecution  of  Covenanters — First  Settlement  in  America — Rev. 
Alexander  Craighead — His  acceptance  of  Covenanter 
principles — He  leads  them  in  Covenanting — Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson — Condition  of  Societies — Rev.  Alexander 
McDowell — Rev.  Daniel  McClelland — Rev,  William  Martin 
— Revs.  Matthevi^  Linn  and  Alexander  Dobbin — Consti- 
tution of  the  First  Reformed  Presbytery  in  America — 
Revolutionary  War — Covenanters  were  Whigs — Mecklenberg 
Declaration  of  Independence — Declaration  of  Octorara — 
Writer  of  National  Declaration — Covenanters  favor  Re- 
public— Loyal  to  the  Colonies — William  Martin  and  the 
British — His  imprisonment — Cause  in  the  South — Consti- 
tution defective — Infidelity — Enthusiasm  of  Covenanters — 
Church  Union — Seceders — Position  of  Associate  Church — 
Inconsistent  with  their  beliefs — Agitating  a  Union — For- 
mation of  Associate  Reformed  Church — Defection  of 
Covenanter  Ministers — Sentiments  of  Rev.  Matthew  Linn 
— Basis  of  Union — Members  of  new  body — William 
Martin — Defection  in  Associate  Reformed  Church — Cove- 
nanters formed  into  Societies — Rev.  James  Reid  sent 
from  Scotland — Rev.  James  McGarragh — Rev.  William 
King — Rev.  James  McKinney — Scottish  Committee — In- 
surrection in  Ireland — Emigrants  to  America — Covenan- 
ters, not  "United  Irishmen" — Rev.  William  Gibson — Con- 
stitution of  Reformed  Presbytery — Position  of  dissent 
from  United  States  Constitution — Slaveholders  excluded — 
Slavery  in  the  South — Commissioner  to  Europe — Emis- 
sion of  Testimony — Dissenting  Presbytery  desire  Union — 
Deliverance  on  the  Jury  question — Draught  of  Covenant — 
Terms  of  Communion — Book  of  Discipline — Directory  for 
Worship — Theological  Seminary — Synod  Constituted — 
War  of  i8i2 — Oath — Defenders  of  Country — Dr.  McLeod's 
War    Sermons — Argumentative    part   of    the   Testimony — 


Proposal  for  Covenanting — Sitting  on  Juries — Old  Law 
sustained — Formation  of  General  Synod— Action  on  Slavery 
and  Secrecy — Correspondence  with  Presbyterian  Church — 
Criticism  of  Associate  Church — Civil  relations — Free  Dis- 
cussion— New  Light  on  important  subjects — Division  of  the 
Church — The  real  issue — Historical  position  maintained 
by  the  majority — Testimony  on  the  subject — Sessional 
Records — Constitutional  Law — Pastoral  Letter — Publication 
of  dangerous  Documents — Some  abandon  principles — Check 
put  to  defection — Pro  re  nata  meeting  of  Eastern  Sub- 
ordinate Synod — Ministers  suspended  and  libeled — In- 
subordination to  Church  Courts — Disorderly  Congregational 
proceedings  in  New  York — Regular  meeting  of  Eastern 
Subordinate  Synod — Parties  withdraw — They  are  cited 
and  suspended — General  Synod  of  1833 — A  disturbance 
by  suspended  Ministers — Synod  constituted  in  another 
Church — New  School  body  organized — Comparison  of 
Terms  of  Communion — New  School  body  abandon  dis- 
tinctive principles — Omit  important  paragraphs  in  Tes- 
timony— Fail  to  bring  up  Testimony  to  meet  present 
evils — Their  name  a  misnomer — Declension  of  New 
School  body — Position  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church — Retains  the  old  position — Faithful  application  of 
principles — Names  erased  from  the  roll — Education  of 
young  men — Flourishing  condition  of  the  Church — Atti- 
tude towards  the  Colonization  Society- — Publication  of 
important  Documents — Organization  of  Theological  Sem- 
inary— Seminaries  at  Coldenham  and  Allegheny — Slavery 
question — Decline  to  attend  a  Convention  of  Churches — 
Allegheny  Seminary— Missions— Defection  of  two  Ministers — 
Voluntary  Associations — The  liquor  traffic — The  Deacon 
question — Educational  interests — Correspondence  with 
sister  Synods  in  Europe — Draft  of  Covenant — New  Min- 
isters and  organizations — Mission  operations — The  Deacon 
controversy — Board  of  Domestic  Missions — Change  of 
Seminary — Foreign  Mission — Election  of  Missionaries — Es- 
tablishment of  Geneva  Hall  and  Westminster  College — 
Defection  of  Foreign  Missionary — Hayti  Mission  abandoned 
— The  Church  and  Slavery — Change  of  Theological  Sem- 
inary— Suspension  of  Seminary — Fugitive  Slave  Law — 
Rev.  William  Wilson — Temperance — Conference  with  New 
School  bod)' — Missionaries — Organization  of  Seminary  at 
Allegheny — Slavery — Elective  affinity — Basis  of  union  with 
New  School  body — Union  never  effected — Basis  of  union 
with  United  Presbyterian  Church — Addition  to  Testimony 
— Abolitionists — Memorials  to  Congress — War  of  the  Rebel- 
lion— Attitude  of  the  Church — Missions  in  the  South — State 


of  the  Country — Army  Oath — Covenanters  for  the  Union — 
National  Reform  Association — Visit  the  President — Duty  of 
the  Nation — Close  of  the  War — Voting  for  Amendments — 
Paper  established — Holding  Office  in  Canada — Education  of 
Colored  race  —  Jury  question  —  Geneva  Hall  —  Sabbath 
Schools — Secret  Societies — Signing  of  Covenant — The  Cove- 
nant — Memorial  Building  —  Homestead  Oath  — Allegheny 
Seminary — Grangers — National  Reform — Exchange  of  Pul- 
pits— Conference  with  New  School  body — Various  deliver- 
ances— Church  Fellowship — Removal  of  Geneva  College — 
— Covenanting — Temperance — Secrecy — Voting  on  Amend- 
ments— National  Reform  — Baptism  — Tokens — Deliverance 
on  voting  on  Amendments — Conference  with  Psalm-singing 
Churches — Offerings  — Hymns — Secret  Societies  — Tobacco 
— Knights  of  Labor — Conducting  public  worship — Elec- 
tion of  Theological  Seminary  Professor — Students  preach- 
ing— Pastoral  Letter — Jury  Act — Condition  of  Church — Bi- 
centenary.    Pages 62-164 


St.  John — Barnesville — Mill  Stream — Moncton — Other  Preaching 

Stations — Amherst — Horton — Cornwallis — Wilmot.     Pages.   165-175 

Houlton — New    Hampshire — Ryegate — Barnet — Craftsbury — Top- 
sham  —  Saint  Johnsbury  — Lowell  —  Boston  —  Connecticut. 
Pages .., 175-186 

Ramsey — Perth  — Carleton   Place — Lochiel — Oneida — Hamilton — 

Gait — Guelph — Toronto — Morpeth.     Pages 187-193 


New  York  City  —  Brooklyn  —  Newbvirgh — Coldenham — Argyle — 
Troy — Lansingburgh — Albany — Schenectady— Duanesburgh 
— Princetown — Gal  way — Milton — Broad  Albin — Johnstown 
— Utica — New  Hartford  —  Milford  —  Kortright  —  Bovina  — 
Walton — Colchester — White  Lake — Syracuse — Rochester — 
Buffalo — York — Caledonia — Galen — Clyde —  Sterling  —  Lis- 
bon.     Pages.  , 193-228 


Perth  Amboy — Persecution  of  Covenanters — Names  of  first  Cover 
nanters  in  America — Their  Covenant  and  Testimony — Their 
treatment — Dangerous  voyage — Settlement  in  New  Jersey — 
Paterson — Newark.      Pages 228-235 


Wilmington.      Page 235 

Philadelphia  —  Cumberland  Valley  —  Milton  —  Octorara — Muddy 
Run  —  Pequea  —  Donegal  —  Colerain  —  Paxtang  —  Derry — 
Lower  Chanceford — Rock  Creek — Junkin  Tent — Carlisle — 
Rocky  Spring — Scotland — Green  Castle — Conococheague — 
Congregational  Meetings  —  Rules  —  Certificates  —  Vari- 
ous meetings  —  Petition  to  Ireland — Rev.  James  Mc- 
Kinney — Societies — Dicipline — Cause  in  Cumberland  Valley 
— Ballibay  —  Clarksburgh  —  Bear  Run  and  Mahoning  — 
Salem — Rehoboth — New  Alexandria — Greensburgh — Brook- 
land —  Parnassus  —  Middletown — Pine  Creek — Union — Oil 
City  —  Oil  Creek  —  Adamsville — Springfield — Centreville — 
Shenango — Slippery  Rock — New  Castle — Little  Beaver — 
Beaver  Falls — Pittsburgh — East  End — Allegheny — Wilkins- 
burgh — McKeesport — Monongahela — Miller's  Run.    Pages.   235-312- 

Middle  Wheeling.     Pages 312-313 

Youngstown — Greenfield — Londonderry — North  Salem — Browns- 
ville— New  Concord  —  Muskingum  —  Tomica  —  Jonathan's 
Creek — Utica  —  Mansfield  —  Sandusky  —  Miami  —  Rushsyl- 
vania  —  Bellefontaine  —  Belle  Centre  —  Macedon  —  Cedar- 
ville  —  Xenia — Brush   Creek  —  Beech   Woods  —  Cincinnati. 

Pages 313-333 


Cedar   Lake — Detroit — Novi — Southfield — Fairgrove.      Pages 333-335 

Garrison — Indianapolis — Walnut  Ridge — Princeton — Bloomington 

— Lake   Eliza.      Pages 335-342 

Old  Bethel — Bethel — Church  Hill — Elkhorn — Staunton.    Pages...  342-346- 

Vernon — Waupaca.    Pages 346-348 

Elliota— St.  Paul— Lake  Reno— Alexandria— Round  Prairie.  Pages  348-350 

Sharon — Kossuth — Linn  Grove — Morning  Sun — Rehoboth — Wash- 
ington— Burlington — Davenport — Hopkinton — Grove  Hill — 
Hickory    Grove— Walnut    City — Clarinda— Long     Branch. 
Pages 350-358- 



St.  Louis — Sylvania — Cameron — Kansas  City.     Pages 358-360 

Olathe — Pleasant   Ridge — Winchester — North  Cedar — Eskridge — 
Hebron — Tabor — Jewell — Holmwood — Sterling — Rochester 
— Quinter— Burdett.    Pages 360-364 

Wahoo — Superior — Beulah — Eckley.      Pages 364-365 

Evans — La  Junta — Denver.     Pages 365-366 

Sunnydale — Kent.     Page 366 

Oakland — Santa  Anna.      Pages 366-367 


Baltimore.    Pages 368-375 

Suffolk.      Page 375 

Hepbzibah — Duck  River — Rodgersville.     Pages 375-377 

Selma — Camden.    Pages 377-378 

Louisville.      Page 378 

Charlotte — Statesville.      Pages 378-379 

Chester    District — Mrs.    Ellet's    Sketch — War     of    Revolution — 
Martin's      Preaching — Preaching     places — Names     of    old 
families — Sepulchres — Slavery — Cause  of  emigration — Cov- 
enanterism   extinct   in  the  South.     Pages 379-398 

Alphabetically  arranged.     Pages 399-429 



List  of  Portraits. 

Beattie,  Joseph 436 

Black,  John 440 

Bowden,  Samuel. 446 

Carlisle,  Samuel 454 

Christie,  James 456 

Crawford,  S.  W 470 

Crozier,  John 474 

Dodds,  R.J 484 

Donnelly,  Thomas 487 

Paris,  D.  S 498 

Galbraith,  John 509 

George,  H.  H 513 

Gibson,  John 517 

Gibson,  Robert 519 

Gregg,  David 531 

Johnston,  J.  B 547 

Kennedy,  James 559 

McAllister,  David 575 

McClurkin,  H.  P 581 

McCracken,  Joseph 585 

McKee,  C.  B 597 

McKee,  David 599 

McLeod,  Alexander 609 

McMaster,  Gilbert 617 

Wylie,  S.  O 

Metheny,  David  624 

Milligan,  A.  M 628- 

Milligan,  James 631 

Milligan,  J.  C.  K 635 

Milroy,  William 635, 

Roberts,  W.  L 655. 

Roney,    Moses 659 

Scott,  David 663 

Sloane,  J.  R.  W 673 

Sproull,  Thomas 682 

Sterrett,  Samuel 690 

Stevenson,  Andrew 691 

Stevenson,  T.  P 695 

Stott,  John 699 

Thompson,  J.  R 706 

Trumbull,  CD 709 

Wallace,  James 711 

Willson,  D.  B 720 

Willson,  J.  M 721 

Willson,  J.  R 722 

Willson,  S.  M 728 

Wylie,  P.  H 736 

Wylie,  Samuel 738 

Wylie,  S.  B 741 



Acheson,  T.  H 430 

Acheson,  W.  A 430 

Allen,  J.  S 431 

Allen,  Nathaniel 432 

Allen,  R.  C 433 

Allen,  T.  J 433 

Allen,  W.  C 434 

Armour,  J.  M 434 

Bayles,  J.  O 435 

Beattie,  Joseph 436 

Beattie,  J.  M 437 

Black,  A.  W 438 

Black,  John 440 

Black,  John,  Jr 442 

Black,  J.  A 442 

Blackwood,  James 443 

Boggs,  J.  H 445 

Bovard,  J.  A.  F 445 

Bowden,  Samuel 446 

Boyd,  J.  C 447 

Boyd,  P.  P 448 

Brown,  James 449- 

Buck,  J.  S 449 

Cannon,  John 451 

Cannon,  R.  B 452 

Carithers,  W.  W 453 

Carlisle,  J.  F 454 

Carlisle,  Samuel 454 


Carson,  J.  F 456 

Christie,  James 456 

Clarke,  Alexander 459 

Clyde,  Robert 460 

Coleman,  E.  M 461 

Coleman,  W.  J 461 

Conner,  S.  G 462 

Cooper,    Ebenezer 463 

Coulter,  D.  H 464 

Craighead,  Alexander 464 

Crawford,  John 468 

Crawford,  S.  W 470 

Crowe,  A.  D 471 

Crowe,  S.J 473 

Crozier,  John 473 

Crozier,  John  F 475 

Crozier,  John  M 475 

Cuthbertson,  John 476 

Dauerty,  W.  M 479 

Diokson,  J.  M 479 

Dill,  J.  W 481 

Dobbin,  Alexander 481 

Dodds,  Josiah 483 

Dodds,  R.  J 484 

Donnelly,  Thomas 487 

Douglas,  James 489 

Easson,  Henry 491 

Elder,  T.  M 492 

Elliot,  G.  M 493 

Elsey,  E.  G 494 

Engles,  W.  M 494 

Ewing,  G.  T 496 

Faris,  D.  C 498 

Faris,  D.  S 498 

Faris,  Isaiah 499 

Faris,  James 500 

F'aris,  J.  C.  K 501 

Faris,  J.  M 502 

Finley,  J.  M 503 

Fisher,  John 503 

Foster,  F.  M 505 

Foster,  J.  M 505 

French,  John 506 

French,  J.  C.  B 507 

Fulton,  W.  S 507 

Gailey,  Francis 508 

Galbraith,  John   509 

Galbraith,  S.  R 510 

Gault,  M.  A. 511 

Gayley,  S.  M 512 

George,  Henry. . ; 513 

George,  R.  J 514 

George,  S.  A 515 

George,  W.  F 516 

Gibson,  John 517 

Gibson,  Robert 518 

Gibson,  William 521 

Gill,  Jonathan 524 

Gillespie,  W.  J 525 

Glasgow,  W.  M 526 

Graham,  David 527 

Graham,  John 529 

Graham,  William 530 

Gregg,  David 53° 

Guthrie,  T.  C 53i 

Hamilton,  Joseph 533 

Hanna,  Thomas 534 

Hargrave,  Ruther 535 

Hawthorne,  Hugh 535 

Hawthorne,  John 536 

Henderson,  Joseph 537 

Hill,  J.  R 538 

Holmes,  John 539 

Hood,  John 54° 

Hunter,  Joseph 54^ 

Huston,  J.  J 542 

Hutcheson,  Robert 542 

Jerridinia,  Jacoub 544 

Johnston,  Archibald 544 

Johnston,  A.  W 54^ 

Johnston,  J.  B 547 

Johnston,  J.  M 549 

Johnston,  J.  R 55° 

Johnston,  Lewis 551 

Johnston,  N.  M 552 

Johnston,  N.  R 553 

Johnson,' Robert 554 

Johnston,  S.  D 556 

Johnston,  W.  P 556 

Kell,  John 557 

Kennedy,  George 558 

Kennedy,  James 559 

Kennedy,  Joshua 560 

Kilpatrick,  Alexander 560 


King,  William 561 

Laird,  W.  R 562 

Latimer,  J.  R 563 

Lawson,  J.  R 563 

Linn,  Matthew 564 

Little,  John 566 

Love,  James 567 

Lusk,  Robert 568 

Lynd,  John 570 

Madden,  Campbell 570 

Martin,  D.  C 572 

Martin,  William 572 

McAllister,  David 574 

McAuley,  John 575 

McBurney,  G.  R 577 

McCartney,  John 577 

McClelland,  Daniel 578 

McClurkin,  A.  W 579 

McClurkin,  H.  P 580 

McClurkin,  J.  J 580 

McClurkin,  J.  K 582 

McClurkin,   S.  R 582 

McClurkin,  T.  Z 583 

McConnell,  Thomas 583 

McCracken,  Joseph 584 

McCready,  R.  H 585 

McCullough,  Boyd 586 

McDonald,  J.  M 587 

McDowell,  Alexander 588 

McElhinney,  J.  M 589 

McFall,  David 590 

McFall,  Thomas 590 

McFarland,  Armour 591 

McFarland,  A.  J 592 

McFarland,  Joseph 592 

McFarland,  William 593 

McFeeters,  James 593 

McGarragh,  James 594 

McKee,  C.  B 596 

McKee,  David 598 

McKee,  J.  A 599 

McKee,  Robert 599 

McKinney,  James 600 

McKinney,  Robert 604 

McKinney,  Samuel 605 

McKinney,  William 606 

McLachlane,  James 606 

McLeod,  Alexander 608 

McLeod,  J.  N 611 

McMaster,  A.  S 612 

McMaster,  E.  D 614 

McMaster,  Gilbert 616 

McMaster,  John 619 

McMillan,  Gavin 620 

McMillan,  Hugh 621 

McMillan,  W.  W 623 

McNaugher,  J.  W 624 

Metheny,  David 625 

Middleton,  John 626 

Milligan,  A.  M.,  Sr 627 

Milligan,  A.  M.,  Jr 629 

Milligan,  E.  M 630 

Milligan,  James 630 

Milligan,  J.  C.  K 632 

Milligan,  J.  R.  J 633 

Milligan,  J.  S.  T 634 

Milligan,  O.  B 635 

Milroy,  William 635 

Milroy,  William 636 

Milroy,  W.  M 637 

Montgomery,  Andrew 638 

Montgomery,  R.  C 639 

Morton,  J.  W 639 

Neill,  James 641 

Neill,  William 642 

Newell,  J.  R 643 

Newell,  John 644 

Orr,  R.  G 645 

Patton,  James 646 

Patton,  Thomas 646 

Pinkerton,  J.  L 647 

Pinkerton,  W.  A 647 

Pollock,  J.  T 648 

Reed,  H.  W 648 

Reed,  Robert 649 

Reed,  R.  C 650 

Reid,  Daniel 650 

Reid,  James 651 

Reilly,  John 653 

Rice,  John 654 

Robb,  T.  P 655 

Roberts,  W.  L 655 

Robinson,  Samuel 657 

Roney,  Moses 658 


Rusk,  T.  A 626 

Samson,  W.  L.  C 662 

Scott,  David 662 

Scott,  George 664 

Shanks,  W.  M 665 

Sharp,  B.M 666 

Sharpe,  R.J 667 

Shaw,  D.  J 668 

Shaw,  J.  W 668 

Shaw,  S.  G 669 

Shields,  Robert 670 

Slater,  William 671 

Sloane,  J.  R.  W 672 

Sloane,  William 676 

Smith,  E.  M 677 

Smith,  J.  C 678 

Sommerville,  R.  M 678 

Sommerville,  William 679 

Speer,  J.  A 681 

Sproull,  J.  W 682 

Sproull,  R.  D 682 

Sproull,  Thomas 6S3 

Sproull,  T.  A 6S4 

Sproull,  T.  C... 685 

Sproull,  William 686 

Stavely,  A.  M 687 

Steele,  David 688 

Sterrett,  Samuel 690 

Stevenson,    Andrew 691 

Stevenson,  Hugh 692 

Stevenson,  S.  M 693 

Stevenson,  T.  P 694 

Stewart,  J.  S 695 

Stewart,  J.  W 695 

Stewart,  Robert 697 

Stott,  John 698 

Stuart,  A.  C 69S 

Symmes,  J.  H 700 

Wylie,  T.  A.  H... 

Taylor,  J.  C 701 

Teaz,  John 702 

Telfair,  David 702 

Temple,  H.  W 704 

Thompson,  D.  G 704 

Thompson,  J.  A 704 

Thompson,  J.  R 705 

Thompson,  J.  S 706 

Thompson,  R.  M 706 

Todd,  A.  C 707 

Trumbull,  C.  D 708 

Walkinshaw,  Hugh 708 

Wallace,  James 710 

Wallace,  John 711 

Wallace,  Robert 712 

Wallace,  S.  R 714 

Wilkin,  Matthew 714 

Williams,  J.  B 715 

Williams,  Matthew 716 

Williams,  M.  B 7^7 

Willson,  D.  B 720 

Willson,  J.  M 720 

Willson,  J.  R 723 

Willson,  R.  Z 727 

Willson,  S.  M 729 

Wilson,  William 73° 

Wright,  Alexander 732 

Wylie,  J.  H 733 

Wylie,  J.  Milligan 734 

Wylie,  John  M 734 

Wylie,  J.  Ralston 735 

Wylie,  J.  Renwick 735 

Wylie,  Oliver 73^ 

Wylie,  P.  H 737 

W^ylie,  R.  C 73^ 

Wylie,  Samuel 739 

Wylie,  S.  B 74o 

Wylie,  S.  O  743 



Abraham,  R.  H 747       Black,  J.  K 747 

Acheson,  J.  J 747       Boxley,  D.  W 748 

Barber,  W.  H 747       Conger,  Joseph 748 

Beattie,  F.  S 747       Gumming,  William 74^ 


Echols,  J.  H 748 

Elder,  J.  M 748 

Esker,  Abood 748 

Frazier,  M.  R 748 

George,  R.  A 748 

Gibson,  R.  C 749 

Gibson,  W.J 749 

Gray,  James 749 

Hamilton,  John 749 

Hamilton,  W.  R 749 

Huggart,  T.  S..! 749 

Hutcheson,  Martin 749 

Johnston,  J.  H 750 

McClelland,  J.  B 750 

McKelvy,  J.  A 750 

McKinley,  Thomas 750 

McKinney,  Archibald 750 

Willson,  Z.  G 

Mogee,  Alexander 750 

Montgomery,  S.  D 750 

Murphy,  J.  G 751 

Neeley,  Lorenzo 751 

Nightingale,  J.  C 751 

Purvis,  L.  B 751 

Quarles,  J.  F "751 

Robinson,  John 751 

Sloane,  T.  S , 752 

Smith,  S.  F 752 

Sproull,  Theophilus 752 

Sproull,  W.  0 752 

Stewart,  G.  E 752 

Taggart,  S.  B 752 

Thompson,  William 752 

Trumbull,  Robert 753 

Williams,  C.  L 753 


Constitution — Established    in  Philadelphia — Suspension— Colden- 
ham  — Allegheny  —  Cincinnati  —  North  wood  —  Allegheny — 
Professors — Students.     Pages 753-755 

Geneva    Hall — Westminster    College — Allegheny    City    College — 

Knox  Academy.     Pages 755-759 

View  of  Geneva  College.     Page 754 

Photographs  of  Literary  and  Mission  Buildings.     Page 759 


Foreign  Missions. 
Hayti — Syrian — Latakia — Aleppo — Tarsus — Cyprus. 


Balph,  J.  M 

Balph,  E.  J....... 

Beattie,  M.  E... 

Dodds,  A.  J 

Dodds,  E.  M 

Dodds,  L.  M 

Dodds,  W.  A.  S. 
Easson,  M.  J. .., 
Edgar,  M.  B...., 






Galbraith,  A.  M 768 

Jerridinia,  H.  C 768 

Joseph,  L.  B 769 

Martin,  R.  C 769 

Metheny,  E.  G  . 
Metheny,  M.  E. 
Sproull,  E.  C.  ... 
Sterrett,  E.  M. . 
Wylie,  M.  R 




Port  Royal — Fernandina — St.  Augustine — Little  Rock — Duvall's 
Bluff — Natchez — Washington — Selma — Camden — New  York 
City — Chinese — Indian.     Pages 772-777 

General  Meeting — Reformed  Presbytery — List  of  Meetings — Dis- 
organization— Reorganization  of  Reformed  Presbytery — 
List  of  Meetings — Constitution  of  Synod — List  of  Meet- 
ings—  Presbyteries  :  Illinois  —  Iowa  —  Kansas  —  Lakes — 
Middle  Committee  and  Presbytery — New  Brunswick  and 
Nova  Scotia — New  York — Northern  Committee  and  Presby- 
tery— Ohio — Philadelphia — Pittsburgh — Rochester  t-  South- 
ern Committee  and  Presbytery — Vermont — Western 

Pages ^ 778-785 


Evangelical  Witness"  —  "American  Christian  Expositor"  — 
"Albany  Quarterly  " — "  Reformed  Presbyterian  " — "  Cove- 
nanter " —  "Reformed  Presbyterian  and  Covenanter"  — 
"  Christian  Statesman  " — "  Our  Banner  " — "  College  Cabi- 
net " — "  Monthly  Advocate  " — "  Christian  Nation  " — "  Guid- 
ing Star" — "Herald  of  Mission  News."    Pages 785-788 

"TiiK  Idngdom  is  tho  Lord's;  nml  IIo  is  the  Governor  among  tlie 
nations.  *  *  King  of  kings  and  Lord  of  lords.  *  *  Tlie  wicked 
shall  bo  turned  into  hell  and  the  nations  that  forget  dod.  *  *  He 
wise  now,  tluMefoic-,  O  ye  kings.  *  *  Kiss  the  Son.  *  *  I'or  tlie 
nation  and  kingdom  that  will  not  serve  Thee  shall  p(>rish.  *  *  The 
Lord  reigiieth.  *  *  Hy  Me  kings  roign.  *  *  Phe  powers  l)ia(  l>e 
are   ordained   of   (iod.  " — Tlw  lUI>lt\ 

"Wk,  the  people  of  the  United  States,  flo  ordain  and  est.d)lish 
this   Constitution.  "  —  Unilfil   States    Constitution. 

"Till':  ( i(>\(<rnini'nt  of  the  I'nited  Sialics  of  America,  is  not  in  any 
sense,    louuilcd    on    the    Christian    religion."- -T.    S.     Tiraty    7vil't     Trif^o/i. 

"  In  vain  iloes  the  nation  attempt  to  pnrchasu  liberty  with  the  best 
blood  of  her  citizens,  while  delivering  it  into  the  keeping  of  men  un- 
acijuainted  with,  or  regardless  of,  the  supreme  legislative  autluMity 
of   (lod.  "  —  A'<-:'.    ynttii-s    AAA'inHcy. 

"  No  consideration  will  justify  the  franiers  of  tl\e  (\>nsli- 
tnlion  and  the  administration  of  the  Cio\enuiienl.  in  wilhholiling  a 
recognition  of  the  Loril  and  llis  .Vnointeil  from  the  gr.ind  charter 
of   the   nation. "  — A'^'.   .l/cx<i/fJ<-r   .)/,/,.•(>,/.    />.    /> 

"In  tlie  Cnited  Stales  the  to  ackiiowiedm-  Cod  in  the  Con- 
stitiitioM  has  probably  been  more  explicit  than  it  e\er  was  in  any 
other    nation.  "  —  AVr.'s   A',    ll'i/hoii,    /l    />. 

"  liiK  I'ederal  Constitution  of  the  United  States  does  not  recognize 
the  existence  of  Crtid,  the  Kiiij,'  o(  n.itions;  *  *  and  shall  a  nation 
,ict  as  if  independent  of  the  ChhI  of  the  Univei-se.  and  expect  to  be 
guiltless?  *  *  The  principles  of  reformation  are  not  fashionable. 
They  were  once,  however,  consiilered  as  the  glory  of  Presbyterians. 
For  civil  and  ecclesiastical  reformation,  for  a  glorious  covenanted  cause, 
thousands  bled  and  died.  *  *  1  have  endeavored  to  advocate  M<// 
<;tn.\Y  because  I  thought  it  the  doctrine  of  tlu>  Bible,  and  the  cause 
of   Christ."— AV,".    S,nnih/  A.    //>•//>.    /).    D. 




Historical   Introduction. 

THE  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  America  is  the 
lineal  descendant  and  true  representative  of  the 
Church  of  Scotland  in  her  purest  days,  and  embraces 
in  her  Testimony  the  principles  of  the  Second  Reform- 
ation as  exhibited  between  the  years  1638  and  1649. 
The  Presbyterian  Church  of  Scotland  was  a  Covenant- 
ing Church,  and  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  of 
this  age  is  not  a  branch  of  any  Presbyterian  body  but 
the  remnant  of  the  original  stock.  While  the  Synod 
of  this  Church  is  among  the  small  ecclesiastical  assem- 
blies, yet  for  that  reason  she  should  not  be  regarded 
with  reproach.  Her  principles  are  both  scriptural  and 
unpopular,  and  neither  the  paucity  of  her  members  nor 
the  unpopularity  of  her  principles  prove  that  the  position 
of  the  church  is  unsound  or  impracticable.  She  claims 
to    be    a    Reformed    Church,  a    Presbyterian    Church,    and 

22  irisrORV    OF    THE    REFORMED 

a  Covenanting  Church  ;  and  to  fully  substantiate  this 
claim  a  cursory  review  of  the  history  of  the  Christian 
church    will    be    necessary. 

From  the  earliest  period  in  the  world's  history  the 
church  of  God  has  been  a  Covenanting  Church,  and 
a  dissenter  from  immoral  constitutions  of  Church  and  State. 
The  antediluvians  bore  faithful  testimony  to  the  character 
and  moral  government  of  God,  and  by  the  call  of  Abraham 
this  covenanting  society  received  a  more  perfect  organization. 
The  patriarchs  were  constant  witnesses  to  the  truth  of  God 
against  idolatry  and  immorality  either  national  or  individual. 
Under  the  Mosaic  dispensation  also  the  nation  of  Israel 
was  brought  into  a  solemn  league  and  covenant  with 
God,  and  the  Church  erected  in  the  wilderness  was  a 
witnessing  society  for  the  rights  of  God.  When  the 
*'  fullness  of  time "  had  come,  and  the  predicted  Messiah 
came  into  the  world  as  the  "Mes.senger  of  the  Cove- 
nant," He  was  a  witness  for  the  truth,  and  not  only 
bore  constant  testimony  to  His  Sonship  before  Jewish 
priests,  but  also  claimed  His  right  to  the  Headship  over 
the  nations  before  the  Roman  government.  These  two 
articles  have  formed  the  chief  points  of  Christ's  witnesses 
in  all  ages,  and  are  the  cardinal  principles  of  the  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Church  in  this  age.  When  Christ  com- 
missioned His  apostles  to  go  forth  and  preach  the  gospel, 
He  gave  them  to  be  witnesses  for  Him  and  to  His 
rights  upon  earth,  even  to  the  end  of  the  world.  The 
commission  then  implies  that  every  minister  of  Christ 
is  to  bear  like  testimony.  At  the  organization  of  the 
Apostolic  church  and  in  accordance  with  the  directions 
of    the   Divine   Head,   members   were   to   be    received    into 


it  by  an  expression  of  their  belief  in  the  Saviour,  and 
a  confession  of  the  scheme  of  grace  as  revealed  in  God's 
Word,  with  a  life  and  conversation  as  becomes  the  same 
profession.  In  this  the  requirements  of  the  Christian 
church  should  be  uniform.  The  government  and  order 
•of  the  primitive  church  were  evidently  Presbyterian.  It 
was  distinguished  for  the  purity  of  its  doctrines  and 
the  simplicity  of  its  worship.  Nothing  of  human  inven- 
tion was  tolerated  and  it  was  scriptural  in  all  its  appoint- 
ments. In  this  system  of  government,  moreover,  the 
Headship  of  Christ  and  the  subjection  of  all  things  to  Him 
were  clearly  displayed.  At  an  early  period  of  the  life 
of  this  scriptural  church  and  covenanting  society  were 
the  fires  of  persecution  kindled,  and  they  raged  with 
increased  fury  because  many  had  not  grown  weary  of 
purity  and  witness-bearing.  For  three  hundred  years 
were  they  persecuted  under  Jewish  bigotry,  until 
Constantine  the  Great  wrapped  the  imperial  robe  around 
him,  and  signally  overthrew  the  policy  of  the  Roman 
power,  and  established  pure  Christianity  as  the  religion 
of  the  empire.  Under  his  eventful  reign  Christianity 
spread  rapidly,  but  co-incidently  the  spirit  of  Anti-Christ 
was  at  work.  The  condition  of  the  church  was  such 
that  men  were  not  willing  to  return  to  the  pure  state 
■of  the  primitive  church,  nor  to  become  witnesses  for 
the  rights  of  King  Jesus.  Preachers  of  the  gospel  were 
lead  to  defection  by  vain  philosophies  and  worldly 
ambition.  Discipline  was  relaxed  and  the  lives  of  members 
gradually  became  more  corrupt.  They  had  broken  cove- 
nant with  God  and  iniquity  was  being  visited  upon  them. 
The     union     of     Church     and     State     doubtless    promoted 


defection  and  corruption,  and  the  spiritualit}-  of  the 
church  became  very  low.  The  favors  of  the  State  soon 
developed  a  hierarchical  system  of  Prelacy,  which  system 
was  directly  antagonistic  to  the  teaching  of  the  Apos- 
tolic church.  The  same  causes  also  gave  rise  to  Papacy, 
and  the  bishop  of  Rome  assumed  the  title  of  the 
Universal  Bishop.  Seemingly  the  whole  world  "wondered 
after  the  beast,"  and  the  unmutilated  Word  of  God 
was  not  only  prohibited  to  be  read,  but  the  worship 
was  conducted  in  an  unknown  tongue.  During  all  these 
periods  of  the  prevalence  of  Papacy,  there  were  faith- 
ful witnesses  for  Jesus  to  be  found.  Before  the  papal 
power  had  reached  the  Western  church,  God  had  raised 
up  the  faithful  Athanasius  to  contend  against  the  Arian 
heresy ;  Vigilantius  to  the  strongholds  of  super- 
stitution,  and  the  learned  Augustine  to  overthrow  the 
Pelagian   and  Semi-Pelagian   heresies. 

Away  to  the  north  and  west  faithful  witnesses  for  revealed 
truth  and  scriptural  church-life  had  been  preserved,  who- 
uncompromisingly  refused  to  hold  communion  with  the 
church  of  Rome.  In  England,  Scotland  and  Ireland  the 
pure  gospel  was  preached  and  the  church  conducted  after 
the  Apostolic  model.  Patrick  and  Columba,  with  their  con- 
temporaries and  successors,  multiplied  witnesses  for  Jesus 
and  established  a  church  in  opposition  to  Rome.  Many 
of  these  witnesses  were  denominated  Ceilide,  or  servants 
of  God,  and  have  been  known  in  history  as  Culdees. 
They  were  Covenanters  in  theory,  Presbyterians  in 
government,  and  Reformed  Presbyterians  in  sentiment. 
They  held  firmly  to  the  Word  of  God  and  supremacy 
of    Christ,   and    maintained   a  separate   existence  until  the 


time  of  the  Reformation.  In  parts  of  Europe,  Roman 
persecutors  found  faithful  witnesses  for  the  rights  of 
Christ,  who  opposed  the  Anti-christian  system.  The 
Waldenses  in  the  valleys  of  Piedmont,  and  the  Albigenses 
in  the  south  of  France,  had  continued  their  existence  since 
Apostolic  times.  They  were  a  covenanting  society  separated 
from,  or  rather  never  had  been  in  connection  with,  the 
church  of  Rome,  and  propogated  a  truly  evangelical  creed 
and  a  Presbyterian  form  of  government  since  the  Apos- 
tolic age.  This  fact  is  admitted  by  nearly  every  histo- 
rian. But  these  witnesses  for  Christ  were  soon  discovered 
in  vast  congregations  and  caused  to  suffer  most  violent 
and  terrible  persecution.  Many  of  them  were  banished, 
and,  as  so  many  sparks  from  the  burning  stake,  they 
kindled  anew  their  principles  in  other  parts  of  Europe. 
They  were  afterward  found  in  Germany,  Bohemia,  France 
and  t^ngland.  In  the  fourteenth  century  eighty  thou- 
sand of  these  Covenanting  Presbyterians  were  found  in 
Austria  and  maintained  their  principles  to  the  death. 
In  the  fifteenth  century  the  Reformation  from  Popery 
began,  although  its  work  is  generally  attributed  to  the 
sixteenth  century.  Wyckliffe,  John  Huss,  the  Lollards, 
and  Jerome  of  Prague  espoused  the  principles  of  the 
covenanting  Waldenses,  and  in  their  maintenance  of 
truth  prepared  the  way  for  the  Reformation.  All  those 
in  sympathy  with  the  cause  of  pure  religion  formulated 
a  covenant,  which  was  entered  into  by  the  whole  Wal- 
densian  Church.  Some  of  the  reformers  of  this  period 
had  been  reared  within  the  pale  of  the  Romish  Church 
and  experimentally  knew  the  errors  against  which  they  hero- 
ically contended.  God  brought  out  such  eminent  witnesses  as 


Luther,  Zwinglius,  Melancthon,  Calvin  and  Farel,  who  in 
Germany,  Switzerland  and  France  were  the  effective  instru- 
ments in  God's  hand  for  propogating  the  cause  of  the 
First  Reformation,  and  shook  Papal  Europe  to  her  very 
foundations.  As  might  be  expected  the  Reformation  met 
with  a  great  deal  of  opposition.  The  hands  of  the 
reformers  were  held  up  by  the  Lutheran  Church,  which,, 
in  1534,  solemnly  swore  the  famous  League  of  Smalkalde. 
In  1537,  a  similar  covenant  was  sworn  by  the  followers 
at  Geneva.  Unhappily  the  Lutherans  and  Reformed  differed 
in  some  points,  and  especially  in  regard  to  sacraments,, 
but  with  reference  to  the  pure  Word  of  God  and  the 
errors  of  the  Romish  church  they  were  agreed.  The 
Reformed  churches  of  France  and  Hungary  also  swore 
similar  covenants  and  all  were  known  as  Protestants 
against  the  corruptions  of  the  church  of  Rome.  The 
cause  of  the  Reformation  did  not  find  such  rich  soil 
in  England.  The  despotic  Henry  the  Eighth  was  King. 
He  was  a  most  irreligious  man,  and,  in  order  to  gratify 
his  own  lusts,  established  the  Church  of  England,  and 
arrogated  to  himself  the  power  of  a  Pope  at  London, 
Although  this  church  was  separated  from  that  of  Rome,, 
yet  it  retained  much  of  the  doctrine  and  order  of  the  Papacy. 
The  Reformation  made  some  progress  under  the  brief 
reign  of  Edward  the  Sixth,  but  its  friends  were  caused 
to  pass  through  fiery  persecution  under  the  reign  of 
bloody  Mary.  Upon  the  accession  of  Queen  Elizabeth 
the  protestant  faith  was  again  restored,  but  through  the  Eras- 
tian  measures  of  the  Queen  the  cause  did  not  flourish.  The 
chief  hindrance  was  from  the  fact  that  the  anti-christian  hier- 
archy of  the2Romish  church  was  retained  almost  unaltered 


in  the  Established  Church  of  England.  For  all  intents 
and  purposes  it  zvas  Romish,  and  the  bitter  enemy  of 
the  Reformation.  There  were  some  again  in  England 
who  contended  for  purity  in  doctrine  and  government, 
who  were  called  Puritans,  and  because  they  would  not 
take  the  communion  of  the  corrupt  English  church,  entered 
the  Tole  of  Dissoitei's.  The  Reformation  began  to  spread 
rapidly  in  Scotland  in  the  early  part  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  and  owed  little  or  nothing  to  the  favor  of 
the  state.  God  raised  up  several  eminent  witnesses  for 
the  truth  who  suffered  martyrdom,  and,  notwithstanding 
the  fact  that  they  sealed  their  testimony  with  their  own 
blood,  the  truth  continued  to  progress.  Among  these 
faithful  witnesses  were  Patrick  Hamilton,  George  Wishart 
and  John  Knox.  The  latter  returned  from  the  Continent 
in  1555,  when  the  cause  of  the  Reformation  was  languishing, 
and  he  was  the  means  of  awakening  the  multitude  by 
his  powerful  preaching,  and  caused  the  Queen  to  fear 
his  prayers  more  than  an  army  of  soldiers.  Through  his 
indomitable  courage  and  consecrated  devotion  to  the 
cause  of  the  Reformation  the  people  entered  into  several 
solemn  covenants  for  the  purpose  of  uniting  the  friends 
of  the  cause.  Various  covenants  adapted  to  the  times 
were  sworn  at  Edinburgh  in  1557;  at  Perth  in  1559; 
at  Stirling  in  1 560 ;  and  at  Leith  in  1 562,  in  which 
they  pledged  their  lives  and  their  substance  to  maintain 
the    cause    of    Christ. 

In  1560,  the  Parliament  abolished  Popery,  and  the  first 
General  Assembly  emitted  the  First  Book  of  Discipline^ 
fixing  and  defining  the  government  and  order  of  the 
church   after  a  scriptural  and  Presbyterian  plan.     In  I578'» 


a  Second  Book  of  Discipline  was  prepared  and  adopted  and 
the  Presbyterian  Reformation  was  fully  established.  The 
most  memorable  step  in  the  progress  of  the  Reforma- 
tion was  the  adoption  of  the  NATIONAL  Covenant  of 
Scotland.  It  was  drawn  up  by  Rev.  John  Craig  of 
Edinburgh,  and  was  the  nation's  solemn  protest  against 
Popery  and  the  bond  for  the  maintenance  of  the  Reformed 
faith.  It  was  sworn  and  subscribed  by  the  King  and 
most  of  the  nobility  with  their  households,  in  1581. 
In  all  these  covenants  it  is  expressly  agreed  that  the 
"Bible  should  be  the  supreme  law,  and  that  nations 
should  frame  their  laws  according  to  the  Divine  standard  ; 
that  there  is  a  conscience  toward  God  paramount  to 
human  control,  and  the  Word  of  God  is  the  rule  for 
the  government  of  the  conscience  ;  that  there  is  no 
lord  of  conscience  but  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  who  alone 
is  the  Head  of  the  Church  and  the  lawful  Governor 
among  the  Nations  ;  that  it  is  the  duty  of  every  nation, 
as  well  as  the  individual,  to  incorporate  these  principles 
in  its  constitution  and  live  a  life  in  conformity  to  this 

In  1590,  the  National  Covenant  was  again  subscribed. 
In  1 592,  the  Presbyterian  form  of  church  government 
was  ratified  by  the  King  and  parliament,  and  this  has 
been  denominated  the  GREAT  CHARTER.  In  1 596,  the 
General  Assembly  renewed  the  National  Covenant  again, 
at  which  time  over  four  hundred  ministers  and  elders 
with  uplifted  hands  to  God  solemnly  engaged  in  His 
name  to  purge  the  church  of  all  corruption.  This  was 
a  reviving  time  from  the  presence  of  the  Lord,  and 
the    Reformation    was    in   the    meridian    of   its   life. 


Partly  by  craft  and  partly  by  arbitrary  interference  with 
•ecclesiastical  courts,  James  attempted  to  overthrow  the 
Scottish  Reformation  and  establish  Episcopacy.  This 
perfidious  ruler  favored  Popery,  interfered  with  the  election 
of  members  to  the  highest  judicatory  of  the  church,  and 
introduced  prelacy  in  1610.  In  1618,  the  "Five  Articles 
of  Perth"  were  forcibly  carried  and  ratified,  and  because 
some  ministers  refused  to  subscribe  to  these  Popish 
requirements,  they  were  ejected  from  their  charges  and 
visited  with  heavy  penalties.  At  the  accession  of  Charles 
the  First  to  the  throne,  in  March,  1625,  the  Presbyterian 
Church  of  Scotland  witnessed  a  deadly  foe,  and  his  deter- 
mination was  to  destroy  every  vestage  of  Presbyterianism 
and  compel  them  to  conform  to  the  English  Episcopal  Liturgy. 
In  1536,  a  Liturgy  and  Book  of  Ecclesiastical  Canons  were 
introduced,  and  had  the  effect  of  abolishing  the  ecclesiastical 
polity  of  the  Church  of  Scotland.  Lamentably  too  many  com- 
plied with  these  prelatic  innovations  and  arbitrary  measures. 
These  tyrannical  proceedings  aroused  the  independent 
spirit  of  many  of  the  Scotch,  and,  after  earnest  deliberation 
and  fervent  prayer,  they  resolved  to  flee  to  the  strength 
received  by  their  ancestors,  and  took  steps  to  renew  the 
National  Covenants.  The  Covenants  were  the  source  of 
Scotland's  strength  and  the  crown  of  her  glory !  The 
National  Covenant  had  served  a  good  purpose  in  con- 
summating the  First  Reformation,  and  it  was  brought  into 
service  in  the  Second. 

To  now  adapt  it  to  the  circumstances  of  the  church 
and  nation,  Archibald  Johnston  specified  several  acts  of 
former  Parliaments  to  prove  that  the  course  taken  by  the 
Covenanters  was  constitutional ;    and  Alexander   Henderson 


applied  the  sacred  bond  to  the  condemnation  and  rejection 
of  all  prelatical   innovations.     They  say  in  this  bond  : 

"We  promise  and  swear  by  the  great  name  of  the  Lord  our  God, 
to  continue  in  the  profession  and  obedience  of  the  true  religion  ;  that 
we  shall  defend  the  same,  and  resist  all  those  contrary  errors  and  cor- 
ruptions according  to  our  vocation,  and  to  the  utmost  of  that  power 
which    God    hath    put    in    our    hands,  all    the    days   of  our    life." 

And    they    also    declare : 

•'We  shall,  to  the  utmost  of  our  power,  stand  to  the  defence  of  our 
Sovereign,  the  King,  in  the  defence  and  preservation  of  the  aforesaid 
true   religion,  liberties,   and   laws   of  the   kingdom." 

And  with  regard  to  the  original  covenant  that  was  now 
renewed,  they  said  : 

"  The  present  and  succeeding  generations  in  this  land  are  bound  to 
keep    the    aforesaid    national    oath    and    subscription    inviolate." 

The  Covenant  was  now  sworn  and  subscribed  at  Grey- 
friar's  Church  in  Edinburgh,  March  i,  1638,  by  sixty 
thousand  persons,  amid  scenes  of  joy  and  sorrow.  They 
laid  the  precious  document  upon  the  mossy  tombs,  and 
many  wrote  their  names  with  blood  from  their  own  veins, 
while  others  were  but  permitted  to  subscribe  initials,  because 
the  document  was  full,  and  there  was  no  more  room. 
The  renewing  of  the  Covenant  was  followed  by  the  happiest 
effects  and  manifest  tokens  of  the  Divine  blessing.  It  was 
the  means  of  awakening  the  people  to  their  vows  and  the 
signal  overthrow  of  Episcopacy.  The  Covenanters  acted 
with  prudence  and  decision  in  demanding  the  General 
Assembly  to  redress  their  grievances,  and  a  meeting  of 
Parliament  to  rectify  disorders.  This  assembly  met  in  the 
city  of  Glasgow,  November  20,  1638,  and  was  presided 
over  by  the  great  Alexander  Henderson.  This  assembly 
condemned    the    "Five    Articles    of    Perth,"    the    Liturgy 


and  Canons,  the  Book  of  Ordination,  the  High  Commission^ 
Court,  and  the  civil  places  and  powers  of  churchmen. 
Prelacy  was  rejected,  bishops  and  prelatical  leaders  were 
deposed  and  excommunicated.  The  renovation  of  the 
Covenant  was  approved  ;  the  Presbyterian  form  of  govern- 
ment was  fully  restored ;  the  power  of  the  church  to 
convene  in  her  annual  assembly  was  granted,  and  the 
right  of  the  church  to  preserve  order,  discipline,  educa- 
tion and  religious  worship  was  acknowledged.  These  were 
among  the  purest  days  of  the  Covenanting  Presb}'terian 
Church  of  Scotland,  and  the  faithful  witnesses  for  Jesus 
were  triumphant  in  their  rights  and  liberties.  Although 
armies  were  brought  down  to  crush  the  success  of  the 
Covenanters  and  to  restore  prelac}',  they  were  ineffectual 
in  destroying  the  witnesses,  and  the  work  of  the  Scottish 
Reformation  was  fully  confirmed  by  Parliament  in  1640. 
The  exiled  ministers  were  recalled,  the  order  of  the 
church  restored,  and  the  ordinances  of  religion  were  again 
dispensed  to  the  people  to  the  utter  dismay  of  the 
prelates,  and  Spottiswood,  Archbishop  of  St.  Andrew's, 
mournfully  exclaimed,  "Now,  all  that  we  have  been  doing 
these    thirty   years    by    past    is    at    once    thrown   down." 

While  the  cause  was  flourishing  in  Scotland,  the  Cove- 
nanters in  Ireland  were  inhumanly  massacred.  Charles 
the  First  closed  his  ears  against  the  cry  for  help,  and 
he  was  justly  suspicioned  for  his  complicity  with  the 
Romish    power. 

By  an  application  of  the  English  Parliament,  June  12, 
1643,  an  assembly  of  learned  and  godly  men  was  called, 
composed  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  ministers  and  thirty 
elders,  the    majority    of    which    were    strict    Presbyterians, 

32  ■  HISTORY    OF    THK    REFORMED 

This  was  called  the  WESTMINSTER  Assembly,  and  met 
in  the  Jerusalem  Chamber,  Westminster,  London,  July 
I,  1643,  and  continued  its  sessions  for  a  period  of  jfiive 
years,  six  months  and  twenty-two  days.  They  drew 
up  from  the  Word  of  God  the  Confession  of  Faith, 
the  Larger  and  Shorter  Catechisms,  a  Form  of  Church 
Government  and  a  Directory  for  Worship.  These  all 
received  the  sanction  of  the  P^nglish  Parliament  and 
were  adopted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Church 
of  Scotland.  A  joint  application  by  the  Parliament 
and  Westminster  Assembly  was  made  to  the  Conven- 
tion of  P^states  in  Scotland  and  the  General  Assembly, 
August  17,  1643,  to  enter  into  a  SOLEMN  LEAGUE 
AND  Covenant,  embracing  the  civil  and  religious  in- 
terests of  the  three  kingdoms.  A  draft  was  made  by 
Alexander  Henderson  and  cheerfully  subscribed  by  the 
Assembly  of  Divines  at  Westminster,  by  both  Houses 
of  Parliament,  and  by  persons  of  all  ranks  in  P^ngland. 
.It  was  then  carried  over  into  Ireland  and  signed  gen- 
erally by  the  congregations  in  the  province  of  LHster. 
This  famous  document  bound  the  United  Kingdoms  to 
the  preservation  of  the  Reformed  religion,  to  its  doc- 
trines, discipline  and  government  according  to  the  Word 
of  God.  It  simply  brought  the  Church  back  to  its 
Scriptural  basis  and  its  allegiance  to  King  Jesus  and 
His  Law  in  all  transactions,  civil  and  ecclesiastical.  Had 
it  not  been  for  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  the 
three  Kingdoms  would  have  been  cast  into  absolute 
despotism,  and  the  liberty  and  civilization  of  the  world 
would  have  received  an  irrecoverable  shock.  The  great 
principles  of  this  sacred  bond   are  those  of    God's  Word, 


and  nothing  more  nor  less.  While  England  was  not 
quite  ready,  but  should  have  been,  to  fully  adopt  them 
as  her  principles  of  national  government,  yet  they  are 
none  the  less  Scriptural,  and  there  will  a  time  come 
when  all  the  Kingdoms  of  the  earth  will  be  united  under 
a  similar  and  one  grand  Solemn  League  and  Covenant  ; 
when  God's  Anointed  shall  be  practically  acknowleded 
King  of  nations  ;  and  when  these  Scriptural  principles 
of  the  heavenly-minded  Covenanters  of  Scotland  shall 
gloriously  triumph.  It  cannot  be  otherwise,  for  the 
nations  that  neglect  or  refuse  to  enter  into  such  a  cove- 
nant with  the  King  of  Kings  shall  perish.  No  inter- 
national document  has  ever  been  so -much  misrepresented 
and  maligned  as  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant. 
Statesmen  should  pause  and  read  it  carefully,  compare 
it  to  the  demands  of  God's  Law,  and  fully  digest  what 
is  in  it,  before  they  vent  their  eloquence  in  undue  criti- 
cism. A  sacred  principle  was  then,  and  by  this  docu- 
ment infused,  into  the  heart  of  that  nation,  which  has 
never  perished  ;  and,  having  taken  root  in  the  new  em- 
pire of  America,  ma}-  be  regarded  as  the  dawn  of  a 
better  day  for  the  cause  of  King  Jesus.  The  Covenanters 
never  attempted  to  force  Presbyterianism  upon  England 
or  any  other  nation,  for  they  entered  into  the  Covenant 
without  an}^  such  stipulations,  and  it  has  always  been 
contrar}'  to  their  principles  to  force  Christians  to  the 
acceptance  of  any  position.  But  they  do  feel  it  their 
duty  to  teach  men  and  nations  their  allegiance  to  Christ 
and  to  use  every  legitimate  means  to  bring  them  to  an 
acceptance  and  acknowledgment  of  the  same. 

James    the    First    had  signed    the    first    National   Cove- 
nant,   and    Charles     the     Second,    on     being    crowned    at 


Scone,  January  i,  1651,  solemnly  swore  to  keep  both 
the  National  and  Solemn  League  and  Covenant.  And 
when  the  oath  to  defend  the  Church  of  Scotland  was 
.administered  to  him,  kneeling  and  holding  up  his  right 
hand,  he  uttered  the  following  solemn  vow  :  "  By  the 
Eternal  and  Almighty  God,  who  liveth  and  reigneth 
forever,  I  .shall  observe  and  keep  all  that  is  contained 
in  this  oath." 

A  blessing  followed  the  course  of  the  Church  at  this 
time,  and  many  of  the  breaches  in  Church  and  State 
were  healed.  The  Solemn  League  and  Covenant  was 
a  necessity,  and  not  until  all  nations  are  bound  to- 
gether and  to  God  b}-  a  holy  Covenant,  and  true  liberty 
flowing  from  Bible  principles  recognized,  will  universal 
peace  prevail.  The  attainments  of  the  Second  Reforma- 
tion are  worthy  of  record.  The  supreme  Headship  of 
Christ  over  the  Church  was  exhibited  ;  the  Church  was 
priviledged  to  call  her  own  assemblies  ;  the  policy  of 
the  government  was  brought  into  conformity  to  God's 
Word  ;  the  nation  owned  its  allegiance  to  King  Jesus  ; 
and  rulers  were  to  be  set  up  who  should  be  God's 
ministers  for  good  and  a  terror  to  evil  doers.  This 
was  the  church's  purest  period  and  the  nation's  happiest 
hour.  The  object  of  the  existence  of  the  Covenanter 
Church  in  America  as  true  witnesses  for  the  royal 
perogatives  of  King  Jesus,  is  to  bring  this  nation  to 
the  enjoyment  of  the  blessings  and  duty  of  this  period 
in  the  life  of  the  British  nation.  It  is  the  required 
attitude  of  every  church  and   nation   to  its  Divine   Head. 

The  period  in  which  the  nation  continued  to  avow 
and  practically  apply  the  principles   of    the  Reformation, 


Avas  too  brief  to  fully  test  the  blessings  of  the  nation 
whose  God  is  the  Lord.  The  beauty  of  the  Covenanted 
Reformation  was  soon  marred  by  the  duplicity  of  an 
unprincipled  king  and  his  followers.  England  was  the 
first  to  make  defection,  because  the  danger  which  threat- 
ened her  civil  liberty  was  past,  and  she  imagined  that 
she  no  longer  needed  the  help  of  the  King  of  Heaven. 
Scotland  soon  also  broke  her  solemn  covenant  engage- 
ments and  departed  from  her  attainments.  The  inva- 
sion of  England,  in  1648,  by  the  Duke  of  Hamilton's 
army,  was  a  wilful  breach  of  the  Solemn  League  and 
Covenant,  and  was  afterwards  condemned  by  both  the 
Parliament  and  General  Assembly.  Charles  the  Second 
was  totally  unworthy  of  the  homage  of  a  loyal  people, 
and  happy  would  they  have  been  had  they  never  placed 
the  crown  upon  him.  The  people  had  committed  their 
trusts  into  the  hands  of  a  treacherous  man.  There 
was  undue  attachment  to  the  house  of  Stuart,  which 
ultimately  lead  to  untold  calamities.  The  King  was 
forced  to  exile,  and  Oliver  Cromwell  invaded  Scotland 
wdth  an  English  army,  and  gained  a  victory  at  Dunbar. 
Under  Cromwell's  usurped  authority,  and  by  intrigue, 
plans  were  formed  to  overthrow  the  Constitution.  The 
faithful  Presbyterians  considered  that  they  were  bound 
to  adhere  to  the  Constitution  ;  and,  because  they  opposed 
the  malignants  and  their  policy,  were  called  protestors. 
Cromwell  died  in  September,  1658,  and  his  son  Richard 
succeeded  him.  He  was  wanting  in  capacity  and  ambi- 
tion, and  Charles  the  Second  was  restored  to  the  throne 
in  May,  1660.  From  this  date  to  that  of  the  Revolution 
Settlement  in  1688,  the  period  is  denominated  the  "killing 


times."  Now  begin  the  sufferings  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  r 
and  the  history  of  this  period  may  well  be  written  in 
characters  of  blood.  In  i66i,  the  Parliament  required 
an  oath  of  unlimited  allegiance  from  all  members  instead 
of  a  subscription  to  the  Covenants.  The  order  and 
government  of  the  Church  were  reversed  ;  bishops  were 
restored  ;  all  proceedings  of  the  Church  and  State  on 
behalf  of  Reformation  from  1638  to  1649  ^vere  pro- 
nounced treasonable  ;  the  Covenants,  National  and  Sol- 
emn League,  were  pronounced  unlawful  oaths  ;  and  all 
civil  and  ecclesiastical  acts  were  regarded  null  and  void. 
The  covenants  were  ordered  to  be  burned  in  public  at 
Edinburgh,  as  they  had  been  done  at  London  ;  and  all 
those  who  owned  the  covenants  were  subjected  to  the 
penalties  of  treason.  Nearly  four  hundred  ministers  of 
the  Presbyterian  Church  were  driven  from  their  congre- 
gations b)'  an  act  of  the  Privy  Council.  The  whole  work 
of  the  Reformation  was  overturned,  and  the  Act  of 
Supremacy,  making  the  King  judge  in  all  matters  civil 
and  ecclesiastical,  paved  the  way  for  the  terrible  perse- 
cution which  immediately  followed.  Amid  these  bloody 
persecutions  the  Covenanter  Church  came  into  promi- 
nence as  the  faithful  witnesses  of  the  great  principles 
of  the  Reformation.  They  bore  constant  testimony  for 
the  divine  authority  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  as  con- 
trasted with  Prelacy  ;  for  the  exclusive  Headship  of  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ  over  the  Church  ;  for  the  supreme 
authority  of  the  Mediator  and  His  Law  over  the  rulers 
of  the  nation  ;  for  the  perpetual  obligation  of  the 
Covenants  ;  together  with  the  rights  and  duties  of  sub- 
jects   owning    the     authority    of    Christ    to    resist     those 


wicked  rulers  who  had  usurped  their  authority  and 
trampled  under  their  feet  the  rights  and  liberties  of 
a  religious  and  covenanting  people.  Such  was  the  testi- 
mony which  the  Covenanters  bore,  and  sealed  it  with 
their  blood.  Among  the  first  victims  of  this  irresponsi- 
ble power  were  the  Marquis  of  Argyle  and  Rev.  James 
Guthrie,  staunch  Presbyterians  and  resolute  defenders  of 
the  cause  of  the  Redeemer.  No  less  than  twenty  thou- 
sand Presbyterian  and  Covenanting  witnesses  suffered 
martyrdom  in  various  ways,  and  many  were  banished 
to  America  and  Jamaica  ;  and  upwards  of  two  thousand 
godly  ministers  were  banished  from  their  congregations 
in  one  day.  Some  renounced  the  Covenanted  cause,  but 
those  who  continued  faithful  were  driven  and  chased  like 
partridges  on  the  mountains.  The  persecutions  were 
horrible  in  their  character,  and  one  cannot  read  the  his- 
tory of  this  period  without  feeling  his  blood  boil  at  the 
atrocious  slaughter  of  the  Covenanters  by  the  thousands. 
They  refused  to  wait  upon  the  ministrations  of  curates 
who  had  been  thrust  upon  them  by  the  bayonet,  and  if 
they  were  found  waiting  upon  any  of  the  ejected  Presby- 
terian ministers  either  in  private  houses  or  conventicles, 
they  were  heavily  fined  and  cruelly  punished.  Among 
the  principal  non-conforming  ministers  were  Richard 
Cameron,  John  Welsh,  Thomas  Douglas  and  John  Kid, 
and  a  reward  was  offered  for  the  heads  of  these  faithful 
divines,  dead  or  alive.  Even  to  the  death  the  martyrs 
of  Jesus  bore  testimony  against  their  persecutors,  and 
when  given  an  opportunity  to  speak  in  their  courts,  re- 
plied to  the  perjured  prelates  in  the  following  manner  : 
"  Every  immoral  constitution  is  disapproved  of  God.     No 


man  ought  to  swear  allegiance  to  a  power  which  God 
does  not  recognize.  All  kings  are  commanded  to  promote 
the  welfare  of  the  Church,  and  those  who  own  allegiance 
to  Christ  cannot  consistently  pray  for  the  prosperity  of 
the  Church's  enemies,  or  for  the  establishment  of  thrones 
founded  upon  iniquity.  It  is  certainly  the  duty  of 
Christians  to  be  meek  and  peaceable  members  of  civil 
society.  If  they  are  permitted  to  enjoy  their  lives,  their 
property,  and  especially  their  religion,  without  being 
required  to  make  any  sinful  compliances,  it  is  right  that 
they  should  behave  peaceably  and  not  involve  society  in 
confusion,  even  though  the  power  of  the  empire  in  which 
they  reside  be  in  evil  hands.  ?>ery  burden  which  God 
in  His  Providence  brings  upon  them,  they  must  cheer- 
fully bear.  But  never  are  Christians  called  upon  by 
their  God  to  owri  as  His  ordinance  anything  which  is 
contrary  to  His  Law.  The  civil  powers  of  which  He 
approves  are  a  terror  to  them  who  do  evil.  Tyrants 
and  persecutors,  usurpers  and  despisers  of  religion  may 
be  set  up  in  His  holy  and  just  Providence  to  answer 
valuable  purposes  in  His  hand,  but  He  himself  declares 
in  His  Word  that  such  Kings  are  set  up  not  by  Him. 
The  Pagan  Roman  government  is  described  in  Revela- 
tion as  the  empire  of  the  dragon,  and  all  the  kings 
that  support  anti-Christ  are  said  in  the  same  infallible 
Word  to  have  received  from  Satan  their  authority.  God 
has  declared  their  overthrow  and  destruction,  and  no 
Protestant  should  recognize  them  as  the  ordinance  of  God 
to  which  they  must  yield  conscientious  support.  The 
present  King,  Charles  the  Second,  has  violated  the 
Constitution    of    Scotland  ;     he   has    broken    the   covenant 


which  he  made  with  God  and  man  ;  he  has  claimed  as 
an  essential  part  of  royal  perogative,  a  blasphemous 
supremacy  in  the  Church  ;  he  has  overturned  our  ecclesi- 
astical order ;  banished  the  faithful  ministry,  and  perse- 
cuted the  most  virtuous  inhabitants  of  the  land.  Such  a 
perjured  usurper  and  profligate  tyrant  cannot  be  con- 
sidered as  a  lawful  magistrate  by  the  Reformed  Presby- 
terian   Covenanters." 

These  were  the  sentiments  of  the  martyrs  of  Jesus,  and 
for  these  principles  they  freely  gave  their  lives.  Their 
position  was  exceedingly  unpopular,  but  in  it  were  the 
germs  of  future  glory  and  greatness.  Like  John 
the  Baptist,  they  were  the  forerunners  of  greater 
things,  and  like  John  the  Baptist,  many  of  them 
were  beheaded.  For  over  twenty  years  this  cruel 
persecution  lasted,  and  the  Covenanting  Church  was  re- 
duced to  a  few  ministers  and  members.  As  the  faithful 
remnant  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  in  her  purest  days, 
they  continued  to  assemble  for  worship  in  such  places 
as  they  could,  and  their  courts  of  judicature  were  pre- 
vented from  rfteeting.  They  made  several  bold  declara- 
tions of  their  principles,  and  aroused  the  indignation  of 
the  King.  At  the  first  anniversary  of  the  return  of  the 
King,  Charles  the  Second,  May  27,  1679,  bonfires  had 
b>een  kindled  in  Rutherglen  in  commemoration  of  the 
restoration.  The  Covenanters  repaired  to  the  scene,  ex- 
tinguished the  fires,  and  burned  the  Acts  of  Parliament 
and  the  Council  as  the  Covenants  had  been  burned. 
They  formulated  the  notable  "  Rutherglen  Declaration 
and  Testimony,"  and  after  fixing  it  to  the  market  cross, 
peacefully  retired.     This  was    regarded  as  open    rebellion 

40  niSTORN'    OF   THE    REFORMED 

again.'jt  the  power,  and  produced  the  fiercest  indignation 
among  the  prelatic  party.  It  was  among  the  first  fearless 
declarations  of  the  principles  of  the  Covenanters,  and 
lead  to  the  battle  of  Drumclog,  where  Graham  of  Claver- 
house  was  defeated.  The  Covenanters  also  issued  the 
"  Queensferry  Paper"  in  June,  1680,  in  which  they  de- 
clared :  "  We  do  declare  that  we  will  set  up  over  our- 
selves, and  over  what  God  shall  give  us  power  of,  govern- 
ment and  governors  according  to  the  Word  of  God  ;  that 
we  shall  no  more  commit  the  government  of  ourselves 
and  the  making  of  laws  for  us  to  any  one  single  person, 
this  kind  of  government  being  most  liable  to  inconven- 
iences and  aptest  to  degenerate  into  tyranny."  This 
is  .strong  language,  and  a  bold  sentiment  of  Republican- 
ism. This  was  burning  the  bridge  behind  them,  and  they 
neither  asked  nor  received  any  favors  from  the  prelatic 
power  or  ministry.  The  Covenanters  hereafter  kept 
themselves  aloof  from  prelatic  assemblies  and  worshipped 
among  themselves.  Holding  to  the  Covenants  and 
the  rights  of  the  Church  which  had  been  established  by 
the  King  and  all  subjects,  they  passed  just  sentence  upon 
all  backsliders  and  defectionists  from  the  King  to  the 
humblest  member  of  the  once  established  Church.  Rev. 
Donald  Cargill  excommunicated  Charles  the  Second  and 
six  other  noted  profligates,  September  17,  1680,  in  the 
presence  of  a  vast  congregation.  They  were  guilty  of 
the  most  atrocious  crimes,  and  justly  dealt  with,  but 
they  were  regarded  as  fit  members  of  the  Episcopacy. 
This  again  excited  the  blood-thirsty  persecutors  to  frenzied 
madness.  Richard  Cameron,  who  was  the  leader  of  the 
Covenanters    and  a  most    fearless    and    pious    man,   fell  at 


Airsmoss,  July  22,  1680,  as  a  victim  of  the  diabolical 
power.  The  blood-stained  standard  was  not  allowed  to 
trail,  and  was  borne  aloft  by  Donald  Cargill,  until  he 
also  was  apprehended  and  executed  at  Edinburgh,  July 
27,  1 68 1.  This  left  the  Covenanters  without  a  minister, 
but  the  followers  were  just  as  faithful  to  their  King  and 
the  attainments  of  the  Covenanting  Church.  They  im- 
mediately organized  a  system  of  societies  among  them- 
selves and  met  as  often  as  they  could.  Correspondents 
from  all  the  societies  met  in  a  general  meeting,  usually 
every  three  months,  and  determined  the  course  of  the 
whole  body,  but  never  assumed  to  dispense  any  official 
work.  The  minutes  of  these  General  Meetings  were 
kept  by  Michael  Shields  and  are  published  in  the  "  Faith- 
ful Contendings."  While  they  were  deprived  of  public 
ministrations  and  sealing  ordinances,  the  Covenanters  could 
not  conscientiously  be  administered  unto  by  any  minister 
who  had  taken  "the  indulgence."  Mr.  James  Renwick, 
one  of  their  worthy  young  men  and  a  youth  of  good 
education,  was  sent  to  the  University  of  Groningen, 
Holland,  where  he  studied  theology,  and  was  licensed 
and  ordained  by  the  Classis  of  Groningen,  May  10,  1683. 
The  same  fall  he  returned  to  Scotland,  and,  as  the  sole 
minister  of  the  Covenanters,  labored  faithfully  for  the 
rights  of  Jesus  and  the  liberties  of  his  people.  He  suffered 
many  annoyances  and  was  frequently  outlawed  and  per- 
secuted. Every  person  was  forbidden  by  the  edict  of  the 
tyrannical  King  "  to  harbor  him  and  his  followers,  or 
supply  them  with  meat  or  drink  ;  but  to  hunt  and  per- 
sue  them  out  of  all  their  dens,  caves  and  most  retired 
deserts,  and  to  raise  the  hue  and   cry  after   them."     Not- 


withstanding  these  dangers  and  cruelties,  the  Covenanters 
kept  March  4,  1685,  as  "a  day  of  thanksgiving  unto  the 
Lord  for  the  wonderful  proofs  of  His  love  and  good  will, 
manifested  to  a  scattered  and  distressed  remnant  in  this 
land,  by  His  delivering  them  in  several  places  from  the 
power  and  rage  of  enemies  when  they  were  ready  to 
swallow  them  up."  By  the  death  of  Charles  the  Second, 
they  enjoyed  a  brief  breathing  spell,  and  improved  the 
precious  time  by  preparing  the  famous  "  Sanquhar  Dec- 
laration." and  nailing  it  to  the  market  cross*  In  1682,. 
Rev.  Alexander  Peden  was  called  from  Ireland,  and 
assisted  Mr.  Renwick  until  his  death,  January  26,  1686. 
In  December,  1686,  Alexander  Shields,  who  had  been 
licensed  by  some  Presbyterian  ministers  in  London,, 
espoused  the  despised  cause  of  the  Cameronians.  Mr. 
William  Boyd,  educated  in  the  Netherlands  by  the  Cove- 
nanters, was  licensed  by  the  Classis  of  Groningen  in 
September,  1687,  and  all  these  held  forth  the  rights  of 
"  Christ's  Crown  and  Covenant "  with  fearlessness  and 
power.  Rev.  James  Renwick,  the  last  martyr  to  the 
sacred  cause  of  Scotland,  was  executed  February  17, 
1688,  for  his  devotion  to  the  Crown  rights  of  King 
Jesus.  His  charge  was  :  "  You,  James  Renwick,  have 
shaken  off  all  fear  of  God  and  respect  and  regard  to 
his  majesty's  authority  and  laws  ;  and  having  entered 
yourself  into  the  society  of  some  rebels  of  most  damn- 
able and  pernicious  principles  and  disloyal  practices  ; 
you  took  upon  you  to  be  a  preacher  to  those  traitors 
and   became   so   desperate  a  villain  that  you   did   openly 

*For   many  of  these  notable  documents,  and  the  details  of  incidents, 
the  reader  is  referred  to  any  reliable  history  of  the  Church  of  Scotland. 


and  frequently  preach  in  the  fields,  declaiming  against 
the  authority  and  government  of  our  sovereign  lord,  the 
King ;  denying  that  our  most  gracious  sovereign,  King 
James  the  Seventh,  is  lawful  King  of  these  realms  ;  as- 
serting that  he  was  a  usurper,  and  that  it  was  not 
lawful  to  pay  cess  or  taxes  to  his  majesty  ;  but  that 
it  was  lawful  and  the  duty  of  subjects  to  rise  in  arms 
and  make  war  against  his  majesty  and  those  commis- 
sioned by  him."  What  is  asserted  was  true  ;  for 
the  Covenanters  held  the  principle  that  "  the  abuse  of 
power  abrogates  the  right  to  use  it."  With  few  ex- 
ceptions, all  Protestants  accept  this  principle.  Thomas 
Lining,  also  educated  by  the  Covenanters,  was  ordained 
by  the  Classis  of  Embden,  in  August,  1688,  after  an 
examination  of  twenty-one  days.  Revs.  Shields,  Boyd 
and  Lining  maintained  the  faithful  Covenanted  testimony 
until  the  Revolution.  Those  Covenanters  residing  in 
Ireland  were  ministered  unto  by  the  revered  David 
Houston.  The  Revolution  Settlement  of  1688,  which 
dethroned  James  the  Second  and  placed  the  crown  upon 
William,  Prince  of  Orange,  is  a  memorable  period,  and 
one  worthy  of  careful  consideration  in  the  history  of 
the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church.  The  two  hundredth 
anniversary  of  this  event  was  celebrated  by  the  Cove- 
nanter Church  in  America,   as  in   other  lands. 

All  true  hearted  Presbyterians  looked  with  favor  upon 
the  Prince  of  Orange,  and  regarded  the  circumstances, 
which  placed  the  crown  upon  his  head  as  a  good  omen 
and  the  dawn  of  a  better  day  for  Scotland.  It  was. 
regarded  as  a  Divine  interposition  in  behalf  of  a  loyal 
people,    and    the    course    pursued    fully    vindicated    some 


of  the  principles  held  by  the  Covenanting  witnesses. 
The  Scottish  convention  passed  the  following :  "  That 
King  James,  by  his  abuse  of  power,  had  forfeited  all 
title  to  the  crown,  and  that  it  be  conferred  upon  the 
Prince  of  Orange."  The  English  Parliament  also  de- 
clared "  that  King  James  the  Second,  having  endeavored 
to  subvert  the  Constitution  by  breaking  the  original  con- 
tract between  the  King  and  the  people,  did  abdicate 
the  throne."  Now  it  is  plain  that  both  these  acts  estab- 
lish these  two  principles,  "  that  the  abuse  of  power 
destroys  the  right  to  exercise  it  ;  and  that  a  people 
may  depose  their  rulers."  These  same  principles  dissolved 
the  union  between  the  Colonies  and  Great  Britain,  and 
gave  the  United  States  their  independence.  The  same 
principles  now  lead  thousands  of  Covenanters  to  sacri- 
fice their  lives,  and  the  principles  will  be  admitted  as 
sound  by  ever}-  intelligent  reader.  But  the  hopes  of 
the  faithful  Covenanting  witnesses  were  doomed  to  speedy 
disappointment.  While  the  Presbyterian  system  was  es- 
tablished in  Scotland,  the  Church  was  left  under  Eras- 
tian  control.  The  Revolution  Settlement  was  unsatis- 
factory in  many  respects.  It  was  characterized  by 
several  flagrant  errors.  The  Covenants  .were  blasphe- 
mously cast  aside  as  worthless ;  the  civil  institutions  no 
longer  pretended  to  possess  scriptural  qualifications  ; 
and  prelacy  was  retained  in  the  National  Church.  If 
the  Revolution  of  1688,  which  overturned  the  house  of 
Stuart,  justified  the  course  of  those  who  rejected  the 
authority  upon  the  principle  now  accepted  by  all,  then 
certainly  the  Covenanters  were  justified  in  rejecting  the 
"settlement"     of     King    William     when     he    openly    vio- 


lated  the  very  principles  which  brought  him  to  the 
throne.  He  wilfully  betrayed  the  very  cause  he  sol- 
emnly swore  to  defend.  Because  the  Covenanters  re- 
garded an  oath  of  vast  importance  and  binding  until 
the  ends  for  which  it  was  made  were  accomplished ; 
because  they,  and  others,  solemnly  swore  to  adhere  to 
the  doctrine  and  order  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  as 
constituted  between  the  years  1638  and  1649;  because 
they  were  sworn  to  oppose  Popery,  Prelacy  and  Eras- 
tianism  as  all  the  Kings  and  subjects  were  bound ; 
because  the  crown  was  offered  to  the  new  sovereign 
without  the  proper  and  required  scriptural  qualifica- 
tions ;  because  the  evil  institution,  against  which  the 
whole  Church  of  Scotland  had  borne  constant  testi- 
mony, was  interwoven  into  the  policy  of  King  William  ; 
and  because  he  became  the  acknowledged  head  of  the 
Church,  and  exercised  authority  over  it  contrary  to 
the  Word  of  God  and  the  previously  avowed  position 
of  the  Church  of  Scotland,  the  Reformed  Covenanting 
Church  publicly  protested  against  the  ''settlement"  and 
remained  separate  from  it,  both  in  its  civil  and  ec- 
clesiastical relations.  Their  grounds  of  dissent  are  those 
of  reason  and  justice.  The  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church,  or  because  of  its  attachment  to  the  Cove- 
nants, the  Covenanter  Church,  of  this  day,  occupies 
the  same  position  as  the  Church  of  Scotland  did 
between  the  years  1638  and  1649,  and  which  was  the 
purest  and  most  blessed  period  in  its  history.  The 
Covenanters  hold  that  the  Covenants  were  binding  upon 
those  who  solemnly  swore  them,  and  who  are  repre- 
sented   in    them,    and    they    are    not    willing    to    speedily 


relinquish  the  testimony  for  which  the  life-blood  of 
thousands  of  their  brethern  was  sacrificed.  While  they 
stood  aloof  from  the  government  because  of  principle 
and  the  reasons  heretofore  mentioned,  as  peaceful  and 
law-abiding  citizens  they  claimed  the  right  of  the  protec- 
tion of  their  lives  and  property,  and  paid  all  just  dues  in 
taxes,  and  bearing  arms  in  defence  of  their  country. 
Those  in  Scotland  who  held  these  principles  of  Bible  civil 
government  as  they  had  always  been  maintained  by  a 
true  scriptural  policy,  hoped  for  a  reformation  and  a 
return  to  former  attainments.  As  an  expression  of 
their  hopes,  at  the  first  General  Assembly  after  the 
Revolution  "settlement"  held  in  1690,  the  Covenanter 
ministers,  Revs.  Shields,  Boyd  and  Lining,  presenting  a 
paper  asking  the  Assembly  to  carefully  examine  their 
position,  to  acknowledge  and  confess  their  sin  of  Cov- 
enant breaking,  and  the  nation's  sin  of  defection  from 
the  previous  attainments.  This  they  not  only  refused 
to  do,  but  fully  embraced  the  policy  of  the  govern- 
ment, and  subsequently  deposed  the  Rev.  John  McMillan,. 
a  Presbyterian  minister  and  a  member  of  their  own 
court,  for  no  other  cause  than  pleading  for  the  obli- 
gations of  the  Covenants  which  they  had  solemnly 
sworn,    and    now    violated    with    impunity. 

In  1691,  Revs.  Thomas  Lining  and  William  Boyd 
made  defection,  and  after  being  admonished  for  their 
faithfulness  to  the  Covenanters,  were  received  into  the 
Established  Church.  After  having  preached  the  Gospel 
and  held  the  principles  of  the  Covenanting  Church  for 
several  years  at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  they  could  not 
withstand    the    unpopularity    of    their    cause.     They  evea 


persuaded  Rev.  Alexander  Shields,  the  author  of  "The 
Hind  let  Loose,"  to  leave  the  glorious  principles 
he  had  so  ably  defended,  and  he  also  joined  the 
Established  Church.  Rev.  David  Houston,  in  Ireland,  was 
now  the  sole  minister  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church,  and  he  held  her  principles  intact  until  his  death. 
Alexander  Shields  continued  in  his  course  of  defection 
and  became  a  chaplain  in  an  army  which  fought  under 
the  Pope,  and  he  died  abandoned  and  distressed  in 
Jamaica.  The  Covenanters  were  without  a  minister  for 
sixteen  years,  and  continued  to  hold  that  it  was  in- 
consistent with  their  position  to  wait  upon  the  minis- 
trations of  a  minister  who  had  been  unfaithful  to 
Jesus  and  his  solemn  vows.  They  scrupulously  con- 
tended for  the  whole  truth  once  delivered  to  the  saints, 
organized  themselves  into  praying  societies,  and  sup- 
plicated earnestly  and  importunately  the  Good  Shepherd 
to  send  them  a  pastor  for  the  scattered  flock.  They 
watched  with  interest  the  contendings  of  the  Rev. 
John  McMillan,  who,  until  1703,  sought  a  recognition 
of  the  obligations  of  the  Covenants,  and  had  failed. 
Believing  that  he  had  received  his  commission  to 
preach  from  Christ  and  not  from  men,  and  that  he 
had  been  unjustly  deposed  by  the  Established  Church, 
he  resumed  his  ministrations  among  his  former  con- 
gregation, who  cordially  received  him  and  embraced  his 
views  of  the  Covenants.  After  frequent  conferences  and 
serious  deliberation,  Mr.  McMillan  acceded  to  the  Re- 
formed Presbyterian  Church  in  October,  1706,  and 
began  his  labors  among  them  in  December,  1707.  His 
labors    were    greatly    blessed    among    scattered    societies. 


and  many  were  built  up  in  their  most  holy  faith. 
About  this  time,  Mr.  John  McNeil,  a  licentiate  of  the 
Established  Church,  and  who  had  been  deprived  of  the 
priviledge  of  preaching  in  that  body  because  of  his 
fidelity  to  Reformation  principles,  also  joined  himself 
to  the  Covenanting  Church,  and  assisted  Mr.  McMillan 
in  displaying  a  banner  because  of  truth.  They  drew 
up  a  Protestation  and  Declinature,  in  which  they  clearly 
set  forth  the  principles  of  the  Covenanting  Church, 
and  their  reasons  of  dissent.  The  following  is  the  title 
of  this  notable  document :  Protestation  and  Testimony 
of  the  United  Societies  of  the  Witnessing  Remnant  of  the 
Anti-popish,  Anti-prelatic,  Anti-crastian,  Aiiti-sectarian, 
True  Presbyterian  Church  of  Christ  in  Scotland,  against 
the  sinful  Incorporating  Union  luith  England  and  their 
British  Parliament,  Concluded  and  Established,  May,  ijof. 
This  famous  document  and  many  other  copies  of  the 
original  manuscripts  of  a  similar  nature,  are  in  the 
possession  of  the  author.  In  1708,  another  paper  en- 
titled "Protestation,  Declinature  and  Appeal,"  was  pre- 
pared and  signed  by  these  ministers,  in  which  they 
-clearly  exhibit  their  reasons  for  dissent  from  the  Re- 
volution Church  and  declare  their  unfaltering  attach- 
ment to  the  standards  of  the  once  pure  Church  of 
Scotland.  In  1707,  the  union  of  Scotland  and  England 
was  effected,  and  in  171 1,  patronage  was  restored. 
These  steps  gave  additional  evidence  of  apostacy  in 
the  Church  and  Nation,  and  the  Covenanters  felt  it 
their  duty  to  take  another  stand  against  the  incoming 
tide  of  Prelacy  and  Papacy.  To  this  end,  and  to 
•strengthen    their    hearts,  they  renewed    the    Covenants  at 


Auchinsaugh,  Lanarkshire,  July  23,  171 2.  All  the 
societies  assembled  for  this  important  transaction,  and 
with  their  right  hands  lifted  up  to  Heaven,  solemnly 
pledged  themselves  to  be  for  God,  and  not  for  another. 
This  act  of  Covenanting  was  followed  by  a  blessing. 
As  Mr.  McNeil  was  never  ordained,  Mr.  McMillan  was 
the  only  minister  of  the  Covenanters  for  over  thirty 
years.  He  was  faithful  in  visiting  the  different  locali- 
ties where  the  societies  assembled  and  preached  to 
them  with  great  power.  While  there  was  defection  all 
around  him  and  reproach  cast  upon  him  for  his  fidelity 
to  a  persecuted  remnant  of  Christ's  witnesses,  he  was 
unmoved  in  his  course,  and  is  an  example  of  moral 
heroism  unparalled  in  the  history  of  the  Christian 
Church.  He  was  constantly  treated  with  disrespect  by 
Church  and  State,  yet  held  fast  the  true  position  and 
the  attainments  to  which  every  Church  and  Nation 
must  reach,  viz :  allegiance  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
as  the  Divine  Head  and  King.  In  November,  1733' 
Rev.  Ebenezer  Erskine,  who  was  subsequently  joined 
by  Revs.  James  Fisher,  Alexander  Moncrieff  and  William 
Wilson,  seceded  from  the  Established  Church  on  ac- 
count of  the  evils  flowing  from  patronage,  and  other 
tyrannical  measures,  and  constituted  the  Associate  Pres- 
bytery. In  1747,  they  divided  on  the  "Burgess  Oath" 
into  two  Synods,  and  grew  rapidly.  It  was  hoped 
some  of  them  might  join  the  Covenanters  so  that  a 
Presbytery  could  he  erected,  but  in  this  there  was 
disappointment.  In  the  testimony  emitted  by  these  men 
who  constituted  the  first  Associate  Presbytery,  it  is 
admitted    that    grievous    defects    existed    in    the    Revolu- 


tion  "settlement,"  and  that  rulers  did  not  possess  scrip- 
tural qualifications ;  yet  these  brethren  continued  to 
acknowledge  that  the  government  as  constituted  was 
an  ordinance  of  God,  and  freely  rendered  it  their  sup- 
port. They  limited  the  Mediatorial  Headship  of  Christ 
to  the  Church,  and  that  as  Mediator  Christ  does  not 
govern  the  nations;  that  nations  are  not  bound  to 
acknowledge  Christ  or  His  religion ;  that  magistrates 
are  God's  ordinance,  no  matter  how  immoral  their 
characters  may  be;  and  that  while  scriptural  quali- 
fications may  be  desirable  in  rulers,  yet  they  are  not 
at  all  necessary.  This  view  is  simply  placing  the  whole 
of  the  Reformation  attainments  into  the  grave  and 
erecting    a    tombstone. 

It  is  not  at  all  strange  that  they  and  the  Covenanters 
did  not  embrace  each  other.  In  the  spring  of  1743, 
however,  one  of  the  Associate  ministers,  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Nairn,  did  embrace  the  principles  and  joined  himself  to 
the  Covenanters.  He  and  the  Rev.  John  McMillan  now 
constituted  the  Reformed  Presbytery,  at  Braehead, 
Parish  of  Carnwath,  Scotland,  August  i,  1743.  Accession 
of  ministers  and  increase  of  members  soon  followed,  and 
the  persecuted  and  despised  Covenanter  Church  of  Scot- 
land began  to  exert  an  influence.  In  a  popular  sense, 
the  Covenanter  Church  in  Scotland  was  never  very 
strong,  because  her  principles  were  exceedingly  unpopular, 
and  not  in  harmony  with  the  minds  of  the  public.  And, 
as  Dr.  Lathan,  of  South  Carolina,  truly  says,  "  Her  doc- 
trinal standards  were  too  high  and  her  practical  require- 
ments too  rigid  to  be  at  all  palatable  to  the  mass  of  the 
human    family.     Notwithstanding  all  this,"  he  says,  "the 


Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  has  been,  since  its  organi- 
zation, a  mighty  power  in  the  world.  It  stands  among 
all  other  Christian  denominations  like  a  gnarled  oak  in  a 
forest  of  dwarfed  undergrowth."  They  again  renewed 
the  Covenants  at  Crawford-John,  in  1745.  The  Act, 
Declaration  and  Testimony  was  adopted  at  Plough- 
landhead  in  1761,  and  soon  afterwards  published.  The 
societies  in  Ireland,  which,  after  the  death  of  the  Rev. 
David  Houston,  in  1696,  were  left  without  a  minister, 
and  only  occasionally  visited  by  the  Rev.  John  McMillan. 
The  societies  in  Ireland  were  placed  under  the  care  of 
the  Reformed  Presbytery  of  Scotland  until  the  Reformed 
Presbytery  of  Ireland  was  erected  in  August,  1763. 
The  Synod  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in 
Ireland  was  constituted  at  Cullybackey,  May  i,  18 li. 
The  Church  now  regularly  constituted  in  both  Scot- 
land and  Ireland  continues  almost  uninterruptedly 
to  exist  as  a  distinct  denomination  until  the  present 
time.  The  history  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church 
is  now  transferred  to  America,  and,  after  a  brief  statement 
of  her  beliefs  and  position,  the  organic  history  of  the 
-Church  in  this  country  will  be  recorded. 



IN  her  testimony  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church 
embraces  the  plain  and  cardinal  truths  of  the  Bible 
and  brings  them  to  bear  practically  upon  the  lives  of 
her  members.*  From  the  following  "Terms  of  Com- 
munion "  and  a  brief  statement  of  the  distinctive  prin- 
ciples   of    the  Church,  her    true  position    may    be  learned  : 


1.  An  acknowledgment  of  the  Scriptures  of  the  Old  and  New  Testa- 
ments to  be  the  Word  of  God,  and  the  only  rule  of  faith  and  manners. 

2.  An  acknowledgment  that  the  whole  doctrine  of  the  Westminster 
Confession  of  Faith,  and  the  Catechisms,  Larger  and  Shorter,  are  agree- 
able unto,  and  founded  upon,  the  Scriptures. 

3.  An  acknowledgment  of  the  divine  right  of  one  unalterable  form 
of  Church  Government  and  manner  of  worship — and  that  these  are,  for 
substance,  justly  exhibited  in  that  form  of  Church  Government  and 
the  Directory  for  Worship  agreed  upon  by  the  assembly  of  divines  at 
Westminster,  as  they  were  received  by  the  Church  of  Scotland. 

4.  An  acknowledgment  of  public  covenanting  as  an  ordinance  of 
God  to  be  observed  by  churches  and  nations  ;  and  of  the  perpetual  ob- 
ligation of  public  covenants ;  and  of  the  obligation  upon  this  Church 
of  the  Covenant  entered  into  in  1871,  in  which  are  embodied  the  en- 
gagements of  the  National  Covenant  of  Scotland,  and  of  the  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant,  so  far  as  applicable  in  this  land. 

5.  An    approbation    of    the    faithful    contendings    of  the    martyrs    of 

*  See  Testimony  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church. 


Jesus,  and  of  the  present  Reformed  Covenanted  Churches  in  Britain  and 
Ireland,  against  Paganism,  Popery,  and  Prelacy,  and  against  immoral  con- 
stitutions of  civil  government,  together  with  all  Erastian  tolerations  and 
persecutions  which  flow  therefrom,  as  containing  a  noble  example  for  us 
and  our  posterity  to  follow  in  contending  for  all  divine  truth,  and  in 
testifying  against  all  contrary  evils,  which  may  exist  in  the  corrupt  con- 
stitutions of  either  Church  or  State. 

6.  An  approbation  of  the  doctrines  contained  in  the  Declaration 
and  Testimony  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian' Church  in  North  America, 
in   defence   of  truth,   and   in   opposition   to   error. 

These,  together  with  due  subordination  in  the  Lord  to  the  authority 
of  the  Synod  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  North  America, 
and  a  regular  life  and  conversation,  form  the  bonds  of  our  ecclesi- 
astical  union. 

From  this  clear  and  concise  declaration  and  testi- 
mony it  is  learned  that  the  position  of  the  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Church  in  America  is,  and  always  has  been, 
one  of  practical  dissent  from  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States.  In  this  the  practice  of  the  Church  has 
been  uniform.  The  Constitution  is  radically  and  wil- 
fully defective  in  that  it  does  not  recognize  the  exis- 
tence of  God,  the  supremacy  of  Christ  the  King  of 
Nations,  and  the  Word  of  God  as  the  supreme  law. 
On  account  of  these  radical  defects,  and  the  many  im- 
moralities which  naturally  flow  from  them.  Reformed 
Presbyterians  cannot  recognize  it  as  a  scripturally  con- 
stituted civil  government,  nor  swear  allegiance  to  it, 
however    much    they    may    admire    its    many    excellencies. 

The  relation  of  Christ  to  the  nation  is  that  of  a 
Sovereign  to  a  moral  subject — a  moral  person,  upon 
whom    the    law    of    His     Kingdom    is    binding.*     While 

*  Lecture  of  Dr.  J.  R.  W.  Sloane. 


civil  society  is  founded  in  nature,  it  is  one  of  the 
"all  things"  that  are  put  under  Christ  as  Mediator,  and 
the  nation  flourishes  or  decays  as  it  is  obedient  or 
disobedient  to  His  law.  Now  as  our  highest  allegiance 
is  due  not  to  the  state,  but  to  Christ,  it  is  the  duty 
of  every  Christian  to  stand  aloof  from  such  a  govern- 
ment and  refuse  to  incorporate  with  the  political  society 
which  refuses  or  neglects  to  acknowledge  the  authority 
of  Christ  and  His  word  in  its  fundamental  law.  The 
document  reads :  "  We,  the  people  of  the  United  States 
*  *  *  do  ordain  and  establish  this  Constitution 
for  the  United  States  of  America."  This  declaration 
is  historically,  philosophically  and  scripturally  untrue. 
The  Constitution  in  all  its  essential  elements  was 
in  existence  before  the  document  thus  called  was 
penned ;  constitutions  are  not  ordained  of  men,  but 
grow ;  and  the  Scripture  afifirms  that  the  powers  that 
are  legitimate  powers  at  all,  are  ordained  of  God.  These 
glaring  defects,  with  the  denial  of  any  religious  quali- 
fication, the  absence  of  the  name  of  God  from  the 
oath,  and  the  license  of  immorality  and  crime  upon 
which  it  sets  its  official  seal,  give  the  document, 
called  the  Constitution,  such  a  character  of  infi- 
delity and  irreligion  that  no  true  Christian  ought 
to  give  it  his  full  sanction.  For  these  reasons,  Re- 
formed Presbyterians  have  never  voted  at  any  of 
the  elections,  nor  held  office  under  the  govern- 
ment. They  have  never  refused,  however,  to  recognize 
the  authority  of  the  government  in  things  lawful,  and 
its  right  to  legislate  for  the  well  being  of  men.  They 
pay    their    taxes    cheerfully    as  a    lawful    obligation ;  bear 


arms  heroically  in  its  defence  and  for  the  protection  of 
their  rights ;  and  give  it  their  moral  support  in  every- 
way that  does  not  involve  them  in  its  evil.  They 
heartily  aid  the  government  in  all  that  is  right  and 
true.  They  enter  the  role  of  defenders  and  not  traitors  ; 
reformers  and  not  revolutionists.  Theirs  is  the  highest 
kind  of  patriotism.  Theirs  is  a  love  of  country  which 
would  lead  them  to  make  any  sacrifice  to  bring  it 
into  the  enjoyment  of  the  blessedness  of  that  nation 
whose    God    is    the    Lord. 

Reformed  Presbyterians  hold  that  the  Church  and 
State  are  two  divine  institutions,  supreme  in  their  own 
spheres,  yet  touching  at  so  many  points  that  they 
cannot  be  entirely  separated.  The  one  should  not  arrro- 
gate  to  itself  the  powers  of  the  other,  for  under 
Christ  the  one  is  His  spiritual  kingdom,  and  the  other 
His  moral  dominion.  They  should,  however,  assist  each 
other  in  dangerous  emergencies,  and  in  the  universal 
spread    of    the    gospel. 

The  National  Reform  Association,  organized  with  the 
hearty  support  and  indorsement  of  the  Reformed  Pres- 
byterian Church,  in  1863,  has  for  its  object  "the  main- 
tenance of  the  existing  Christian  features  in  the  Ameri- 
can government ;  the  promotion  of  needed  reforms  in 
the  action  of  the  government  touching  the  Sabbath, 
the  institution  of  the  family,  the  religious  element  in 
education,  the  oath,  and  public  morality  as  affected  by 
the  liquor  traffic,  and  other  kindred  evils ;  and  to 
secure  such  an  amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  as  will  declare  the  nation's  allegiance 
to    Jesus    Christ,    and    its    acceptance    of    the    moral    laws 


of  the  Christian  religion ;  and  so  indicate  that  this  is 
a  Christian  nation  and  place  all  the  Christian  laws, 
institutions,  and  usages  of  our  government  upon  ah 
undeniable  legal*  basis  in  the  fundamental  law  of  the 
land."  This  Association  has  drawn  to  its  support 
many  of  the  most  learned  theologians  and  able  jurists 
in  the  country,  and  all  true  Christian  patriots  are  fall- 
ing into  line  with  this  theory  of  civil  government  as 
the  only  safe  and  true  course  for  the  preservation  of 
America.  It  is  often  asked,  Is  the  Reformed  Presby- 
terian Church  a  necessity  ?  This  question  is  answered 
in  the  affirmative.  It  is  the  only  distinct  religious 
body  in  America  that  is  bringing  its  principles  to  bear 
on  the  government  for  its  reformation,  and  has  the 
grandest  object  for  which  to  live  and  labor.  A  practi- 
cal protest  against  evil  is  the  only  testimony  that  is 
weighty.  The  intelligent  reader  can  understand  the 
necessity  and  attitude  of  this  Church,  and  that  it  is 
not  for  a  trifling  reason  that  Reformed  Presbyterians 
forego  priviledges  dear  to  every  freeman,  and  subject 
themselves    to    the    reproach    of    men. 

As  it  is  not  the  province  of  the  historian  to  discuss 
theological  differences  between  Christians,  an  elaborate 
argumentation  of  the  distinctive  principles  of  the  Church 
will  neither  be  expected  by  the  readers,  nor  required 
by  the  author  to  carry  out  the  design  of  this  book. 
The  distinctive  principles  will  be  briefly  stated.  Re- 
formed Presbyterians  hold  that  social  religious  Covenant- 
ing is  an  ordinance  of  God  to  .be  entered  into  by  the 
individual,  the  church,  and  the  nation.  They  acknow- 
ledge   the    perpetual     obligation     of    the     National    and 


Solemn  League  and  Covenant  entered  into  by  their 
fathers  in  Scotland,  so  far  as  they  are  applicable  in 
this  land,  and  until  all  the  objects  therein  specified  are 
accomplished.  While  they  acknowledge  that  many  of 
the  objects  for  which  those  precious  documents  were 
sworn  have  been  accomplished,  yet  they  are  binding 
upon  the  present  Covenanting  Church  in  America  until 
Papacy  is  removed  from  our  land,  and  this  Man  of 
Sin  recognizes  the  perogatives  of  Christ.  In  1871,  they 
entered  anew  into  Covenant  with  God,  the  bond  of 
which  will  be  found  on  another  page.  There  is  no 
doctrine  of  the  Bible  more  clearly  revealed  than  the 
descending  obligation  of  Covenants.  We  recognize  the 
principle  every  day  in  our  commercial  and  national 
life,  and  it  is  alike  applicable  in  our  spiritual  life. 
Because  Reformed  Presbyterians  hold  tenaciously  to 
former  Covenants  of  '  the  Church  and  conscientiously 
display  the  principle,  they  are  rightly  called  Covenanters. 
Reformed  Presbyterians  exclude  from  their  communion 
all  members  of  secret  oath-bound  societies.  They  re- 
gard all  such  associations  as  the  creatures  of  the 
Prince  of  darkness.  The  example  and  the  spirit  of  the 
religion  of  Christ  condemn  such  societies,  for  He  said 
nothing  in  secret,  and  His  acts  of  charity  were  done 
towards  those  very  characters  which  are  excluded  from 
secret  societies.  Did  Christ  not  minister  to  ivovian  in 
all  her  needs }  Did  He  not  minister  to  the  viaivied^ 
the  halt  and  the  blind  ?  And  yet  these  special  objects 
of  Christ's  love  and  charity  are  the  very  ones  secrecy 
excludes  from  any  benefit.  Charity  towards  the  rich, 
the    famed,    and    the    healthy,    is  not    charity,    but    rather 


selfishness  and  malevolence.  Secrecy  is  held  up  in  a 
very  unfavorable  manner  in  the  Eighth  Chapter  of 
Ezekiel.  Neither  the  Church  nor  the  State  has  ever 
delegated  to  any  association  of  men  the  power  to  ad- 
minister the  horrible  oaths  that  are  administered  to  the 
unfortunate  candidates  of  secrecy,  and  who  are  in  the 
dark  as  to  what  they  are  swearing  to  perform.  On 
account  of  their  blasphemous  oaths,  irreverent  use  of 
God's  titles  and  attributes,  banding  together  for  selfish 
and  wicked  purposes,  Christless  Scriptures  which  are 
used  to  accommodate  all  classes  of  persons  and  beliefs^ 
and  the  tyrannical  measures  and  dreadful  penalties  for 
revealing  their  benevolent  (i")  Avork,  Reformed  Presby- 
terians forbid  their  members  to  join  or  to  belong  ta 
associations    of   this    character. 

Reformed  Presbyterians  do  not  use  hymns  of  human 
composition  in  the  service  of  divine  worship.  They  be- 
lieve that  God  has  given  to  His  Church  the  matter  of 
praise  in  the  Book  of  Psalms,  and  has  never  delegated 
to  any  uninspired  man  the  authority  to  substitute  humart 
for  divine  matter  of  praise.  The  Psalms  of  the  Bible 
were  used  in  the  temple  and  synagogue  worship  and  it 
would  have  been  considered  a  corruption  of  the  worship 
to  substitute  any  thing  else.  Christ  and  the  Apostles 
used  the  Psalms  in  divine  worship  under  the  present 
dispensation,  and  on  the  night  of  the  institution  of  the 
eucharistic  feast  they  sang  a  part  of  the  Great  Hallel,, 
z.  e.,  a  portion  of  the  six  Psalms  from  the  one  hun- 
dred and  thirteenth  to  the  one  hundred  and  eighteenth^ 
inclusive.  Hymns,  or  human  compositions,  were  un- 
known   in    the    Christian    Church    until    several     centuries 


after  Christ.  It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  the  periods 
in  which  Hymns  were  introduced  were  generally  those 
characterized  by  defection  and  spiritual  ignorance.  The 
Presbyterian  Church  never  introduced  human  composi- 
tions into  worship  until  she  made  defection  from  the 
attainments  of  the  Second  Reformation,  and  in  some 
parts    of    the    world  this  Church  still   clings  to  the  Songs 

of  Zion.  For  the  reasons  that  God  has  not  delegated 
to  an  uninspired  person  the  right  to  introduced  into 
His  worship  that  which  is  already  provided  ;  that  Christ 
and  the  New  Testament  Church  sanction  the  use  of 
the  songs  of  the  Bible  ;  that  many  of  the  hymns  are 
untrue,  frivolous  and  sectarian,  the  Reformed  Presby- 
terian Church  use  exclusively  the  one  hundred  and  fifty 
Psalms  of  the  Bible  in  divine  worship,  and  they  have 
always  found  them  beautifully  adapted  and  truly  com- 
forting in  all  the  circumstances  of  the  Church,  and  pre- 
eminently so  because  they  are  the  words  of  God  to 
all    His    people. 

Another  peculiarity  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church  is  that  no  instruments  of  music  are  used 
in  divine  worship.  They  believe  that  instruments  were 
used  in  the  tabernacle  and  temple  worship  by  the 
Levites,  and  at "  the  time  of  the  offering  up  of  sacri- 
fices by  the  priests.  As  these  services  were  wholly 
typical  and  were  done  away  with  at  the  coming  of 
Christ,  so  also  all  the  accompaniments  and  material 
supports  of  that  service.  At  the  advent  of  Christ  the 
building  was  completed  and  the  scaffolding  was  taken 
down.  Christ  and  the  Apostles  never  used  an  instru- 
ment   of    music  in  the  synagogue  worship,  although   they 


used  the  Psalms.  If  instruments  had  been  necessary  to 
acceptable  worship,  the  example  or  direction  of  Christ 
in  this  matter  would  have  been  given.  Christ  requires 
a  spiritual  service — the  melody  of  the  heart  with  the 
fruit  of  the  lips.  The  leading  writers  and  fathers  of 
the  Church  give  instruments  no  place  in  the  worship. 
They  were  introduced  by  Pope  Vitalian,  in  A.  D.,  660, 
to  "augment  the  eclat  of  religious  ceremonies."  Being 
of  Romish  origin,  all  true  Protestants  should  look  upon 
the  innovation  with  suspicion.  The  true  principle  of 
Christian  worship  is  "  What  has  the  Lord  required," 
and  not  what  He  has  not  forbidden.  All  Presbyterians 
recognize  the  Westminister  standards,  and  the  Confes- 
sion of  Faith  says  we  are  to  "  sing  Psalms  with  grace 
in  the  heart,"  and  "the  acceptable  way  of  worshipping 
the  true  God  is  instituted  by  Himself,  and  is  so  limited 
by  His  own  revealed  will  that  He  may  not  be  wor- 
shipped according  to  the  imaginations  and  devices  of 
men."  It  is  an  admitted  fact  that  instruments  and 
operatic  choirs  destroy  congregational  singing,  and  sub- 
stitute a  meaningless  service  for  that  which  every  heart 
should  render  unto  God.  Instruments  are  used  for  the 
express  purpose  of  making  the  service  attractive,  and 
the  praise  offering  is  often  rendered  for  the  worship- 
pers by  those  whose  lips  and  hearts  have  never  been 
touched  by  the  love  of  God.  When  the  worship  is 
thus  rendered  by  machinery,  God  is  robbed  of  that 
heart  service  and  spiritual  communion  which  each  wor- 
shipper should  have  with  Him  in  the  ordinances  of  grace. 
Among  the  forms  still  retained  in  the  Church  are 
the    distribution    of    tokens    at    the    communion     season, 


the  "fencing  of  the  tables"  with  table  addresses,  and 
an  explanation  of  a  portion  of  a  Psalm  each  Sab- 
bath morning.  They  are  opposed  to  any  change 
with  reference  to  the  doctrines  and  practice  of  the 
house  of  God.  Their  services  are  plain  and  simple, 
and  aim  at  the  purity  rather  than  the  attractiveness  of 
divine  worship.  While  many  of  their  doctrines  and 
practices  are  unpopular,  Reformed  Presbyterians  choose 
to  bear  the  criticism,  and  even  the  reproach,  of  men, 
if  they  can  only  please  God  and  bring  glory  upon 
His  name.  They  desire  to  be  approved  of  God  in  the 
maintenance  of  a  purely  scriptural  Church,  and  to  bring 
prominently  before  the  world  the  sacrificial  and  medi- 
atorial work  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  While  often 
despised  of  men  for  their  exclusiveness,  they  do  not 
expect  their  reward  for  their  accommodations  to  the 
likes  of  sinful  men,  but  for  their  fidelity  to  Christ  and 
and  His  truth,  and  whose  angel  speaks  to  them  as  to 
the  Church  of  Smyrna,  "  Be  thou  faithful  unto  death 
and  I  will  give  thee  a  crown  of  life."  They  plead 
the  promise  to  the  Apostles,  "  Fear  not,  little  flock, 
for  it  is  your  Father's  good  pleasure  to  give  you 
the  kingdom."  They  maintain  these  doctrines  and  prin- 
ciples in  the  spirit  of  love  and  charity  for  all  men 
and  Christians,  and  with  the  sanguine  belief  that  their 
principles  will  ultimately  prevail  and  fill  the  whole 
earth    with    liberty    and    happiness. 



INURING  the  persecution  in  Scotland,  members  of  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  were  banished,  or  vol- 
untarily found  an  asylum,  in  America.  They  mostly 
settled  in  Eastern  Pennsylvania,  New  York  and  South 
Carolina ;  and  where  two  or  three  families  were  located 
in  the  same  community,  they  organized  themselves  into 
a  society  upon  the  basis  of  the  Reformation,  and  kept 
themselves  distinct  from  other  denominations.  The 
majority  of  the  Covenanters  previous  to  1750,  were 
settled  in  Eastern  Pennsylvania.  Those  residing  in  the 
vicinity  of  Octorara  were  joined  by  the  Rev.  Alexander 
Craighead  of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  who  espoused 
their  principles  in  1743,  lead  them  in  Covenanting,  and 
dispensed  the  ordinances  to  them  for  several  years. 
A  session  was  constituted,  and  among  the  first  elders 
were  Robert  Laughhead  and  Josiah  Kerr.  The  con- 
gregation was  often  called  the  "Craighead  Society.  "^ 
In  maintaining  the  principles  of  the  Covenanters,  Mr. 
Craighead  aroused  the  displeasure  of  his  former  breth- 
ren and  the  civil  society.  He  published  a  pamphlet 
of  a  political  nature,  in  which  he  set  forth  his  pecu- 
liar views  on  civil  government  which  were  offensive  to^ 
the  Presbyterian  Church  because  it  was  loyal  to  the 
Crown.       After    co-operating    with    the    Covenanters    for 


several  years,  and  failing  to  obtain  help  for  them  from 
the  mother  country,  he  abandoned  the  society,  returned 
to  the  Presbyterian  Church,  and  removed  to  North 

The  societies  were  again  left  destitute  of  a  minister, 
and  made  urgent  applications  to  the  Reformed  Presby- 
tery of  Scotland  for  help.  The  first  Covenanter  minis- 
ter who  came  to  America  was  the  Rev.  John  Cuth- 
bertson,  from  Scotland,  who  arrived  in  August,  1751. 
He  continued  to  visit  the  scattered  societies  of  Cove- 
nanters throughout  Pennsylvania,  New  York,  and  other 
States,  for  a  period  of  twenty-two  years.  He  made 
his  home  at  Little  Octorara,  Lancaster  County,  Penn- 
sylvania, where  the  chief  society  was  located.  A  few 
rude  log  houses  of  worship  were  erected,  but  the  preach- 
ing services  were  held  either  in  the  open  air  in  some 
pleasant  grove,  or  in  private  houses  and  barns,  and  his 
travelling  was  wholly  done  on  horseback.  The  amount 
of  travel,  and  the  hardships  endured  by  this  pioneer 
missionary  are  perfectly  marvelous,  and  almost  incred- 
ible to  those  enjoying  the  accommodations  and  luxuries 
of    this    age. 

In  1759,  the  Rev.  Alexander  McDowell  left  the 
Presbyterian  Church,  and  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
Covenanters.  He  ministered  principally  to  the  societies 
in  Connecticut  and  Massachusetts,  but  assisted  Mr. 
Cuthbertson  in  Eastern  Pennsylvania.  He  was  called  to- 
the  congregation  of  Rock  Creek  (Gettysburgh),  but  de- 
clined, and  in  a  few  years  returned  to  New  England, 
and  was  lost  to  the  Church.  In  1766,  the  Reformed 
Presbytery      of      Ireland     sent     out      the     Rev.      Daniel 


McClelland,  who  ministered  to  the  societies  in  Con- 
necticut and  Eastern  Pennsylvania  for  a  few  years,  but 
neither  of  these  ministers  was  of  any  material  assist- 
ance to  the  cause.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  had  a  great  deal 
to  contend  with  in  several  ways.  He  suffered  many  an- 
noyances from  the  British  government,  which  was  doing 
all  in  its  power  to  subject  the  struggling  colonist  to 
carry  the  doubly  grievous  yoke  of  tyranny  and  Episco- 
pacy. He  encouraged  the  societies  to  assert  their  rights 
as  freemen  and  to  fight  for  the  defence  of  their 
country.  He  inspired  them  to  perseverance  and  the 
hope  that  God  would  vindicate  the  cause  of  the  op- 
pressed and  give  them  civil  and  religious  liberty.  In 
1772,  the  Rev.  William  Martin  came  out  from  Ireland 
with  a  colony  of  his  people  and  settled  along  Rocky 
Creek,    in    South    Carolina. 

In  the  Spring  of  1773,  a  Commissioner  was  sent  to 
Ireland  from  Paxtang  society,  Pennsylvania,  to  secure 
one  or  two  ministers  to  come  to  the  assistance  of  Mr. 
Cuthbertson.  He  was  successful  in  his  mission,  and  the 
Reformed  Presbytery  of  Ireland  sent  out  the  Revs. 
Matthew  Linn  and  Alexander  Dobbin,  who  landed  in 
Philadelphia,  December  13,  1773,  where  they  were  met 
by  Mr.  Cuthbertson  and  conducted  to  his  home.  Revs. 
John  Cuthbertson,  Matthew  Linn  and  Alexander  Dobbin 
constituted  the  first  REFORMED  PRESBYTERY  IN  America, 
at  Paxtang,  Dauphin  County,  Pennsylvania,  March  10, 
1774.  At  this  time  each  of  these  ministers  was  as- 
signed to  his  respective  field  of  labor  in  Eastern  Penn- 
sylvania, and  with  Mr.  Martin  in  South  Carolina,  these 
four  ministers  held  forth  the  cause  of  the  Reformation 
in    the    new    world. 


The  country  was  now  thrown  into  the  excitement 
and  turmoil  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  every  colo- 
nist who  loved  civil  and  religious  liberty  was  called 
upon  to  defend  his  country  and  his  rights.  To  a  man 
the  Covenanters  were  Whigs.  An  unsound  Whig  made 
a  poor  Covenanter^  and  a  good  Covenanter  made  a  loyal 
Whig.  The  colonists  declared  themselves  independent 
of  Great  Britain,  July  4,  1776,  at  Philadelphia,  and  a 
five  years'  war  ensued.  North  and  South  the  Covenan- 
ters went  hand  and  heart  into  the  struggle  for  inde- 
pendence. When  the  Rev.  Alexander  Craighead  re- 
moved to  North  Carolina  he  was  thoroughly  imbued 
with  the  principles  of  the  Covenanter  Church,  and  dis- 
seminated them  among  the  Scotch-Irish  Presbyterians  of 
that  community.  The  consequence  was  the  First  De- 
claration of  Independence  was  emitted  by  his  followers 
in  May,  1775,  a  year  or  more  previous  to  the  Na- 
tional Declaration.  From  reliable  histories  a  few  in- 
teresting facts  are  gleaned.  Mr.  Bancroft  says  :  "  The 
first  public  voice  in  America  for  dissolving  all  con- 
nection with  Great  Britain  came  not  from  the  Puritans 
of  New  England,  the  Dutch  of  New  York,  nor  the 
Planters  of  Virginia,  but  from  the  Scotch-Irish  Pres- 
byterians of  the  Carolinas."  He  evidently  refers  to  the 
influence  of  Rev.  Alexander  Craighead  and  the  Meck- 
lenberg  Declaration  ;  and  this  influence  was  due  to 
the  meeting  of  the  Covenanters  of  Octorara,  where  in 
1743,  they  denounced  in  a  public  manner  the  policy 
of  George  the  Second,  renewed  the  Covenants,  and 
swore  with  uplifted  swords  that  they  would  defend  their 
lives    and    their    property   against   all  attack    and     confis- 


cation,  and  their  consciences  should  be  kept  free  from 
the  tyrannical  burden  of  Episcopacy.  Here  was  the 
fountain  of  Southern  patriotism,  and  the  Octorara 
meeting  was  the  original  germ  of  American  independ- 
ence which  was  transplanted  in  Charlotte  and  then  in 
Philadelphia.  More  than  this.  Thomas  Jefferson  says  in 
his  autobiography,  that  when  he  was  engaged  in  pre- 
paring the  National  Declaration  that  he  and  his 
colleagues  searched  everywhere  for  formulas,  and  that 
the  printed  proceedings  of  Octorara  were  before  him, 
and  he  used  freely  the  ideas  in  the  Mecklenberg 
Declaration.*  No  doubt  this  accounts  for  the  similarity 
of  expressions  in  the  two  documents.  Sometimes  it 
does  happen  that  the  discover  or  the  inventor  does 
not  enjoy  the  right  which  should  be  bestowed  upon 

A  writer  in  the  Nezv  York  Revieiv,  reviewing  the 
"Life  of  Thomas  Jefferson,"  by  Tucker,  clearly  shows 
that  the  Preamble  to  the  Bill  of  Rights,  the  Mecklen- 
berg Declaration,  and  the  Virginia  Bill  of  Rights  con- 
tain nearly  everything  of  importance  in  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence  of  July  4,  1776,  upon  which  rests 
so  much  of  Mr.  Jefferson's  fame.f  Of  this  latter  in- 
strument, and  the  Mecklenberg  Declaration,  Judge 
Tucker,  says:  (Vol.  II.,  p.  627.)  "Every  one  must  be 
persuaded,  at  least  all  who  have  been  minute  observers 
of  style,  that  one  of  these  papers  had  borrowed  from 
the  other."  (See  also  the  observations  in  the  writings 
of    Thomas    Jefferson,    by    H.     Lee,    Philadelphia,    1839). 

*  Wheeler's  Reminiscences,  p.  278,  in  Congressional  Library, 
f  Wheeler's  Reminiscences,  p.  278. 


The  spirit  which  moved  Rev.  Alexander  Craighead  to 
the  use  of  expressions  frequent  in  documents  prepared 
and  used  on  similar  occasions  in  Scotish  history,  evi- 
dently influenced  the  mind  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  when 
he  indited  the  National  Declaration  of  Independence. 
The  printed  proceedings  of  Octorara  and  Mecklenberg 
were  both  in  circulation  in  Philadelphia  at  that  time, 
and    account    for    kindred    expressions. 

It  is  now  difficult  to  tell  whether  Donald  Cargill, 
Hezekiah  Balch  or  Thomas  Jefferson  wrote  the  National 
Declaration  of  American  Independence,  for  in  sentiment 
it  is  the  same  as  the  "  Queensferry  Paper"  and  the 
Mecklenberg    Declaration. 

The  "  rash "  declaration  of  Rev.  Donald  Cargill,  the 
■Covenanter,  was,  *'  We  do  declare  that  we  shall  set 
up  over  ourselves  and  over  what  God  shall  give  us 
power  of,  government  and  governors  according  to  the 
Word  of  God  ;  that  we  shall  no  more  commit  the 
government  of  ourselves  and  the  making  of  laws  for 
us  to  any  one  single  person,  this  kind  of  government 
being  most  liable  to  inconveniences  and  aptest  to 
degenerate  into  tyranny."  This  sentiment  of  thorough 
Republican  independence  was  in  circulation  long  before 
Balch  or  Jefferson  was  born,  and  the  proceedings  of 
Octorara  preceeded  those  of  Charlotte  or  Philadelphia 
fully  a  third  of  a  century.  "  Honor  to  whom  hopor  is 
due."  To  stigmatize  Covenanters  as  "  anti-government 
people  "  is  unjust  aud  untrue,  and  they  are  only  objects 
■of  derision  because  their  accusers  are  totally  ignorant 
•of  their  principles.  They  are  heartily  in  favor  of 
government,     and     the     republican  form     of   government, 


and  only  object  to  the  Constitution  for  its  omission 
to  acknoivlcdge  the  source  from  which  all  government 
comes,    and    a    practical  application    of   that    doctrine. 

These  humble  and  sincere  followers  of  Jesus,  who 
would  conscientiously  desire  to  erect  a  church  and 
government  after  God's  pattern,  have  been  the  truest 
and  best  friends  the  American  government  has  ever 
possessed,  and  to  a  man  they  have  been  faithful  to 
their  country  and  to  their  God  in  every  national 
struggle.  To  them,  more  than  to  any  other  people, 
the  American  government  is  indebted  for  liberty,  and 
they  demonstrated  to  the  world  that  "there  can  be  a 
church  without  a  bishop  and  a  government  without  a 

At  the  house  of  Captain  Paxton,  in  Eastern  Penn- 
sylvania, July  2,  1777,  after  a  patriotic  and  powerful 
sermon,  the  Rev.  .  John  Cuthbertson,  and  many  of  the 
Covenanters,  swore  fidelity  to  the  cause  of  the  Colonists. 
They  took  no  immoral  oath  to  an  immoral  constitution, 
for  there  was  none  in  existance ;  they  simply  said 
they  were  heartily  in  favor  of  the  Revolution,  and  would 
be  faithful  to  its  cause.  It  was  a  similar  act  to  that 
of  Rev.  Alexander  Craighead  and  the  Covenanters  in 
1743.  In  South  Carolina,  the  old  Covenanter  minister, 
William  Martin,  than  whom  no  man  in  the  South  was 
better^  known,  was  doing  all  in  his  power  for  the  cause 
of  the  Whigs.  He  preached  rebellion  against  an  unlaw- 
ful and  tyrannical  King,  and  incited  the  people  to  rise 
up  in  arms  against  British  oppression.  For  the  expres- 
sion of  his  sentiments  he  was  apprehended  by  the 
Tories,    and    lay    in    the    prison-house    at    Rocky    Mount 


and  Camden  for  over  six  months.  When  he  was 
brought  before  Lord  Cornwallis  at  Winnsboro,  he  made 
no  retraction  of  his  sentiments,  and  said  he  might 
do  with  him  as  he  pleased.  The  Covenanters  went 
heartily  into  the  bloody  conflict,  and  the  battles  of 
Fridus  Fort  and  Eutaw  Springs  were  so  fierce  and 
hotly  contested,  that  their  guns  came  to  a  blue  heat 
in  the  conflict.*  Such  bravery  in  battle  as  was  dis- 
played by  William  Anderson,  John  Smith,  John  Faris, 
Thomas  McClurkin,  Thomas  Neil,  and  other  Covenan- 
ters, deserves  record.  Wherever  Covenanters  and  staunch 
Presbyterians  were  settled,  there  were  the  strongholds 
of   the    cause    of    American    independence. 

While  the  colonists  had  a  right  and  just  reason  to 
declare  their  independence  of  Great  Britain  in  1776, 
they  had  not  a  right  nor  a  just  reason  for  declaring 
their  independence  of  the  God  of  battles  in  1789. 
The  Declaration  of  Independence  was  right,  but  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  was  wrong.  The 
spirit  of  liberty  that  animated  the  Revolutionary  patriot 
was  the  same  spirit  that  beat  in  the  true  heart  and 
unyielding  courage  of  the  Scotch  Covenanters,  although 
many  of  the  heroes  and  patriots  of  the  struggle  were 
irreligious  men.  The  trouble  was,  French  infidelity 
mingled  with  American  patriotism  at  the  helm  of 
State,  and  was  the  cause  of  the  perversion  of  loyalt}- 
to  the  Divine  Being  in  the  instrument  of  the  newly 
erected    government. 

During  this  excitement  of  war,  and  the  disturbed 
state    of    the    country,    there    was    a    slight    change   going 

*Rev.  D.  S.  Paris,  in  R.  P.  &  C,  1876,  p.  56. 


on  in  the  minds  of  some  of  the  Covenanters  in  Eastern 
Pennsylvania.  The  religious  element  in  this  country  at 
that  time  was  in  a  chaotic  state.  It  was  a  new 
country  being  settled  up  by  emigrants  from  the  old. 
There,  they  were  trammelled  with  tyrannical  measures 
in  church  and  state ;  here,  they  were  free  to  assert 
their  independence  of  thought  and  action,  and  they 
were  not  as  cautious  as  they  should  have  been. 
Covenanters  enthusiastically  threw  themselves  into  the 
struggle  without  immorality,  thinking  for  aught  they 
knew  the  Constitution  when  framed  would  be  of  the 
nature  and  make  the  acknowledgments  which  they 
desired.  In  this  state  of  things  Covenanters  freely 
mingled  with  other  Christians  without  respect  to  national 
or  denominational  peculiarities.  The  Covenanters  hailed 
with  joy  the  destruction  in  America  of  the  govern- 
ment that  had  oppressed  and  persecuted  them  to  the 
death  in  Scotland.  Besides  this,  another  branch  of  the 
Scottish  Church  was  taking  root  in  the  same  com- 
munity, which  had  originally  been  of  the  same  stock 
and  race  in  Britain,  and  now  cotemporaneously  planted 
in  America.  These  circumstances  all  pointed  to  the 
practicability  of  seeking  a  union  of  the  Covenanters 
and  the  Associate  Church.  Churches  ought  to  unite 
and  cause  the  body  of  Christ  to  become  one  when 
there  is  no  immorality  or  departure  from  principles 
demanded.  So  far  as  the  practical  application  of  this 
movement  at  that  special  period  was  concerned  it  was 
a  good  move,  but  theoretically  it  was  a  bad  move- 
ment. When  the  union  was  effected  there  was  no 
Constitution,    moral    or    immoral,    but    the    Seceders    held 


the  principle  that  we  are  bound  to  recognize  as  the 
ordinance  of  God  any  government  that  may  be  set  up 
without  respect  to  qualifications,  and  here  the  Seceders 
showed  their  inconsistency.  They  bitterly  opposed  the 
Covenanters  in  Scotland  and  America  for  disowning  the 
British  government  as  an  ordinance  of  God,  and  now 
they  turn  around  and  do  all  they  can  to  overthrow 
that  very  government  which  they  declared  was  an  ordi- 
nance of  God.  Under  the  same  government  they  were 
loyal  in  Scotland  and  disloyal  in  America,  and  seek 
union  with  a  body  that  was  always  opposed  to  an 
unscriptural,  tyrannical  and  oppressive  government.  The 
Seceders  declared  at  the  Revolutionary  war  that  the 
doctrine  of  passive  obedience,  which  they  had  cherished 
with  seeming  sincerity,  was  simply  absurd ;  and  that 
the  principles  of  the  Covenanters,  and  those  upon 
which  the  colonists  acted,  were  true,  and  that  "we  are 
not  bound  to  own  as  God's  ordinance  every  one,  with- 
out exception,  who  may  providentially  have  power  in 
his    hands." 

In  the  coalescence,  the  Covenanter  ministers  never 
thought  of  giving  up  their  principles,  but  they  should 
have  known  the  dangers  of  a  compromise  of  principle. 
No  sooner  had  the  fair  building  of  Covenanterism  been 
erected  in  America  upon  Reformation  principles,  than 
the  builders  began  to  hew  down  the  carved  palace  by 
affiliating  with  men  who  were  opposed  to  the  design 
of  the  structure.  And  this  thing  was  not  done  hastily. 
They  had  been  deliberately  agitating  the  question  for 
at  least  five  years,  and  consummated  it  in  the  erection 
of    the    Associate    Reformed    Church,  November    i,    1782. 


They  called  the  new  organization  b}-  both  names^ 
although  it  was  practically  an  Associate  Church  still. 
As  soon  as  the  Constitution  was  framed  a  few  years 
later,  they  all  came  under  it  as  the  Associate  Church 
had  done  in  Britain ;  .they  swore  allegiance  to  it  as 
the  ordinance  of  God,  although  God,  or  Christ,  or  the 
Bible,  is  not  recognized  in  it.  If  not  in  1782,  cer- 
tainly in  1789,  it  became  an  Associate  Church,  and 
we  are  not  surprised  to  learn  that  some  of  the  Cove- 
nanter ministers  hung  their  heads  in  shame  and  re- 
gretted   the    step    they    had    taken. 

The  Reformed  Presbytery  lost  its  name  and  organiza- 
tion in  America.  No  doubt  Matthew  Linn  was  the 
best  Covenanter  among  them.  In  all  the  conferences, 
the  minutes  of  which  are  published  in  "  Miller's 
Sketches,"  hot  debates  were  prevalent,  and  all  the  dif- 
ferences between  the  two  bodies  were  discussed  with 
marked  ability.  Upon  one  occasion  the  blood  of  the 
old  Covenanter  Matthew  Linn  became  stirred,  and  he 
concluded  an  able  and  eloquent  address  upon  a  proposi- 
tion in  these  words :  "  You  may  agree  to  what  proposi- 
tions you  please,  but  we  Covenanters  will  agree  to 
none  but  with  this  interpretation,  that  all  power  and 
ability  civil  rulers  have  are  from  Christ  the  Prophet  of 
the  Covenant ;  and  all  the  food  and  raiment  mankind 
enjoy  are  from  Christ  the  Priest  of  the  Covenant." 
And  if  he  and  his  colleagues  had  added  that  no 
government  is  lawfully  constituted  without  the  acknowl- 
edgment that  Christ  is  the  King  of  nations,  and  clung 
to    these    sentiments,    there    would    have    been     no    dis- 


astroLis     union.       The     following     is     the    basis     of    union 
finally    agreed    upon    and    adopted : 

1.  That  Jesus  Christ  died  for  the  elect  only. 

2.  That  there  is  an  appropriation  in  the  nature  of  faith. 

3.  That  the  Gospel  is  indiscriminately  addressed  to  sinners  of 

4.  That  the  righteousness  of  Christ  is  the  alone  proper  condition 
of  the   Covenant   of  grace. 

5.  That  civil  power  originates  from  God  the  Creator,  and  not 
from    Christ    the   Mediator. 

6.  That  the  administration  of  the  kingdom  of  Providence  is  com- 
mitted to  Jesus  Christ  the  Mediator ;  and  magistracy,  the  ordinance 
appointed  by  the  moral  Governor  of  the  world  to  be  the  pillar  or 
prop  of  civil  order  among  men,  as  well  as  other  things,  is  rendered 
subservient  by  the  Mediator  to  the  welfare  of  His  spiritual  kingdom, 
the  Church,  and  beside  the  Church  has  the  sanctified  use  of  that  and 
every   common    benefit,    through    the   grace   of    our   Lord   Jesus    Christ. 

7.  That  the  law  of  nature  and  the  moral  law  revealed  in  Scrip- 
ture are  substantially  the  same,  although  the  latter  expresses  the  will 
of  God  more  evidently  and  clearly  than  the  former;  and  therefore 
magistrates  among  Christians  ought  to  be  regulated  by  the  general 
directory  of  the  Word  as  to  the  execution  of  their  offices  in  faithful- 
ness  and    righteousness. 

8.  That  the  qualifications  of  justice,  veracity,  &c.,  required  in  the 
law  of  nature  for  the  being  of  a  magistrate,  are  also  more  clearly 
and  explicitly  revealed  as  necessary  in  Scripture.  But  a  religious  test 
any  farther  than  an  oath  of  fidelity  can  never  be  essentially  neces- 
sary to  the  being  of  a  magistrate,  except  when  the  people  make  it  a 
condition  of  government  ;  then  it  may  be  among  that  people  neces- 
sary  by    their   own    voluntary   deed. 

g.  That  both  parties,  when  united,  shall  adhere  to  the  Westmins- 
ter Confession  of  Faith,  Catechisms  Larger  and  Shorter,  Directory  for 
Worship,   and   Propositions   concerning   Church   Government. 

10.  That  they  shall  claim  the  full  exercise  of  church  discipline 
without    dependence    on    foreign    judicatories. 

The  union  was  consummated  at  the  house  of  William 
Richards,     in    the     city    of     Philadelphia,     November     i, 


1782,  at  which  time  and  place  the  Synod  of  the 
Associate  Reformed  Church  was  constituted,  with  the 
Rev.  John  Mason,  Moderator.  The  following  members 
composed    the    new    body    as    then    organized  : 

Associates:  Revs.  James  Proudfit,  Matthew  Hender- 
son, John  Mason,  Robert  Annan,  John  Smith,  John 
Rodgers,  Thomas  Clark,  William  Logan,  John  Murray 
and  David  Annan.  Elders — Joseph  Miller,  Thomas 
Douglas    and    William    McKinley. 

Covenanters :  Revs.  John  Cuthbertson,  Matthew  Linn, 
Alexander  Dobbin  and  David  Telfair.  Elders — James 
Bell,    John    Cochran    and    Dr.    Robert    Patterson. 

The  great  majority  of  the  Covenanters  in  the  North 
followed  their  misguided  pastors  into  the  union.  Rev. 
William  Martin,  in  South  Carolina,  was  the  only 
Covenanter  minister  left  in  America,  and  no  doubt  he 
would  have  gone  in  too  if  he  had  been  in  good  stand- 
ing and  had  had  the  opportunity.  The  Covenanters 
in  the  were  little  effected  by  the  union.  While 
in  the  ten  articles  of  agreement  there  are  many  con- 
cessions to  the  principles  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church,  yet  there  are  some  radical  departures.  To  the 
concessions  all  the  Seceders  did  not  agree,  and  to 
the  departures  all  the  Covenanters  did  not  agree.  The 
consequence  was,  three  bodies  were  formed  instead  of 
one.  While  it  is  said  "  in  union  there  is  strength," 
it  depends  largely  upon  the  basis  of  that  union.  The 
moral  strength  of  the  Church  depends  upon  purity  of 
doctrine  and  not  upon  the  mass  of  individuals.  The 
sparkling  rill  from  the  mountain  side  is  smaller  and 
purer    than    the    large    turbid    river     that     flows     through 


the  valley.  Two  ministers  of  the  Associate  Church 
did  not  go  into  the  union,  and  this  Church  was  re-or- 
ganized   and  grew    rapidly. 

In  an  edition  of  their  Testimony,  emitted  about  fifty 
years  after  the  union,  we  read  :  '•  Nearly  fifty  years 
have  now  elapsed  since  the  organization  of  the  Asso- 
ciate Reformed  Church  ;  and  the  correctness  of  the 
[former]  remarks  on  her  Constitution,  has  been  clearly 
exhibited.  For  some  time  she  continued  to  observe 
the  usages  of  the  Associate  Church  from  which  she 
separated.  But  becoming  numerous  and  popular  some 
of  her  ministers  began  to  manifest  symptoms  of  dis- 
satisfaction with  many  of  these  usages,  acted  contrary 
to  them,  wrote  against  them,  and  attempted  their 
abolition."  Among  their  devisive  courses  enumerated 
were  the  doing  away  with  days  of  fasting  and  pre- 
peration  before  communion,  holding  open  communion, 
singing  hymns,  freely  exchanging  pulpits  with  all 
denominations,  and  agitating  a  union  with  the  Pres- 
byterian Church.  The  history  of  the  Associate  Re- 
formed Church  was  marked  with  so  much  declension, 
that  the  body  divided  into  three  distinct  Synods  in 
the    North,    South    and    West. 

The  Covenanters  were  worse  off  than  the  remnant 
of  the  Associate  Church,  for  they  had  no  minister. 
But  God  graciously  preserved  the  germs  of  Covenan- 
terism,  and  the  few  faithful  ones  rallied  around  the 
old  flag.  With  the  heroism  of  their  martyred  ancestry, 
they  clung  to  their  blood-bought  principles  and  gathered 
themselves  again  into  the  praying  societies.  The 
Covenanter    Church    has    a    mission    to   fill   and    a    grand 


object  for  which  to  live,  or  God  would  not  have  so 
tenderly  and  marvelously  preserved  her  from  total 
extinction  both  in  Scotland  and  America.  Nearly  every, 
if  not  every,  other  denomination  has  either  departed 
from  some  of  her  principles  or  become  thoroughly 
Americanized  ;  but  the  old  Covenanter  Church  retains 
her  ancient  principles  intact,  with  her  rugged  Scottish 
forms  of  worship,  and  has  successfully  weathered  every 
storm    of    innovation. 

The  scattered  societies  of  Covenanters  now  called 
loudly  for  help  from  Scotland  and  Ireland.  They 
waited  patiently  seven  years  before  their  request  could 
be  granted.  In  the  summer  of  1789,  the  Reformed 
Presbytery  of  Scotland  sent  out  the  Rev.  James  Reid 
to  examine  into  the  condition  and  needs  of  the 
societies.  He  made  an  investigating  tour  among  all 
the  societies  from  New  York  to  South  Carolina  ; 
preached  and  held  communions,  organized  new  societies 
and  congregations,  and  returned  to  Scotland  in  a  little 
less  than  a  year.  Doubtless  in  his  elaborate  report  to 
the  Scottish  Presbytery,  Mr.  Reid  showed  the  need  of 
immediate  action  and  the  pressing  claims  of  the 
American  Covenanters.  His  visit  lead  the  Churches  in 
Europe  to  take  immediate  steps  for  sending  ministerial 
help  to  this  country.  The  Rev.  James  McGarragh  was 
first  sent  out  by  the  Reformed  Presbytery  of  Ireland, 
and  he  arrived  in  South  Carolina  in  the  Spring  of 
1 79 1.  Rev.  William  King  was  also  commissioned  by 
the  Reformed  Presbytery  of  Scotland,  and  arrived  in 
South  Carolina  in  the  Fall  of  1792.  Revs.  McGarragh 
and    King    were    now    directed    to    act    as    a     Committee 


of  the  Scottish  Presbytery  and  to  judicially  manage 
the  affairs  of  the  Church  ;  they  restored  the  Rev. 
William  Martin,  and  he  was  added  to  the  Com- 
mittee. In  the  Spring  of  1793,  the  Rev.  James 
McKinney  came  out  from  Ireland  as  an  £xile  for  liberty, 
and  preached  throughout  the  Northeastern  States  and 
cities  with  great  power  and  success.  He  also  was 
connected  with  the  work  of  the  Committee,  which 
now  acted  as  a  regularly  constituted  Presbytery  in 
subordination  to  the  Reformed  Presbytery  beyond  the 
ocean.  In  August,  1795,  Mr.  McGarragh  was  suspended 
on  account  of  intemperate  habits,  and  Mr.  Martin  was 
silenced  for  the  same  reason,  thus  leaving  Mr.  King 
alone  in  the  South  to  manage  the  affairs  of  the 
Church.  Mr.  McKinney  held  that  it  was  not  satisfac- 
tory to  judicially  manage  the  affairs  of  the  Church  in 
America  by  a  Committee  from  Scotland  ;  but  to  un- 
derstand and  judiciously  apply  the  provisions  for  the 
needs  of  the  societies,  the  Church  here  should  have 
a  separate  and  distinct  Presbytery.  This  was  necessary 
on  account  of  the  vast  number  of  emigrants  which 
were  arriving,  and  efforts  were  made  to  carry  this  idea 
into   execution. 

The  Reformed  Presbytery  of  Ireland  was  placed  in 
a  critical  position  with  reference  to  the  Irish  insurrec- 
tion, and  their  troubles  proved  advantageous  to  the 
Church  in  America  in  the  way  of  receiving  ministers 
and  members.  For  many  years  the  Covenanters 
in  Ireland  were  the  sole  advocates  of  liberty  from  the 
Crown.  While  they  deeply  sympathized  with  the  cause 
of    the    oppressed,    they    could    not     join     the     society    of 


United    Irishmen,    but    disapproved    of  their    proceedings. 
This    society    was    organized     at     Belfast     by     Theobald 
Wolfe  Tone.     In  a  document  published  in    1796,   entitled 
"  A  Seasonable    and     Necessary     Information,"    the    Re- 
formed   Presbytery    of     Ireland    vindicated     its     character 
in    reference    to    this  society  known  as  the  United  Irish- 
men,   by    declaring    its     "  highest    abhorence     of    all    such 
tumultuous      meetings      and     disorderly     societies,"     and 
signified    its    disapproval     of     "  anything     said     or     done 
prejudicial    to    the    peace,     safety     and     property    of    any 
individual    or    society."      This     document     was     published 
in    the    Northern    Star,    October  3,  1796,    and    was    done 
in    the    name  of  the   Covenanter  Church  in     the    counties 
of  Antrim    and    Down.*     Being  thoroughly    in   sympathy 
with    the    cause     that    might     overthrow     monarchy    and 
prelacy.    Covenanters    were  suspected   by  the  government 
of   being    in    connection  with  this  society,  and  were  ofterk 
so    regarded.     They    did  sympathize  with,  but  not   adopt 
the    methods    of,    this   society,     and    many    of    them     fled 
to    America    for  safety  and  peace.     Among  those  coming" 
in    the    Fall    of    1797,    were    the     Rev.     William     Gibson,, 
with    John    Black     and     Samuel     B.     Wylie,     students    of 
theology.      Revs.    King,     McKinney     and     Gibson      now 
made      arrangements      to     constitute      a     Presbytery    in 
America,    but    Mr.     King     died     before    it     was     effected. 
Revs.    Gibson    and    McKinney,    with     ruling    elders,     con- 
stituted   the    Reformed   Presbytery    of   America,    at 
Philadelphia,  in  May,  1798,  which  had  been  dissolved  since 
the    coalescence    of    1782.     This    court    was    fully    recog- 
nized   by   the    Presbyteries    in  Ireland  and    Scotland,  and 
*Reid's  History  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  Ireland. 


a  friendly  correspondence  was  established  with  them. 
They  were  not  placed  under  the  same  circumstances 
as  the  brethren  in  1774,  and  the  objectional  features 
of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  were  clearly 
pointed  out  and  testified  against.  Its  wilful  omission 
of  all  reference  to  God  the  Author,  Christ  the  King, 
and  the  Word  of  God  as  the  Supreme  Law  of  nations 
and  civil  government  ;  its  sanction  and  protection  of 
human  slavery,  and  other  permissions  of  evil,  excluded 
all  conscientious  Covenanters  from  swearing  allegiance 
to  it.  The  position  of  the  Church  was  then,  as  it  is 
now,  one  of  practical  dissent  from  the  Constitution 
for  these  just  and  good  reasons,  and  so  it  remains 
without  change  either  in  the  testimony  or  the  practical 
application    of    these    principles. 

Among  the  first  judicial  acts  of  the  Reformed 
Presbytery  worthy  of  special  notice,  was  the  deliver- 
ance of  this  body,  in  1800,  on  the  subject  of  human 
slavery.  They  had  always  held  this  system  to  be  a 
sin,  and  previous  to  1798,  the  ministers  in  South 
Carolina  had  warned  members  against  it.  The  matter 
was  brought  before  them  by  Rev.  Alexander  McLeod 
refusing  to  accept  a  call  to  Coldenham,  New  York, 
because  there  were  some  members  who  owned  slaves. 
The  Presbytery  enacted,  without  a  dissenting  voice, 
that  "  no  slaveholder  should  be  allowed  the  communion 
of  the  Church."  They  also  appointed  a  Committee, 
consisting  of  Revs.  James  McKinney  and  Samuel  B. 
Wylie,  to  repair  to  South  Carolina  with  the  message 
of  this  court  that  the  Covenanters  there  must  either 
emancipate    their    slaves    or    be    refused    the    communion 


of  the  Church.  "  The  Committee  were  no  less  surprised 
than  delighted  to  find  with  what  alacrity  those  con- 
cerned came  forward  and  complied  with  the  decree  of 
Presbytery.  In  one  day,  in  the  small  community  of 
Covenanters  at  Rocky  Creek,  not  less  than  three 
thousand  guineas  were  sacrificed  upon  the  altar  of 
principle,"  and  the  Church  then  and  forever  cleansed 
her  hands  from  the  guilt  of  human  slavery.  Cove- 
nanters were  far  in  advance  of  other  denominations  in 
this  matter.  The  Associate  Reformed  Synods  of  the 
North  and  West  gave  a  very  mild  deliverance  in 
1826,  but  the  Synod  of  the  South  never  made  a 
deliverance  upon  the  subject.  Previous  to  the  Revolu- 
tionary war  there  were  few  negroes  in  the  South,  but 
the  traffic  in  human  souls  began  immediately  afterwards 
and  the  nefarious  business  became  a  great  trade  and 
industry.  With  the  annual  growth  of  slavery  the 
annual  emigration  of  Covenanters  increased.  They  were 
thorough-going  abolishionists,  and  established  "  under- 
ground   railways  "    from    the    South    into    Canada. 

In  1802,  the  Rev.  Samuel  B.  Wylie  was  sent  as  a 
commissioner  to  the  sister  judicatories  of  Europe,  with 
the  instructions  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery  that 
he  shall  "give  them  a  just  representation  of  our 
present  situation  as  a  church  in  North  America ;  to 
intimate  our  unfeigned  wish  for  a  friendly  connection 
and  express  our  sorrow  that  the  court  had  so  long 
neglected  making  intimation  to  this  effect ;  and  to 
endeavor  to  procure  as  many  ministerial  laborers  as 
may  be  conveniently  obtained."  Although  the  Presby- 
tery   had    been    constituted  four    years,  the    fact    had   not 


been  ofificially  announced  to  the  Presbytery  under  whose 
care  they  had  been.  This  state  of  affairs  would  seem 
to  indicate  the  necessity  of  a  common  judicatory  or 
supreme  court  under  which  Covenanters  in  all  lands 
could  be  united.  Mr.  Wylie  was  received  with  cor- 
diality everywhere,  and  all  the  objects  of  his  mission 
were    obtained    so    far    as    practicable. 

The  next  important  item  in  the  organic  history  was 
the  provision  made  for  the  emission  of  the  Testimony. 
While  they  went  upon  the  principle  that  truth  is  not 
local,  and  they  desired  a  testimony  that  would  be 
applicable  in  all  lands,  yet  they  felt  the  need  of  a 
testimony  to  apply  to  the  Church  in  America  in  con- 
tending for  all  truth  and  testifying  against  local  evils. 
A  committee  was  appointed  in  1802,  to  draught  such 
a  system  and  ask  the  co-operation  and  assistance  of 
all  the  ministers  in  America  and  the  Presbyteries 
in  Scotland  and  Ireland.  Rev.  Alexander  McLeod  was 
the  chairman  of  the  committee,  and  different  depart- 
ments   were    assigned    to    different    ministers. 

In  1804,  the  Reformed  Dissenting  Presbytery  proposed 
a  union  with  the  Covenanters,  but  they  could  not  be 
admitted  upon  their  basis,  and  the  matter  was  dropped. 
In  May,  1806,  the  "Declaration  and  Testimony  of  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  America "  was  unani- 
mously adopted  and  ordered  to  be  published  with  all 
convenient  speed.  At  this  meeting  it  was  also  enacted 
that  "sitting  on  juries  in  the  civil  courts  of  the 
United  States,  or  in  any  State,  is  inconsistent  with 
the  Testimony;"  and  "an  oath  may  be  made  before 
the     constituted     authorities    provided    such     magistrates 


understand  that  the  person  doing  so  does  not  recognize 
thereby  his  official  right  to  administer  it,  but  the 
individual  makes  the  oath  voluntarily  to  the  Supreme 
Being."  In  1807,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  make 
a  draught  of  a  covenant,  "embracing  the  spirit  and 
design  of  the  vows  entered  into  by  our  fathers  in  the 
Reformation."  This  work  was  never  attended  to,  and 
not  until  sixty-five  years  thereafter  was  the  original 
purpose  carried  out.  The  "Terms  of  Communion" 
now  in  use  were  prepared,  and  the  fourth  term  was 
changed  in  1878  to  apply  to  the  renovation  of  the 
Covenants  in  1871.  At  the  same  time  the  "Directory 
for  Worship "  was  prepared  by  Rev.  John  Black,  and 
the  "Book  of  Discipline"  by  Rev.  Alexander  McLeod. 
They  were  both  adopted  in  18 19;  but  it  seems  the 
"Book  of  Discipline"  was  rewritten,  several  years  spent 
in  making  amendments,  and  it  was  not  authoritatively 
published  as  the  law  of  the  Church  until  1863.  The 
Presbytery  also  decided  to  establish  a  Theological 
Seminary,  and  it  was  opened  in  Philadelphia,  May, 
1 8 10,    with  the   Rev.   Samuel    B.   Wylie   as    the    professor. 

The  Synod  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in 
America  was  constituted  at  Philadelphia,  May  24,  1809, 
which  court  ratified  all  the  deeds  of  the  Reformed 
Presbytery  and  changed  the  three  Committees  into 

The  next  national  struggle  was  what  is  known  as 
the  "War  of  181 2."  On  account  of  "the  impressment 
of  American  seamen,  depredations  on  commerce  and 
attacks  upon  armed  vessels,  the  United  States  Con- 
gress   declared    war  against  Great    Britain."     The  major- 


ity  of  the  Covenanters  thought  it  their  duty  to  again 
come  to  the  defense  of  the  country  and  their  interests. 
As  there  were  many  members  who  were  aliens  and 
would  not  take  the  naturalization  oath,  and,  for  fear 
they  would  be  suspected  as  enemies  of  the  States,  the 
Synod  of  18 12,  made  a  statement  to  Congress  of  her 
position  as  a  Church.  As  no  immoral  oath  was  re- 
quired of  them,  the  Covenanters  were  hearty  supporters 
of  the  nation's  rights  and  cheerfully  bore  arms  in 
defense  of  the  country.  The  failure  of  many  of  the 
Christian  ministers  of  other  denominations  throughout 
the  country  to  support  the  nation  in  its  rights,  many 
of  whom  were  loyal  to  Great  Britain  and  opposed  to 
the  measures  adopted  by  the  United  States,  lead  the 
Rev.  Alexander  McLeod  to  preach  a  series  of  "War 
Sermons,"  which  for  truth  and  eloquence  are  unexcelled 
in  modern  sermonizing.  They  were  published  and 
received    a    large    circulation. 

At  the  meeting  of  Synod  in  18 17,  the  following 
resolution  was  passed  :  "  Whereas,  A  judicial  testimony 
for  truth  and  against  errors  and  immoral  practices, 
unaccompanied  with  an  argumentative  defence  of  the 
one  and  refutation  of  the  other,  must  be  defective — ■ 
and  as  a  promise  has  been  given  by  the  highest 
judicatory  of  this  Church,  that  such  a  defence  and 
refutation,  as  a  third  part  of  our  testimony,  may  be 
expected  ;     therefore. 

Resolved,  "  That  a  Committee  be  appointed  to  inquire 
into  the  subject,  and  report  on  the  propriety  of  redeem- 
ing their  pledge  at  this  time,  and  to  suggest  the  fittest 
mode    for  accomplishing  that    purpose. 


Resolved,  "  That  this  Committee  consist  of  three  mem- 
bers, viz  :  Revs.  McLeod,  Milligan  and  Lusk."  The 
Synod  also  made  arrangements  for  a  more  hearty  and 
systematic    support    of    the    Seminary. 

At  the  meeting  of  Synod  in  i8i8,  the  following 
distribution  of  articles  for  the  Testimony  was  made  : 
"  The  Directories  "  to  Rev.  John  Black  ;  the  "  Book  of 
Discipline"  and  "Form  of  Covenanting"  to  Rev.  Alex. 
McLeod;  "Form  of  Church  Government"  to  Rev.  J.  R. 
Willson  ;  "Forms  of  Process"  to  Rev.  Gilbert  McMaster  ; 
and  an  "Address"  to  accompany  the  Covenant  to  Rev. 
Thomas  Donnelly.  These  were  to  be  ready  by  the 
next  meeting.  The  most  of  the  sessions  of  1819  were 
consumed  in  considering  the  "  Book  of  Discipline "  and 
the  "  Directory  for  Worship."  The  tasks  assigned  at 
the  previous  meeting  were  not  completed  and  the 
writers  were  continued.  A  Committee  consisting  of 
Revs.  S.  B.  Wylie,  Alex.  McLeod  and  J.  R.  Willson 
was  appointed  to  "  address  the  sister  Synods  in  Britain 
and  Ireland  and  propose  to  them  the  propriety  of 
entering  into  a  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  mutually 
binding  us  to  God  and  to  each  other  in  the  support 
of  the  cause  of  the  Reformation  in  which  we  are  all 
engaged  ;  and  recognizing  the  obligation  by  which  we 
are    bound    by    the    Covenants    of    our    ancestors." 

At  the  meeting  of  Synod  in  1821,  a  paper  was 
received  from  Mr.  James  Willson,  of  Kaskaskia,  Illinois,, 
asking  for  information  with  respect  to  the  law  of  the 
Church  in  civil  affairs,  and  especially  on  the  subject 
of  sitting  on  juries.  The  Synod  stated  "  that  no  con- 
nection   with    the    laws,    the    offices,    or  the    order    of  the 


State  is  prohibited  by  the  Church,  except  what  truly 
involves  immorality."  This  action  of  Synod  has 
frequently  been  used  as  an  excuse  and  apology  by 
those  who  subsequently  became  citizens.  Now  it  is 
clear  that  there  is  no  surrender  of  the  position  of  the 
Church  in  this  act,  for  the  Testimony  of  the  Church 
has  declared  over  and  over  again  that  there  was 
"immorality  interwoven  with  the  general  and  state's 
Constitutions,"  and  members  uniformly  dissented  from 
them.  Until  the  Church  published  her  Testimony  it 
passed  an  act  prohibiting  members  from  sitting  on  juries,, 
for  jurors  are  executive  of^cers  created  by  the  Constitu- 
tion and  represent  the  Nation  in  giving  a  verdict 
according  to  the  law  and  testimony.  The  Synod  gave 
no  new  deliverance  on  the  question  in  1821,  and  if  Mr. 
James  Willson  had  read  the  authorized  Testimony  he 
would  have  found  that  the  law  of  the  Church,  as 
made  in  the  meeting  of  Presbytery  in  1806,  was  that 
"  sitting  on  juries  in  the  civil  courts  of  the  United 
States,  or  in  any  State,  is  inconsistent  with  the 
Testimony."  This  law  never  was  repealed  and  it  was 
not  disannulled  by  the  act  of  1821.  Although  this 
act  unsettled  the  minds  of  some  who  were  anxious  to 
lay  down  the  Testimony,  and  lead  to  complaints  from 
others  who  thought  the  Church  was  laying  down  her 
principles,  the  Synod  in  1825,  gave  this  clear  and 
difinite  deliverance  which  forever  after  should  have 
closed  the  mouths  of  latitudinarians  :  "  Some  misunder- 
standing having  occurred  relating  to  the  meaning  of 
the  act  passed  at  our  last  session  respecting  serving 
on    juries,    the    Synod    passed    the     following    resolution  : 


"  Resolved,  That  this  Synod  never  understood  any  act  of 
theirs  relative  to  their  members  sitting  on  juries  as 
contrary  to  the  old  common  law  of  the  Church  on 
these  subjects."  The  "  old  common  law  "  was  prohibitory 
and  did  hold  sway,  but  there  was  a  disposition  on  the 
part  of  some  leading  members  of  Synod  to  change 
the  position  of  the  Church  as  dissenting  from  the 
government,  which  lead  to  the  formation  of  the  party 
which    abandoned    this    distinctive    position    in    1833. 

In  1823,  the  constitution  of  the  supreme  judicatory 
was  changed  into  a  General  Synod  by  the  following 
action : 

Resolved,  That  a  General  Synod  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church,  to  meet  bi-ennially,  be  formed  by  delegates  from  the  several 
Presbyteries  ;  that  each  Presbytery  shall  have  the  right  of  sending  two 
ministers  and  as  many  ruling  elders,  and  that  the  ratio  of  increase 
of  the  number  of  delegates  be,  until  further  order  be  taken  on  the 
subject,  two  ministers  and  as  many  ruling  elders,  for  every  three 
ministers   of   which    the    Presbytery    consists. 

By  many  this  change  was  regarded  as  uncalled  for 
and  the  means  by  which  power  was  acquired  to  effect 
a  change  in  the  relation  of  the  Church  to  the  govern- 
ment. History  confirms  the  fact  that  these  suspicions 
were  well-grounded.  At  this  meeting  also  they  reiter- 
ated the  law  of  the  Church  that  "no  slaveholder  can 
be  held  in  the  communion  of  the  Church,"  and  the 
Committee  appointed  to  act  on  cases  of  discipline 
recommended  Synod  "to  insert  under  the  Chapter  of 
Oaths,  a  new  article  to  testify  against  the  oaths  taken 
by    free-masons." 

In  1825,  the  General  Assembly  Presbyterian  Church 
proposed    a    plan    of    correspondence,  and    delegates  were 


appointed  from  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church. 
They  framed  a  treaty  Avhich  was  ratified  by  the 
General  Assembly,  but  rejected  by  the  Synod  of  our 
Church.  This  was  not  satisfactory  to  those  who  were 
imbued  with  the  spirit  of  the  treaty  and  who 
manifested  a  disposition  to  not  heed  the  decisions  of 
Synod.  Thus  began  a  discord,  and  the  peace  and 
harmony  of  the  Church  were  again  disturbed.  Those 
who  began  to  maintain  these  principles  of  latitudina- 
rianism,  and  consider  the  testimony  and  decisions  of 
the  Church  '  as  of  no  force,  are  responsible  for  the 
disruption  that  soon  followed.  In  1827,  the  Synod  was 
called  upon  to  vindicate  its  course  in  criticizing  the 
position  of  the  Associate  Church,  and,  as  this  body 
liad  begun  a  correspondence  with  Synod  upon  the 
subject  of  union,  after  a  free  and  full  discussion  of 
the  principles  of  each  body,  the  Synod,  in  1828, 
declared  that  it  would  be  useless  to  endeavor  to  effect 
a    union    with    them,    and    the  matter    was    dropped. 

In  1830,  the  Committee  previously  appointed  to 
^'report  concerning  the  propriety  of  making  application 
to  the  several  civil  authorities  of  our,  common  country 
respecting  the  existing  relations  of  this  community  to 
the  Commonwealth,"  reported  in  an  able  and  earnest 
paper  that  "there  could  be  no  change  in  the  existing 
relations  of  the  Church  to  the  Nation  in  consistency 
with  her  testimony  as  witnessing  for  the  authority  of 
Christ  as  King  of  nations."  This  faithful  report  was 
galling  to  some  who  desired  to  modify  the  position  of 
the  Church,  and,  after  a  good  deal  of  discussion,  it 
was    finally    agreed    to    commit    it    to    the  examination  of 


a  Committee  of  four,  and  if  they  saw  fit,  to  publish 
it  as  an  overture  before  the  next  meeting"  of  Synod. 
The  Committee  framing  the  paper,  and  that  to  examine 
it,  were  made  one,  and  it  was  hoped  that  the  valuable 
part  of  it  w^ould  be  preserved  and  the  position  of  the 
Church  maintained.  The  following  is  the  action  of  the 
Synod    of    1831,    with    reference    to    it: 

The  object  of  appointing  a  committee  on  the  civil  relations,  is  to 
inquire  into  the  propriety  of  making  application  to  the  civil  authorities 
respecting  the  relations  in  which  the  members  of  this  Church  stand 
to  them.  The  said  committee  accordingly  submit  to  Synod  a  resolu- 
tion  in   these   words  : 

That  an  applicatiob  be  made  to  the  Congress  of  the  United  States, 
when  it  shall  have  been  ascertained  from  influential  statesmen  that 
such  application  shall  probably  prove  successful,  for  a  grant  of  the 
rights  of  citizenship  to  the  members  of  this  Church,  not  otherwise  re- 
cognized as  citizens,  on  other  terms  than  swearing  an  oath  of  allegiance 
to  the  existing   civil  institutions  of  the  land. 

Your  committee  are  of  opinion  that  influential  statesmen  have  not, 
as  yet,  opened  the  door  for  a  successful  application  to  Congress,  and 
therefore  deem  it  most  prudent  to  recommend  to  Synod  a  postpone- 
ment of  the  subject. 

While  this  report  fails  to  accomplish  the  design  for 
which  the  Committee  was  appointed,  it  certainly  exalts 
the  position  and  authority  of  the  Synod  in  forbidding 
her  members  to  swear  allegiance  to  the  government. 
A  "  rising  party "  was  not  yet  satisfied  because  the 
iron  laws  of  the  Church  held  them  down  to  a  sub- 
mission to  her  Testimony.  They  wanted  to  breathe 
more  freely,  and  so,  at  the  same  meeting  of  1 831,  it 
was  "  resolved  that  this  Synod  recommend  that  the 
points  of  difference  on  the  application  of  our  principles 
to    the    civil    institutions    of   the    United    States    be    dis- 


cussed  through  the  medium  of  the  American  Christiaii 
Expositor,  under  the  head  of  "  Free  Discussions,"  and 
that  every  member  of  Synod  have  full  liberty  to  avail 
himself    of    this    vehicle." 

Now  the  law  of  the  Church  and  the  acquiescence  of 
members  to  the  report  both  plainly  declared  that 
members  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  could 
not,  consistent  with  their  position  of  dissent,  swear 
allegiance  to  the  government.  As  upon  this  vital 
question  there  was  no  difference  of  opinion,  how  could 
it  be  a  matter  of  discussion  .-*  It  was  simply  an  oc- 
casion to  repeal  the  action  of  Synod  prohibiting 
incorporation  with  the  government.  The  consequence 
was  the  pulpit  and  the  press  now  became  vehicles  for 
the  dissemination  of  doctrines  subversive  to  the  position 
of  the  Church.  Some  of  the  learned  doctors,  who  had 
grown  weary  of  testimony-bearing,  wrote  articles  to 
show  how  easily  Covenanters,  in  consistency  with  their 
principles,  could  incorporate  with  the  government  and 
not  be  charged  with  complicity  in  the  sins  of  the 
nation.  This  was  "  new  light  "  to  those  who  had 
thought  and  held  that  the  Constitution  was  defective 
and  licensed  immorality,  and  those  who  swore  allegiance 
to  it  were  justly  implicated  in  the  evil.  Some  of  the 
leading  men,  who  had  spent  their  best  days  in  upholding 
the  principles  of  the  Church  and  emitting  publications 
in  her  defense,  now  "  changed  their  minds "  and 
repudiated  the  sentiments  held  when  they  were  "  beard- 
less   boys." 

■   We    have    now    come    to    a   period    in    the     history    of 
the    Reformed    Presbyterian    Church     when     those     errors, 


which  were  given  too  much  countenance  at  first  r 
developed  into  open  rebellion  against  the  true  and 
historic  position  of  the  Church.  It  is  now  fifty-five 
years  since  the  unpleasant  controversy  and  division  of 
the  Church ;  and,  while  we  have  no  desire  to  revive 
the  trouble,  we  have  an  earnest  desire  to  vindicate 
the  position  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church.  It 
is  granted  that  mistakes  and  bad  temper  were  dis- 
played upon  both  sides  ;  that  the  war  of  words  and 
pamphlets  aggravated  the  controversy  and  widened 
the  separation  ;  but  back  of  all  this  debris  there  was 
a  righteous  position  to  be  held  and  a  Bible  principle 
to  be  maintained.  Neither  the  righteousness  of  the 
cause  nor  the  validity  of  the  course  consisted  in  which 
side  had  the  learned  doctors,  the  most  worldly  ambi- 
tion, held  the  most  property,  exerted  the  most  influence 
in  society,  or  held  or  withdrew  from  material  buildings. 
All  this  is  simply  c/ust.  The  question  is,  Which  side 
held  the  true  I^ible  theory  of  civil  government,  and 
which  departed  from  the  recognized  position  of  the 
Reformed    Presbyterian    Church    in    America  ? 

Now  the  trend  of  Scottish  history,  and  the  Testi- 
mony of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  officially 
adopted  in  1806,  testify  to  the  fact  that  Covenanters 
are  dissenters  from  immoral  Constitutions  of  Church 
and  State.  No  candid  and  intelligent  reader  can  deny 
this  fact.  No  one  thoroughly  acquainted  with  the 
godly  instruction  of  Covenanters  and  the  true  character 
of  the  American  government  could  be  mistaken  as  to 
the  attitude  of  Reformed  Presbyterians.  Hear  the  Testi-r 
mony    of     1806: 


Since  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution  in  1789,  the  members  of  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  have  maintained  a  constant  testimony 
against  these  evils.  They  have  refused  to  serve  in  any  office  which  im- 
plies an  approbation  of  the  Constitution,  or  which  is  placed  under  the 
direction  of  an  immoral  law.  They  have  abstained  from  giving  their 
votes  at  elections  for  legislators  or  officers,  who  must  be  qualified  to  act 
by  an  oath  of  allegiance  to  this  immoral  system.  They  could  not 
themselves  consistently  swear  allegiance  to  that  Government,  in  the 
Constitution  ot  which  there  is  contained  so  much  immorality.  In  all 
these  instances  their  practice  has  been  uniform. 

And  who  wrote  these  sentiments  ?  A  man  who  was 
now  repudiating  them  !  And  not  only  in  the  "  His- 
torical Part "  of  the  Testimony,  but  in  the  "  Doctrinal 
Part,"  which  was  adopted  at  the  same  time,  the  holding- 
up  of  the  United  States  government  as  an  ordinance 
of  God  was  an  error  to  be  condemned  and  testified 
against.  The  sessional  records  all  over  the  country 
reveal  the  fact,  that,  previous  to  the  "  new  light " 
which  dawned  upon  the  Church  in  1833,  members  who 
sat  on  juries  or  voted  at  any  elections  were  centered, 
and  they  either  confessed  their  sin  or  left  the    Church. 

Without  fear  of  contradiction  it  is  afifirmed,  and 
synodical  reports  corroborate  the  statement,  that  it  was 
the  settled  policy  and  position  of  the  Reformed  Presby- 
terian Church  in  America  to  refuse  allegiance  to  the 
United  States  government  on  account  of  its  defects  and 
immoralities.  The  constitutional  law  of  the  Church  has 
always  been  that  members  are  absolutely  prohibited  from 
afifiliating  with  the  government  in  any  way  that  would 
involve  them  in  its  evil  or  give  sanction  to  it  as  the 
ordinance  of  God.*     The  act  of  Synod  in  1831,  by  which 

*This  position  of  the  Church  is  admitted  in  the  Reformed  Presbyterian-. 
Advocate,  the  organ  of  the  New  School  Church,  January,   1888. 


members  were  given  the  priviledge  of  free  discussion,  in 
no  way  gave  them  the  liberty  to  change  the  constitutional 
law  of  the  Church.  The  law  on  this  subject  was  fixed, 
and  it  never  was  repealed,  and  stands  to-day  to  the  con- 
demnation of  those  who  departed  from  it. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Eastern  Subordinate  Synod, 
held  in  New  York,  April  25,  1832,  a  paper,  which  was 
designed  to  be  a  pastoral  letter  to  the  Churches,  was 
drawn  up  by  the  Chairman  of  a  Committee  appointed 
for  that  purpose.  This  paper  embodied  high  enconiums 
and  commendations  of  the  United  States  government, 
which  government  was  the  same  as  it  had  been  when 
the  same  gentleman  had  previously  condemned  it  for  its 
immoralities,  and  denounced  those  who  were  faithfully 
maintaining  the  Church's  Testimony.  This  paper  was 
adopted,  after  many  malicious  paragraphs  were  expunged 
because  they  were  directly  subversive  to  the  principles 
of  the  Church  and  highly  abusive  of  some  of  the 
members  of  Synod.  Contrary  to  the  decision  of  Synod, 
and  in  insubordination  to  the  highest  judicatory  of  the 
Church,  the  Chairman  of  this  Committee,  and  a 
minority  of  the  members  of  the.  court,  gathered  to- 
gether and  made  arrangements  for  publi.shing  the  whole 
document  with  explanatory  notes,  and  they  spread  the 
dangerous  publication  all  over  the  Church.  As  a  point 
of  law,  it  is  not  whether  the  standards  of  the  Church 
are  correct  or  whether  the  pastoral  letter  taught  doctrines 
contrary  to  them  ;  but,  those  who  held  these  views, 
must  either  clear  themselves  according  to  the  constitu- 
tional law  of  the  Chnrch,  or  abandon  her  position.  The 
existing    law    of    the     Church,     however,    condemned    the 


expunged  paragraphs  and  the  sentiments  of  those  who 
sympathized  with  them,  and  they  were  compelled  to  do 
the  other  thing — leave  the  Church.  If  men  do  not 
believe  the  principles  of  the  Church  they  are  at  liberty 
to  step  down  and  out.  But  many  of  these  misguided 
brethren,  by  their  writings  and  speeches,  would  condemn 
the    standards    and    justify    their    opinions. 

In  this  state  of  things  it  was  necessary  to  stay  the 
progress  of  defection.  The  only  and  the  proper  thing 
to  do,  was  to  call  a  meeting  of  the  court  to  which 
those  who  were  departing  from  the  principles  were 
amenable.  This  was  done.  The  Moderator  of  the 
Eastern  Subordinate  Synod,  on  the  requisition  of  two 
Presbyteries,  called  a  pro  re  nata  meeting  which  was 
held  in  New  York,  November  25,  1832.  The  Synod 
was  regularly  constituted  by  prayer  and  the  object  of 
the  meeting  sustained.  As  might  be  expected,  protests 
came  in  from  six  ministers  upon  whose  conduct  the 
meeting  was  to  act.  The  Clerk  refused  to  produce  the 
minutes  of  the  court,  and,  after  three  regular  citations 
to  do  so,  was  suspended  for  insubordination.  The 
meeting  then  proceeded  to  examine  the  "  original  draft 
of  a  pastoral  letter "  and  the  paragraphs  which  had 
laeen  expunged,  and  a  libel  was  founded  thereon  against 
those  who  signed  it.  The  counts  in  the  libel  were 
five  in  number,  viz  :  i.  Following  divisive  courses. 
2.  Contempt  of  the  authority  of  Synod.  3.  Error  in 
Doctrine.  4.  Abandonment  '  of  the  Testimony  of  the 
Church.  5.  Slandering  Synod  and  its  members.  Copies 
of    the    libel    were    sent    to   all  those  to  whom  it  applied. 


and  they  were  cited  to'  appear  before  the  regular 
meeting  of  Synod,  April  9,  1833,  and  answer  to  the 
charges    in    the    libel. 

The  pastor  of  the  First  congregation  of  New  York 
paid  no  attention  to  the  act  of  Synod,  and  introduced 
the  suspended  Clerk  of  Synod  into  the  pulpit  to  the 
discomfiture  of  the  majority  of  the  members.  These 
members  who  would  be  law-abiding  and  recognize  the 
validity  of  the  court  of  God's  house,  were  excluded 
from  church  priviledges  without  charge,  citation  or 
trial,  because  they  would  not  hear  a  suspended  minister. 
In  order  to  evade  centure  by  the  Presbytery  for  this- 
conduct,  the  pastor  of  the  First  congregation  applied 
to  the  Philadelphia  Presbytery  to  be  taken  under  its 
care,  with  the  congregation,  for  there  were  sympathizers 
with  this  divisive  course  in  that  city.  Now  everybody 
knows  that  such  conduct  as  that  would  not  be  tolerated 
by  any  orderly  body ;  and  besides  this  matter  of  order, 
the  Synod  had  fixed  the  boundaries  of  the  Presbyteries,, 
artd  neither  congregations  nor  Presbyteries  had  the 
power  to  alter  them.  The  Philadelphia  Presbytery,  or 
some  members  of  it,  now  installed  the  suspended 
minister  over  the  congregation  in  New  York.  The 
congregation  was  placed  under  the  Philadelphia  Presby- 
tery, a  call  moderated,  the  pastor  settled,  and  one 
hundred  and  forty  members  expelled  in  less  than  three 
days.  Certainly  the  "King's  business  required  haste." 
Any  one  at  all  acquainted  with  the  rules  and  usage 
of  the  Presbyterian  Church  law  at  once  will  say  that 
such     transactions     were      unlawful      and      unpresbyterial. 

At    the    meeting    of    the    Eastern     Subordinate    Synod,. 


April  9,  1833,  the  court  was  regularly  opened  with  a 
sermon  and  constituted  by  prayer  by  the  Moderator. 
The  suspended  Clerk  attempted  to  force  himself  upon 
the  court,  but  was  checked  by  a  motion  to  appoint  a 
Clerk  pro  tcm.  When  this  point  of  order  was  settled, 
the  leader  of  the  parties  against  whom  the  libel  was 
framed,  called  upon  his  colleagues  and  they  withdrew 
to  another  house  without  any  ofificers.  Here  they  set 
up  an  independent  Synod,  which  they  styled  the 
"Eastern  Subordinate  Synod."  They  felt  sure  the 
regular  court  would  sustain  the  libels,  and  they  sought 
this  mode  of  contending  for  the  rights  of  the  sus- 
pended Clerk  in  order  to  escape  the  application  of 
discipline.  Though  these  offenders  had  withdrawn,  the 
Synod  agreed  that  they  were  not  free  from  their  juris- 
diction, and  they  proceeded  with  the  citations  to  appear 
and  answer  the  libels.  After  citing  them  three  times 
to  appear,  and  notifying  them  if  they  did  not,  they 
would  be  proceeded  against  as  if  they  were  present,, 
the  Synod,  after  patient  waiting,  proceeded  to  examine 
the  conduct  of  those  libeled.  The  Synod  resolved  that 
the  parties  were  guilty  of  the  five  counts  in  the  libel,, 
and  were  thereupon  suspended  from  the  exercise  of  the 
ministry  and  priviledges  in  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church.  The  five  suspended  ministers  were  duly  notified 
of    the    action    of    the    Eastern    Subordinate    Synod. 

The  General  Synod  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church  met  in  Philadelphia,  August  7,  1833.  The 
former  Moderator  of  this  Synod  was  among  those  sus- 
pended, and  for  this  reason  was  disqualified  for  taking 
his    position     until     his    case    was     adjudicated    and    he 


restored.  The  Synod,  and  the  people  whom  they  repre- 
sented, were  not  willing  to  trust  their  interests  to  those 
who  had  no  regard  for  the  high  position  of  the  Church 
as  a  witness  for  Jesus,  and  who  trampled  all  Presby- 
terial  law  and  order  under  their  feet.  They  must  make 
amends  or  be  self-excluded  from  participation  in  the 
transactions  of  the  court.  Supposing  the  proceedings 
of  the  Eastern  Subordinate  Synod  were  held  by  some 
to  be  invalid  or  unjust,  the  General  Synod  could  neither 
disannul  nor  act  upon  them,  until  it  was  constituted 
and  the  matter  came  regularly  before  it.  The  Modera- 
tor's alternate  was  then  called  upon  to  open  the  Synod 
by  a  sermon.  At  this  juncture  a  disturbance  was 
created ;  and,  as  the  church  in  which  the  Synod  met 
was  in  possession  of  the  party  against  whom  the 
charges  were  made,  and  because  they  had  invoked  the 
aid  of  the  police  in  case  of  a  disturbance,  for  the 
sake  of  peace,  the  majority,  who  held  the  testimony 
intact,  withdrew  from  the  house,  and  met  in  another 
place  where  the  sermon  was  preached  and  the  Synod 
regularly  constituted.  It  is  not  customary  for  majori- 
ties to  secede,  especially  when  they  are  in  the  right, 
but  because  of  the  peculiar  circumstances  of  this  case, 
and  for  the  sake  of  peace,  the  majority  manifested 
the  Christian  spirit  and  withdrew  from  the  brethren 
who  were  walking  disorderly.  While  those  who 
abandoned  the  principles  of  the  Church  were  minis- 
terially in  the  minority,  the  membership  throughout  the 
Church  was  about  equally  divided.  The  misguided 
brethren  set  up  an  independent  Synod  and  styled  it 
that    of     the    "Reformed     Presbyterian     Church."     Since 


that  day  the  two  denominations  have  been  known  as 
the  "  Old  Light  "  and  "  New  Light,"  because  the  one 
adheres  strenuously  to  the  distinctive  principles  of  the 
Church  as  they  had  always  been  held,  and  the  other 
abandoned  them  in    1833. 

Now  in  order  to  show  which  party  adheres  to  the 
true  position  of  the  Church,  and  is  thereby  entitled  to- 
the  name,  a  comparison  of  the  "  Terms  of  Communion  " 
may    be    helpful. 

TERMS  OF    1806. 

1.  An  acknowledgment  of  the  Scriptures  of  the  Old  and  New  Testa- 
ments  to   be   the   Word   of   God.  , 

2.  An  acknowledgment  that  the  whole  doctrine  of  the  Westminster 
Confession  of  Faith,  and  the  Catechisms,  Larger  and  Shorter,  are  agree- 
able  unto,    and     founded   upon,    the    Scriptures. 

3.  An  acknowledgment  of  the  divine  right  of  one  unalterable  form 
of  Church  Government  and  manner  of  worship — and  that  these  are, 
for  substance,  justly  exhibited  in  that  form  of  Church  Government 
and  Directory  for  Worship  agreed  upon  by  the  assembly  of  divines  at 
Westminster,    as   they   were  received   by   the   Church   of  Scotland. 

4.  An  acknowledgment  that  Public  Covenanting  is  an  ordinance  of 
God,  to  be  observed  by  Churches  and  Nations  under  the  New  Testa- 
ment Dispensation — and  that  those  Vows,  namely,  that  which  was 
entered  into  by  the  Church  and  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  called  the 
National  Covenant,  and  that  which  was  afterwards  entered  into  by 
the  three  Kingdoms,  Scotland,  England,  and  Ireland,  and  by  the 
Reformed  Churches  in  those  Kingdoms,  usually  called  the  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant,  were  entered  into  in  the  true  spirit  of  that 
institution — and  that  the  obligation  of  these  Covenants  extends  to  those 
who  were  represented  in  the  taking  of  them,  although  removed  to 
this  or  any  other  part  of  the  world,  in  so  far  as  they  bind  to  duties 
not  peculiar  to  the  Church  in  the  British  Isles,  but  applicable  in  all 

5.  An  approbation  of  the  faithful  contendings  of  the  martyrs  of 
Jesus,  and  of  the  present  Reformed  Covenanted  Churches  in  Britain 
and  Ireland,  against  Paganism,  Popery  and  Prelacy,  and  against  immoral 


•Constitutions  of  civil  government,  together  with  all  Erastian  tolerations 
and  persecutions  which  flow  therefrom,  as  containing  a  noble  example 
for  us  and  our  posterity  to  follow  in  contending  for  all  divine  truth, 
and  in  testifying  against  all  contrary  evils  which  may  exist  in  the 
corrupt   Constitutions   of  either   Church   or   State. 

6.  An  approbation  of  the  doctrines  contained  in  the  Declaration 
and  Testimony  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  North  America, 
in   defence   of  truth   and   in   opposition   to   error. 

These,  together  with  due  subordination  in  the  Lord  to  the  authority 
of  the  Reformed  Presbytery  in  North  America,  and  a  regular  life  and 
conversation,  form  the  bonds  of  our  ecclesiastical  union. 

Those  were  the  Terms  in  use  by  the  whole  body 
previous  to  1833.  Now'  we  will  place  side  by  side 
the  Terms  of  each  body  at  the  present  time  for  com- 
parison   with    those    of    1 806 : 

Present   Terms  of  Old  School  Body.         Present   Terms  of  New  School 

1.  An  acknowledgment  of  the 
Scriptures  of  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments  to  be  the  Word  of 
God,  and  the  only  rule  of  faith 
and    manners. 

2.  An  acknowledgment  that  the 
whole  doctrine  of  the  Westmins- 
ter Confession  of  Faith,  and  the 
Catechisms,  Larger  and  Shorter, 
are  agreeable  unto,  and  founded 
upon,    the    Scriptures. 

3.     An    acknowledgment    of    the 
divine    right     of    one     unalterable 

1.  An  acknowledgement  of  the 
Scriptures  of  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments  to  be  the  Word  of 

2.  An  acknowledgment  of  the 
doctrines  of  the  Westminster 
Confession  of  Faith,  Catechisms, 
Larger  and  Shorter,  and  Re- 
formation Principles  Exhibited,  the 
Testimony  of  the  Church — as  em- 
bodying, according  to  the  Word 
of  God,  the  great  principles  of 
the  Covenanted  Presbyterian  Re- 
formation, to  the  maintenance  of 
which  this  Church  is  obliged  by 
solemn   Covenant   engagements. 

3.  An  acknowledgement  that 
the    Lord     Jesus     Christ,   the   only 



form  of  Church  Government  and 
manner  of  worship — and  that  these 
are,  for  substance,  justly  exhibited 
in  the  form  of  Church  Govern- 
ment and  Directory  for  Worship 
agreed  upon  by  the  assembly  of 
■divines  at  Westminster,  as  they 
were  received  by  the  Church  of 

4.  An  acknowledgment  of  public 
Covenanting  as  an  ordinance  of 
God  to  be  observed  by  Churches 
and  Nations  ;  and  of  the  perpetual 
obligation  of  public  Covenants  ; 
and  of  the  obligation  upon  this 
Church  of  the  Covenant  entered 
into  in  1871,  in  which  are  em- 
bodied the  engagements  of  the 
National  Covenant  of  Scotland  and 
of  the  Solemn  League  and  Cove- 
nant, so  far  as  applicable  in  this 

5.  An  approbation  of  the  faith- 
ful contendings  of  the  martyrs  of 
Jesus,  and  of  the  present  Reformed 
Covenanted  Churches  in  Britain 
and  Ireland,  against  Paganism, 
Popery,  and  Prelacy,  and  against 
immoral  Constitutions  of  civil  gov- 
ernment, together  with  all  Erastian 
tolerations  and  persecutions  which 
flow  therefrom,  as  containing  a 
noble  example  for  us  and  our 
posterity  to  follow  in  contending 
for  all  divine  truth,  and  in  testi- 
fying against  all  contrary  evils 
which  may  exist  in  the  corrupt 
■Constitutions  of  either  Church  or 

Redeemer  and  Head  of  His 
Church,  has  appointed  one  per- 
manent form  of  ecclesiastical 
government ;  and  that  this  form 
is,    by    divine    right,     Presbyterian. 

4.  An  acknowledgment  that  pub- 
lic, social  covenanting,  upon  proper 
occasions,  is  an  ordinance  of  God, 
and  that  such  moral  deeds  as  re- 
spect the  future,  whether  ecclesias- 
tical or  civil,  are  of  continued  obli- 
gation, as  well  as  upon  those  repre- 
sented in  the  taking  of  them  as 
upon  those  who  actually  covenant, 
until  the  ends  of  them  be  effected. 

5.  An  acknowledgment  of  the 
faithful  contendings  of  the  martyrs 
of  Jesus,  and  a  recognition  of  all  as 
brethren,  in  every  land,  who  main- 
tain a  Scriptural  Testimony  in  be- 
half of  the  attainments  and  cause 
of  the  Reformation,  against  all  that 
is  contrary  to  sound  doctrine  and 
the  power  of  godliness. 


6.     An    approbation   of  the   doc-  6.     A   practical   adorning    of   the 

trines  contained  in  the  Declara-  doctrine  of  God  our  Saviour,  by  a 
tion  and  Testimony  of  the  Re-  life  and  conversation  becoming  the 
formed  Presbyterian  Church  in  gospel,  together  with  due  subor- 
North  America,  in  defence  of  dination  in  the  Lord,  to  the  author- 
truth,   and   in   opposition  to    error.       ity  of  the   Synod  of   the  Reformed 

These,  together  with  due  sub-  Presbyterian  Church  in  North 
ordination  in  the  Lord  to  the  America, 
authority  of  the  Synod  of  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in 
North  America,  and  a  regular  life 
and  conversation,  form  the  bonds 
of  our   ecclesiastical   union. 

According  to  the  spirit  of  the  doctrines  and  history 
of  the  Covenanter  Church,  the  Old  School  body  re- 
newed the  Covenants  in  1871,  after  the  example  of 
their  ancestors,  and  their  fourth  term  of  communion 
was  changed  in  1878,  to  embrace  this  step,  and 
embodies  in  it  all  that  is  implied  in  the  term  of  1806. 
Previous  to  1878,  the  term  was  precisely  the  same  as 
that  of  1806.  At  a  glance,  and  with  a  clear  percep- 
tion of  truth,  the  candid  reader  can  see  that  the  New 
School  brethren  have  cast  out  of  their  terms  the 
peculiar  and  distinctive  profession  of  the  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Church.  In  the  second  term  they  slyly 
drop  out  the  word  "  Avhole "  from  the  Westminster 
standards-  in  order  to  make  them  more  palatable  to 
the  tastes  of  those  bodies  with  which  they  hoped  to 
unite.  In  the  third  term  they  make  no  reference  what- 
ever to  the  document  which  is  the  standard  of  the 
Church,  and  they  have  cut  out  all  that  refers  to  a 
form  of  worship,  in  order  to  leave  matters  open  for 
the     reception     of     innovations     in     the     future.      In     the 


fourth  term,  which  is  the  distinguishing  and  important 
one,  they  make  no  allusion  whatever  to  Churches  and 
Nations  Covenanting ;  they  have  broken  the  link  that 
bound  them  to  the  past  ;  they  do  not  acknowledge 
any  peculiar  connection  with  the  Covenants  of  our 
fathers  in  Scotland  ;  they  have  never  Covenanted  in 
America,  and  hence  have  repudiated  the  entire  principles 
of  the  Reformation,  and  yet  claim  and  demand  the 
name  Covenanter!  In  the  fifth  term,  which  is  a  strange 
conglomeration  compared  to  the  genuine  one,  they  fail 
to  give  the  true  import  of  that  term  ;  they  leave  out 
all  that  relates  to  "  contending  against  immoral  Con- 
stitutions of  civil  government,"  and  yet  claim  and 
demand  the  name  Reformed  Presbyterian!  They  make 
no  reference  to  the  witnessing  Church  in  Britain  and 
Ireland,  and,  on  the  whole,  this  term  is  so  indefinite 
that  any  Protestant  could  take  it  no  matter  what  his 
views  were  about  the  martyrs  of  Scotland,  or  whether 
he  knew"  that  for  which  they  so  heroicly  contended. 
In  the  "  Historical  Part "  of  the  Testimony  it  is  a  re- 
markable fact  that  they  have  left  out  that  part  which 
assigns  a  distinguished  place  to  the  Covenants.  This 
omission  is  remarkable  because  the  omitted  paragraph 
is  the  only  one  which  gives  the  organization  of  the 
first  Reformed  Presbytery,  and  refers  to  two  occasions 
upon  which  the  Church  renewed  the  Covenants.  That 
all  may  see  the  force  of  this  important  omission  by 
the  New  School  brethren,  this  paragraph  Avill  here  be 
inserted  : 

"  For    more    than    a    third  of  a  century,    Mr.    McMillan 
sustained    alone    the    banner    of    a     Covenanted    Reforma- 


tion,  until,  b)-  the  accession  of  Mr.  Nairn,  the  way 
was  opened  for  the  constitution  of  the  Ref0RME1> 
Presbytery.  This  important  event  took  place,  August 
I,  1743.  In  the  meantime,  however,  the  scattered 
remnant  had  met  at  Auchinsaugh,  July  24,  1712,  and 
there  renewed  the  Covenants,  National  and  Solemn 
League,  with  confession  of  sins,  and  an  engagement  to 
duties  ;  as  they  also  did.  after  the  constitution  of 
Presbytery,    at    Crawford-John,    in    the    year  1745."* 

We  regard  that  paragraph  as  of  great  importance, 
both  for  the  date  of  the  constitution  of  our  Church 
and  for  the  fact  that  they  then  Covenanted.  In  the  "  Doc- 
trinal Part  "  they  have  failed  to  bring  up  their  Testi- 
mony to  contend  against  evils  of  the  present  day,  such 
as  intemperance,  secrecy,  and  others.  No  paragraph 
appears  against  slavery.  Now  we  believe  that  while 
divine  truth  is  unchangeable,  the  testimony  of  the 
Church  is  progressive,  and  should  be  brought  up  to 
apply  to  new  aspects  of  evil  as  they  arise.  This  is 
what  the  Testimony  requires  of  the  Church  when  it 
says  : 

"  Every  generation  is  to  take  care  that  the  truth, 
as  stated  and  defended  by  their  predecessors,  shall  be 
maintained  and  faithfully  transmitted  together  with  the 
result  of  their  own  contendings  to  the  succeeding 

We    have    no    quarrel    with    our    New    School    brethren 

because    they  do    not  believe    as  we  do,   but  we  do  insist 

that    they    have    no    claim    upon    our  name.      It  has  been 

clearly    shown    that    they    neither    dissent    from     immoral 

*  Omitted  from  New  School  Testimony,  page  iii. 


Constitutions  nor  hold  or  renew  the  ancient  Co\enants, 
and  since  these  two  positions  constitute  it  a  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Covenanting  Church,  they  have  no  just 
claim  to  such  a  name.  After  the  setting  up  of  an  in- 
dependent body  in  1833,  they  flourished  for  awhile,  but 
afifiiliating  too  freely  with  other  bodies  they  lost  their 
foreign  mission  ;  and  not  only  did  ministers  leave  them, 
but  whole  congregations  and  Presbyteries  w^ent  into 
other  denominations,  and  they  have  ceased  to  publish 
any  statistics  by  which  to  determine  their  strength.* 
The  obvious  reason  for  their  marvelous  declension  is 
that  they  have   no  distinct  ground   upon  which    to    stand. 

The  Synod  of  1833,  at  Philadelphia,  took  the  follow- 
ing action  in  regard  to  those  who  had  separated 
from    it : 

That  the  members  of  our  subordinate  and  inferior  judicatories,  and 
all  our  people,  be  and  hereby  are  warned  not  to  recognize  the  authority, 
or  admit  the  interference  of  such  ministers  as  have  been  suspended  for 
the  maintaining  of  principles  opposed  to  the  standards  of  our  church  on 
the  subject  of  civil  government ;  as  likewise  of  all  such  ministers  and 
others  who  may  be  confederated  with  them  in  corrupting  the  doctrine, 
contemning  the  authority,  and  violating  the  order  of  the  church;  inasmuch 
as  these  last,  as  well  as  the  first,  are,  and  hereby  are  declared  to  be, 
from  the  nature  of  the  opinions  they  maintain,  and  the  divisive  course 
they  pursue,  prohibited  from  holding  a  seat  in  our  courts,  or  exercising 
authority,  or  any  way  interfering  in  the  judicatories  or  congregations  of 
the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church,  while  maintaining  such  principles  and 
pursuing  such  practices. 

At  this  same  meeting,  the  Synod  re-affirmed  its 
attachment  to  the  historic  and  true  position  of  the 
Church     in    this     country,    by     the     following     resolution : 

*The  minutes  of  the  General  Synod  of  1887,  reveal  the  fact  that  they 
have  twenty-four  ministers,  fourteen  of  whom  are  settled  pastors  ;  and, 
by  the  accession  of  a  native,  they  have  one  missionary  in  India. 


That  as  it  has  alwajs  been  in  the  proceedings  and  history  of  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Church,  both  in  the  land  of  our  forefathers  and 
in  this  land,  a  great  and  leading  object  to  bear  an  explicit  and  prac- 
tical testimony  to  the  truth  respecting  civil  government  as  the  ordinance 
of  God,  and  the  subjection  of  the  nations  to  Messiah  :  so  it  is  utterly 
inconsistent  with  our  doctrinal  standards  and'  judicial  acts  for  any  mem- 
ber of  this  church  to  sit  on  juries,  to  hold  offices,  or  swear  allegiance 
to  the  Constitution  of  the  United    States. 

From  that  day  to  this  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church  has  had  little  or  no  trouble  in  applying  the 
principles  of  the  Church,  and  the  members  feel  that  it 
is  their  duty  to  separate  themselves  from  that  civil 
institution  which  refuses  to  own  Christ  as  its  King,  and 
His  Word  as  its  supreme  law.  If  any  pastors  or  ses- 
sions allow  any  members  to  violate  the  law  of  the 
Church  in  this  respect,  they  deserve  the  same  con- 
demnation as  those  brethren  who  separated  from  us 
in  1833.  If  any  such  there  be,  the  fact  is  unknown 
to  the  Church,  and  when  discovered  will  be  dealt  with 
as    an    offence. 

In  the  session  of  1834,  at  Pittsburgh,  the  names  of 
some  ministers,  who  had  identified  themselves  with  the 
New  School  body,  were  stricken  from  the  roll.  Papers 
on  important  subjects  were  read  and  ordered  published 
in  overture.  Measures  were  adopted  for  devising  a 
plan  by  which  young  men  could  be  prepared  for  the 
service  of  the  ministry  until  the  Theological  Seminary 
was  resuscitated.  Arrangements  were  also  made  for 
the     publication    of    another     edition    of     the    Testimony. 

At  the  meeting  of  Synod  in  1836,  at  Pittsburgh,  it 
was  apparent  that  the  Church  was  in  a  flourishing 
condition,     and     many     ministers      had    been      settled     in 


pastoral  charges.  At  this  meeting  strong  ground  was 
taken  against  the  sin  of  slavery.  The  Synod  disap- 
proved of  the  plan  of  the  Colonization  Society  con- 
sidered as  opposed  to  the  manumission  of  slaves.  It 
was  on  the  supposition  that  this  Society  would  be 
favorable  to  the  abolition  of  human  slavery  that  the 
Synod  had  previously  given  it  countenance.  The  Synod 
continued  to  maintain  the  duty  of  the  immediate  and 
universal  emancipation  of  the  enslaved,  and  disap- 
proved of  their  transportation  to  Africa.  Parts  were 
assigned  to  different  ministers  to  write  pieces  for  the 
argumentative  part  of  the  Testimony.  Drafts  of  a 
"Book  of  Discipline"  and  also  of  "Church  Govern- 
ment" were  read  and  referred.  The  Theological  Semi- 
nary was  revived,  located  at  New  Alexandria,  Penn- 
sylvania, and  Rev.  Dr.  J.  R.  Willson  was  chosen  pro- 
fessor. It  •  was  also  resolved,  "That  we  recommend  to 
our  people,  totally  to  abstain  from  traffic  in  ardent 
spirits."  Ministers  were  instructed  to  preach  on  the  sin 
and  danger  of  Sabbath  profanation.  The  "  Book  of 
Discipline  and  Church  Government,"  as  also  the  "Argu- 
ment on  the  Arminian  Controversy "  were  published 
in    overture. 

The  Synod  of  1838,  met  in  New  York.  Rev.  William 
Sommerville,  missionary  to  Nova  Scotia,  was  present 
and  made  an  address  on  the  cause  of  the  Reformation, 
in  that  country.  For  disorderly  conduct  and  abusive 
language,  a  licentiate,  and  some  persons  associated  with 
him,  were  suspended  from  ecclesiastical  priviledges.  As. 
there  were  some  difficulties  in  the  way  of  establishing 
one  Theological    Seminary,    according    to    the    resolution! 


of  the  previous  meeting,  the  Synod  now  agreed  to 
abandon  the  idea  of  locating  it  at  New  Alexandria, 
and  rescinded  their  former  action.  It  was  then  resolved 
to  establish  two  Seminaries — one  at  Coldenham,  New 
York,  in  which  Rev.  Dr.  J.  R.  Willson  was  continued 
professor  ;  and  the  other  at  Allegheny,  Pennsylvania,  in 
which  Rev.  Thomas  Sproull  was  chosen  professor. 
Boards  of  Superintendents  were  chosen,  whose  duty 
should  be  to  arrange  the  course  of  study.  The 
Church's  relation  to  the  Anti-Slavery  society  again 
came  up  for  settlement,  and  the  Synod  declared  its 
approbation  and  patronage  of  the  cause  of  abolition, 
but  warned  its  members  against  "voluntary  associations" 
Avith  men  of  erroneous  principles  and  corrupt  practices. 
If  it  was  to  become  a  political  society,  then  Covenan- 
ters must  withdraw.  The  Synod  ■  then  passed  the 
following    resolution  : 

"  That  the  Testimony  of  this  Church  is  directed 
against,  not  only  the  practical  evil  of  slavery,  but  also 
against  the  immoral  principles  in  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States,  by  which  this  wicked  system  is 
supported  ;  we,  therefore,  declare  to  the  Church  and 
to  the  world,  that  from  all  associations  which  propose, 
by  an  act  homologating  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States,  to  remove  the  evil  of  slavery,  it  is  our  duty 
and  determination    to    stand  aloof." 

The  Synod  of  1840,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny. 
A  letter  from  the  Rev.  Dr.  John  T.  Pressly  of  the 
Associate  Reformed  Church  in  behalf  of  a  "  Convention 
of  Reformed  Churches  "  was  received.  The  Committee 
appointed    to    examine  the   letter  reported,    in    substance, 


that  "  while  this  Synod  laments  schism  in  the  Church, 
yet  knowing  that  societies  and  individuals  are  more 
solicitous  about  the  removal  of  evils  than  to  ascertain 
their  causes  and  natures;  and  because  most  of  these 
schisms  exist  from  the  departure  of  some  from  Re- 
formation attainments  ;  and  as  there  is  no  disposition  on 
the  part  of  those  who  have  departed  to  retrace  their 
steps,  but  desire  to  strike  out  of  certain  articles  of 
agreement  the  doctrine  of  the  power  of  the  civil  magistrate 
from  the  Confession  ;  and,  as  this  Synod  will  not  do 
any  act  that  would  be  construed  as  implying  an  abandon- 
ment of  any  part  of  her  terms  of  communion,  resolved 
that  they  could  not  comply  with  the  invitation  to  attend 
such  a  Convention."  (^n  motion  Synod  decreed  the 
union  of  the  Eastern  and  Western  Theological  Semi- 
naries under  the  joint  care  of  both  the  professors,  and 
the  Seminary  was  located  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
The  members  of  the  Church  were  urged  to  a  hearty 
support  of  this  important  institution.  A  resolution  was 
again  presented  to  prohibit  the  traffic  in  ardent  spirits 
or    intoxicating    liquors    by    members    of    the    Church. 

The  Synod  of  1841,  met  at  Utica,  Ohio.  A 
memorial  from  the  Missionary  Society  of  the  Phila- 
delphia congregation  was  received,  urging  the  Synod 
to  take  steps  for  the  immediate  establishment  of  a 
Foreign  Mission.  Since  the  last  meeting  of  Synod,  two 
ministers  of  the  Ohio  Presbytery  had  followed  divisive 
courses  and  left  the  communion  of  the  Church  for  the 
alleged  reason  that  the  Synod  had  postponed  its 
deliverance  on  "voluntary  associations,"  and  they  re- 
garded   the     Synod     as     unfaithful     to     its     duty.      These 


misguided  men  erected  the  "  Reformed  Presbytery,"  and 
a  few  disciples  gathered  around  them.  The  conduct  of 
these  schismatics  brought  the  Synod  to  the  fuller  con- 
sideration of  the  question,  and  now  adopted  the  follow- 
ing resolutions  : 

1.  That  our  solemn  covenant  obligations  demand  our  social  as 
well  as  individual  adherence  to  the  whole  law  of  God,  in  dependence 
on  whose  grace  all  our  endeavors  and  engagements  are  to  be  made 
for  the  performance  of  every  duty  and  the  attainment  of  every  lawful 

2.  That  those  confederated  associations  for  declared  moral  purposes, 
which  pay  no  express  regard  to  a  belief  in  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
for  salvation,  nor  to  a  dependence  on  His  Spirit  for  guidance  in  all 
duty,  And  in  the  special  duties  of  such  associations  in  particular,  but 
are  based  on  principles  of  legalism,  and  admit  promiscuously  all 
classes  of  their  members  to  perform  religious  as  well  as  other  duties, 
are  not  entered  into  in  the  true  spirit  of  the  solemn  deeds  of  our  cove- 
nant  forefathers. 

3.  That  our  ministers  and  people  be  admonished  to  refuse  uniting 
unnecessarily  in  associations  with  the  erroneous  and  wicked,  when  a 
bond  of  confederation  is  required  to  be  signed  implying  identity  with 
such   persons. 

4.  That  in  associations  also  of  a  merely  civil  nature,  when  in  the 
prosecution  of  their  respective  charters  they  are  known  to  have  been 
guilty  of  immorality,  such  as  turnpike  companies,  steamboats,  &c.,  in 
the  desecration  of  the  holy  Sabbath,  Reformed  Presbyterians  should 
have   no  participation. 

If  those  men  who  went  out  were  grieved  only  be- 
cause of  Synod's  negligence  to  do  as  it  now  did,  they 
would  have  returned  to  the  Church  of  their  fathers. 
This  they  never  did.  The  one  died  in  obscurity  in 
1845,  ^'""^^  the  other  strenuously  maintained  his  peculiar 
views    alone    until    his   death    in    1887. 

The  subject  of  the  traffic  in  intoxicating  liquors 
had    often    been    a     matter    of    consideration     by    Synod,. 


and,  against  this  sinful  and  nefarious  business  the  Synod 
had  taken  only  too  mild  measures.  As  the  subject 
had  been  fully  investigated,  and  the  destructive  employ- 
ment fully  exhibited  by  Committees  previous!}'  appointed, 
the  Synod  was  now  prepared  to  adopt  the  following- 
preamble    and    resolutions : 

Whereas,  The  traffic  in  ardent  spirits  for  hixitrious  purposes  and  as 
a  beverage  has  been  a  fruitful  source  of  scandal  and  crime ;  therefore 

1.  That  members  of  this  church  be  and  hereby  are  prohibited 
from   engaging   in   or   continuing   in    this   traffic ;    and 

2.  That  wherever  there  are  individuals  employed  in  this  traffic, 
sessions  are  hereby  directed  to  deal  with  them  immediately  in  such 
a  way  that  this  evil  may  be  removed  from  the  church  in  the  best 
and    speediest    manner. 

As  the  Church  had  always  held  as  a  term  of  com- 
munion that  "the  Scriptures  of  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments  are  the  only  rule  of  faith  and  manners,'' 
this  latter  clause  was  directed  to  be  inserted  in  its 
proper  place  in  the  first  term  of  communion.  A  Com- 
mittee was  also  appointed  to  continue  the  "  Historical 
Part"  of  the  Testimony  with  emendations  of  the  same. 
A  Committee  was  appointed  to  prepare  a  "draft  of 
the  National  Covenant  and  of  the  Solemn  League  and 
Covenant,  adapted  to  the  present  circumstances  of 
the  Church  and  of  the  world."  Mild  complaints 
occasionally  came  before  Synod  in  the  matter  of  read- 
ing out  the  lines  in  pubic  worship,  but  the  court  did 
not  consider  these  difficulties  of  sufficient  magnitude 
to  justify  the  formation  of  a  fixed  law  on  the  subject. 
Efforts  were  made  for  the  permanent  support  of  the 

•  lO  HISTORY    Ol--    THK    KKFORMED 

The  Synod  of  1843,  met  in  the  city  of  Rochester. 
New  York.  The  friendly  correspondence  with  the  Synod 
of  Ireland,  which  had  been  disturbed  by  the  gross 
misrepresentations  of  the  Church  by  those  who  had 
abandoned  her  testimony  in  1833,  was  now  resumed, 
ami  a  most  affectionate  letter  from  the  brethren  beyond 
the  sea  was  received.  Friendly  relations  and  fraternal 
greetings  have  since  been  annually  exchanged  with 
the  Covenanted  brethren  in  both  Scotland  and  Ireland. 
The  reports  from  all  the  Presbyteries  were  of  an 
encouraging  character,  and  revealed  the  fact  that  the 
number  of  congregations  and  missionary  stations,  as 
well  as  ministers  and  licentiates,  had  greatly  increased 
since  the  last  meeting.  The  Committee  previously 
appointed  for  the  purpose,  reported  the  draft  of  a 
Covenant,  which  was  published  in  overture,  and  sent 
down  to  the  inferior  courts  for  them  to  report  upon 
at  the  next  meeting.  Copies  were  also  sent  to  the 
sister  judicatories  in  Scotland  and  Ireland  for  the  same 
purpose.  Several  cases  of  discipline  of  a  local  interest 
were  adjudicated,  but  nothing  of  vital  importance  was 
transacted    at    this    meeting. 

The  Synod  of  1845,  ^'^^^  ''I  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania.  Many  new  ministers  appeared  in  this 
session.  Reports  revealed  the  fact  that  several  new 
congregations  had  been  organized  in  the  West,  and 
that  missionary  work  was  being  done  among  the 
colored  people  who  had  fled  to  the  North.  The 
Church  generally  was  in  a  healthy  condition.  There 
was  manifest  a  general  awakening  on  the  subject  of 
missions  at  home  and  abroad.     The  Committee  previously 


appointed  to  designate  a  field  for  missionar}'  operations, 
and  had  selected  the  Island  of  St.  Thomas,  now  were 
prepared  to  report  that  on  account  of  the  peculiar  hin- 
drances in  the  way  in  that  field  they  were  undecided 
as  to  the  practicability  of  beginning  operations  in  that 
Island.  A  special  Committee  on  Covenanting  was  ap- 
pointed, and  the  matter  referred  for  the  present.  The 
subject  of  the  "  deacon  '"  again  came  regularly  before  the 
Synod,  and,  after  some  amendments  and  discussion,  the 
following  preamble  and  resolutions  were  unanimously 
adopted  : 

Whereas,  The  office  of  deacon  is  a  divine  institution,  the  functions  of 
which  are  declared  in  the  Form  of  Church  Government  to  be  "To  take 
special  care  in  distributing  to  the  necessities  of  the  poor,"  and  of  which 
it  is  said  in  Reformation  Principles  that  he  '■  has  no  power  except  about 
the  temporalities  of  the  Church,"  and — 

Whereas,  Said  office  has  fallen  very  extensively  into  neglect  for  many 
years  ;  and — 

Whereas,  It  is  the  desire  of  this  court  that  uniformity  in  practice  be 
maintained  in  all  our  congregations  ;   and — 

Whereas,  Some  misunderstanding  seems  to  exist  in  relation  to  the 
ground  of  our  Covenanted  uniformity  in  practice  in  respect  to  the 
subject  of  deacons  as  settled  at  the  Second  Reformation  ;    and — 

Whereas,  Faithfulness  to  the  Church's  Head  requires  the  re-assertion 
of  this  ground  of  practical  uniformity  as  it  then  obtained  :  therefore — 

Resok'tuf,  1st,  That  our  Covenanted  uniformity  does  not  recognize  as 
of  divine  right  the  congregational  trustee,  but  the  Scriptural  deacon  as 
stated  in  the  preamble. 

Resoh',;i,  2d,  That  said  Covenanted  uniformity  does  not  recognize  as 
of  divine  right  a  Consistory  of  ministers,  elders  and  deacons,  having 
authority  to  enact,  govern  and  control  the  Church,  either  in  her  spiritual 
or  temporal  concerns,  or  as  having  any  authority  or  power  whatever, 
except  for  consultation  and  advice  for  the  well  ordering  of  the  temporal 
affairs  of  the  congregation. 

A  Board  of  Domestic  Missions  was  appointed,  consist- 
ing   of    six    members,    their    duties    being    to    receive    and 


disburse  monies  to  needy  stations,  and  to  open  up  new 
fields  of  labor  at  home.  A  plan  for  completing  the 
"Argumentative  Part  "  of  the  Testimony  was  considered, 
and  subjects  and  writers  were  assigned  for  the  comple- 
tion of  this  work.  Some  changes  took  place  with 
reference  to  the  Theological  Seminary.  Rev.  Thomas 
Sproull  resigned  his  professorate  ;  the  location  was 
changed  from  the  city  of  Allegheny  to  the  city  of 
Cincinnati,  Ohio  ;  the  Board  of  Inspection  resigned  and 
a  new  one  was  appointed  ;  and  Rev.  Dr.  J.  R.  Willson 
continued   to  be  the  professor  in  the  Seminar)-. 

The  Synod  of  1847,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania.  By  an  appointment  of  the  Board  of 
Foreign  Missions,  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Johnston  had  made 
an  exploring  tour  through  the  Island  of  Hayti,  and 
the  Board  reported  the  selection  of  this  Island  as  the 
field  of  operations,  and  the  city  of  Port  au  Prince  as 
the  starting  point  and  center  of  work.  Several  young- 
men  were  chosen  as  missionaries,  but  declined,  and 
finally  the  Rev.  Joseph  W.  Morton  and  Mr.  Robert 
J.  Dodds  accepted  appointments.  Mr.  Morton  entered 
upon  the  work  in  Hayti  the  same  year,  a  history  of 
which  Mission  will  be  found  in  another  part  of  this 
volume.  Several  generous  bequests  were  made  to  the 
Theological  Seminary,  and  efforts  were  made  for  the 
establishing  of  a  literary  institution  under  the  care  of 
the  Synod. 

The  Synod  of  1849,  met  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia, 
The  Lakes  Presbytery  reported  that  they  had  founded 
"Geneva  Hall,"  at  Northwood,  Ohio,  April,  1848,  and 
that  the  institution     was     under    the     superintendence    of 


the  Rev.  J.  B.  Johnston.  The  Pittsburg  Presbytery  also 
reported  the  establishment  of  Westminster  College  and 
Female  Seminfiry,  at  Wilkinsburg,  Pennsylvania,  and 
that  buildings  were  about  to  be  erected.  This  enter- 
prise was  largely  carried  on  by  the  generous  donations 
of  Mr.  James  Kelly.  The  missionary  to  Hayti  having 
changed  his  beliefs  in  reference  to  the  Christian  Sabbath, 
appeared  in  court,  and,  having  been  libeled,  was  cited 
to  appear  and  answer  the  charges.  The  following  is  the 
report   of  Synod   on  this   case  : 

Order  of  the  day,  viz  :  the  case  of  Mr.  Morton  called  for,  the  libel 
was  then  read  by  the»  Clerk  ;  when  Mr.  Morton  having,  in  reply  to  the 
Moderator,  answered  that  he  was  prepared  for  trial,  the  substance  of 
the  libel  was  again  stated  in  his  hearing.  Mr.  Morton  was  then  called 
upon,  according  to  the  rule  provided  for  such  cases,  either  to  confess 
the  charge  or  put  himself  upon  his  trial.  Mr.  Morton  in  return  ac- 
knowledged that  he  had  denied  that  the  day  commonly  called  tha 
Christian  Sabbath  is  so  by  Divine  appointment,  and  then  proceeded 
to  plead  the  irrelevancy  of  the  charge  by  endeavoring  to  prove  the 
perpetuity  of  the  law  for  the  observance  of  the  seventh  day.  While 
so  doing  he  was  arrested  by  the  Moderator,  who  informed  him  that 
the  charge  contained  in  the  libel  was  such  that  Mr.  Morton  could 
only  prove  its  irrelevancy  to  censure  by  proving  that  the  appropriation 
of  the  first  day  of  the  week,  known  as  the  Christian  Sabbath,  to 
secular  employments,  or  teaching  so  to  do,  is  not  relevant  to  censure, 
which  attempt  the  Moderator  would  consider  disorderly,  and  would 
not   allow. 

From  this  decision  a  member  appealed,  when  the  Moderator's 
•decision  was  unanimously  sustained.  Upon  this,  Mr.  Morton  declined 
the   authority    of  the  court. 

Resolved,  That  Mr.  Morton's  appointment  as  missionary  to  Hayti 
be    revoked. 

Resolved,  That  inasmuch  as  Mr.  Morton  has  now  publicly  declined 
the  authority  of  this  court,  he  be  suspended  from  the  exercise  of  the 
Christian  ministry,  and  from  the  privileges  of  the  Reformed  Presby- 
terian Church.  The  Moderator  then  publicly  pronounced  the  sentence 
of   suspension    on    Mr.    Morton,    agreeably    to   the   above   resolution. 


By  this  defection  the  Hayti  Mission  was  abandoned,, 
and  Mr.  Dodds  was  not  sent  out  as  was  expected.  Two 
ministers  were  admonished  and  warned  that  in  the 
future  they  were  not  to  teach  doctrines  contrary  to  the 
standards  of  the  Church  which  are  founded  upon  the 
Word  of  God.  The  Committee  to  which  were  referred 
certain  memorials  on  the  subject  of  slavery  reported 
the    following  : 

The  petitioners,  lamenting  the  prevalent  ignorance  of  our  testimony 
against  this  great  evil,  and  the  countenance  given  to  it  by  most  Christian 
denominations  in  the  United  States,  respectfully  ask  Synod,  ist.  To  re- 
assert their  position  in  regard  to  the  exclusion  of  ^ave-holders  from  her 
fellowship,  and  her  dissent  from  the  United  States  Constitution,  on 
this,  with  other  grounds.  2d.  They  ask  that,  if  practicable,  some  more 
efficient  means  may  be  employed  for  the  diffusion  of  our  doctrines  and 
testimony  on  this  subject,  particularly  that  a  remonstrance  may  be 
addressed    to  the    principal    slave-holding    Churches. 

In  regard  to  the  first  of  these  petitions,  we  remark  that  the  declara- 
tions contained  in  the  Historical  part  of  our  testimony,  published,  of 
course,  by  the  Presbytery  itself,  furnish  ample  testimony  of  the 
position  occupied  on  slavery  by  this  Church.  We  refer  to  the  follow- 
ing statements,  "The  Presbytery  resolved  to  purge  the  Church  of  this 
dreadful  evil  :  they  enacted  that  no  slave-holders  should  be  retained  in 
their  Communion."  "The  Presbytery  required  of  their  connexions  a 
general  emancipation."  "No  slave-holder  is  since  admitted  to  their 
Communion."  See  Hist.  Test.  pp.  154,  155,  Ed.  1835.  Now,  while  it  is 
true,  as  stated  in  one  of  the  memorials,  that  we  have  not  in  our 
hands  the  original  acts,  excluding  all  slave-holders,  we  have  the 
Presbytery  itself  as  evidence  that  this  was  the  purport  and  design  of 
their  actions.  This,  with  the  uniform  practice  of  the  Church — for  in 
the  language  of  the  testimony,  "No  slave-holder  is.  since  (1800)  ad- 
mitted to  their  Communion " — in  the  judgment  of  your  committee  as 
completely  defines  the  position  of  this  Church  in  regard  to  ecclesiastical 
fellowship  with  slave-holders  as  it  is  possible  to  do.  A  sight  of  the 
original  acts  might  gratify  curiosity,  but  could  not  shed  any  additional 
light   upon   that   which   is   already   as   clear  as  the  noon-day.     No  slave- 


holder  can  have  privileges  in  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church.  We 
say  the  same  of  our  position  as  a  Church  in  relation  to  the  civil 
institutions  of  the  country.  The  Historical  Testimony,  pp  152,  153, 
154,  and  the  frequent  incidental  actings  since  are  sufficiently  explicit 
on  this  point.  Covenanters  have  not  sworn,  and  do  not  swear  oaths 
to  the  institutions  of  the  country,  among  other  reasons,  because  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  contains  compromises  with  slave- 
holding  interests,  and  guarantees  for  the  institution  itself  protection 
so  long  as  it  exists  in  the  slave-holding  States.  We  have  no  further 
action  to  recommend  on  either  of  these    points. 

2d.  In  regard  to  a  remonstrance  to  be  addressed  to  slave-holding 
Churches,  we  agree  with  the  petitioners  that  it  is  important  that  this 
Church  take  some  measures  to  bring  her  testimony  more  directly 
before  the  Churches,  and  would  recommend  that  a  Committee  of  three 
be  appointed  to  prepare  a  remonstrance  of  the  kind  contemplated, 
embodying  the  views  and  position  of  this  Church  on  the  whole 
question,  said  Committee  to  publish  the  remonstrance  on  their  own 
responsibility,  as  to  the  argunJients  and  expressions  which  they  may 
see   fit  to   employ. 

The  Theological  Seminary  was  removed  from  Cincin- 
nati to  Northwood,  Ohio,  and  it  and  the  Literary  In.stitu- 
tion  were  taken  under  the  care  of  Synod.  Students  now 
frequently  persued  their  literary  and  theological  courses 
at  the  same  time.  Rev.  Dr.  J.  R.  Willson  was  continued 
professor,  and  received  the  assistance  of  the  professors  of 
Geneva  Hall   in   some  departments  of  study. 

The  Synod  of  185 1,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania.  Quite  a  number  of  ministers  had  been 
ordained  and  installed  over  pastoral  charges,  and  took 
their  seats  in  the  court.  Several  important  cases  of 
discipline  came  up  for  adjudication,  and  were  judiciousl)- 
disposed  of.  Some  of  these  related  to  the  organization 
of  congregations  without  deacons.  Events  arising  out 
of    conflicting  interests    and    personal   feelings,  the  Synod 


deemed  it  proper  to  suspend  the  Theological  Seminary 
for  the  present,  and  the  students  were  directed  to  prose- 
cute their  studies  under  the  care  of  their  respective 
Presbyteries.  Dr.  Willson  was  honorably  retired  as 
emeritus  professor.  The  librar)'  and  all  monies  were 
given  into  the  hands  of  Committees  to  hold  in  trust  for 
Synod.  The  Board  of  Domestic  Missions  reported  that 
much  mone)-  had  been  contributed  and  that  many  pro- 
mising stations  had  been  opened  up.  A  systematic 
plan  for  the  operations  of  home  missions  was  inaugurated, 
and  much  interest  manifested  in  this  part  of  the  work 
of  the  Church.  The  Committee  appointed  to  express 
the  views  of  the  Church  in  reference  to  the  Fugitive 
Slave  Law.  reported  the  following  preamble  and 
resolutions  : 

As  human  enactments  are  to  be  tested  by  the  Divine  law  ;  and  as 
it  is  the  duty  of  the  church  to  testify  against  all  that  is  in  opposition 
to  the  law  of  God  ;  and  as  her  Head  came  "  to  proclaim  liberty  to 
the   captive,"    so  she  should    open  her  month   for    the  dumb.     Therefore, 

1.  Resolved,  That  this  Synod  reiterate  its  uncompromising  opposi- 
tion to  the  institution  of  slavery  as  a  system  of  complicated  and 
unmitigated  wrong,  and  utterly  repudiate  all  the  arguments  and  excuses 
of  slaveholders  and  their  abettors  for  its  continuance  ;  and  recommend 
to    all  our  people    more  vigorous  and  persevering  efforts  for  its  removal. 

2.  That  the  fugitive  slave  law  is  essentially  tyrannical  ;  not  only 
securing  the  enslavement  of  those  who  are  in  fact  free,  but  in  for- 
bidding freemen  to  exercise  the  sympathies  of  Christian  compassion, 
and  commanding  them  to  assist  in  returning  men  to  cruel  bondage. 
It  brings  deserved  infamy  upon  our  land,  dishonors  God,  and  is 
expressly  contrary  to  the  plainest  precepts  of  this  law — "  Thou  shalt 
not  deliver  unto  his  master  the  servant  which  is  escaped  from  his 
master  unto  thee."  "Bewray  not  him  that  wandereth."  "Relieve  the 
oppressed."      .\nd   it    is   the   duty    of   all    not   only   to   refuse    compliance 

swith    its   provisions,    but    to    show    others    its    hideous    enormity. 

3.  That    the     main     element    of    the    fugitive     slave     law     naturally 


flows  from  the  provisions  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
upholding  slavery.  Art.  4,  Sec.  2.  "  No  person  held  to  service  or 
labor  in  one  State,  under  the  laws  thereof,  escaping  into  another, 
shall,  in  consequence  of  any  law  or  regulation  therein,  be  discharged 
from  such  service  or  labor;  but  shall  be  delivered  up  on  claim  of 
the  party  to  whom  such  service  or  labor  may  be  due."  Art.  4,  Sec. 
I.  "Full  faith  and  credit  shall  be  given  in  each  State  to  the  public 
acts,  records  and  judicial  proceedings  of  every  other  State."  And  we 
see  in  this  another  exemplification  of  the  immorality  of  the  United 
States  Government,  and  it  shows  clearly  the  evil  of  swearing  oaths  of 
allegiance,  and  thus  sustaining  slavery. 

4.  That  those  ministers  of  the  gospel  who  teach  the  binding  obliga- 
tion of  this  law  to  be  obeyed  for  conscience's  sake,  and  the  conduct  of 
-those  Christians  who  sustain  the  law,  hypocritically  professing  to  love 
God  while  they  hate  the  negro,  bring  reproach  upon  religion,  en- 
courage infidelity,  and  rivet  still  more  tightly  the  chains  of  the 

5.  That  it  is  the  duty  of  the  ministers  of  Christ  to  teach  clearly 
ihat  magistrates  in  Christian  lands  should  yield  to  the  authority  of 
•God's  law,  and  that  any  law  that  is  in  opposition  to  the  precepts  of 
the  Bible  does  not  bind  the  conscience,  and  ought  to  be  resisted  by 
•every  means  consistent  with  religion  ;  for  we  must  obey  God  rather 
than  men. 

6.  That  we  recognize  with  gratitude  the  hand  of  God  in  making  this 
infamous  law  the  means  of  showing  many  the  enormous  evil  of  slavery, 
.and  convincing  them  of  their  practical  and  constitutional  connection 
with  slavery  ;  and  that  we  rejoice  in  the  efforts  that  are  making  to  free 
rsome  of  the  Churches  from  the  incubus  of  slavery.  And  we  trust  that 
the  "  Free  Churches  "  will,  ere  long,  see  the  sin  of  upholding  a  govern- 
ment  that   rejects    the   law   of  God  ;     and  that  they  and    we,    upon    the 

♦  broad  ground  of  Christian  principles,  may  labor  to  bring  this  nation 
into  submission  to   God's   higher    law. 

The  Rev.  William  Wilson  of  the  New  School  body, 
who  desired  to  return  to  the  communion  of  the  Re- 
formed Presbyterian  Church  upon  certain  conditions  con- 
.tained     in     papers    laid    before    the    court,     learnin£^    that 


he  could  not  enter  the  body  without  a  full  reception 
of   all    her    principles,   withdrew    his    papers. 

The  Synod  of  1853,  met  in  the  city  of  New  York. 
Synod  re-affirmed  its  deliverance  of  1847,  that  the  con- 
sistory, an  assembly  composed  of  the  pastor,  elder.s 
and  deacons  to  manage  the  temporalities  of  the  Church,, 
is  not  an  ecclesiastical  court.  The  special  Committee 
to  which  was  referred  the  subject  of  civil  legislation 
against  the  traffic  in  ardent  spirits,  reported  the  follow- 
ing   which    was    adopted    by    Synod  : 

The  Church  of  Christ  is  a  divinely  instituted  association,  organized, 
not  only  for  the  conversion  of  sinners  and  sanctification  ot  saints,  but 
for  the  reformation  of  society  ;  and  as  a  reformatory  association,  she 
should  be  in  advance  of  the  world  in  all  reformatory  movements.  la 
the  temperance  reform  we  would  not  only  be  active,  but  until  the  object 
of  that  reform  is  accomplished,  would  use  all  the  means  in  our  power 
to  give  a  proper  direction  to  the  efforts  put  forth  by  others.  We  would 
not  close  our  eyes  to  the  fact  that  the  tide  of  intemperance,  now  flood- 
ing this  land,  is  truly  alarming,  calling  not  only  for  mourning  and  com- 
miseration, but  for  greater  activity  on  the  part  of  the  Church  to  stem 
that  torrent  that  the  appalling  amount  of  crime  and  misery,  consequent 
upon  the  use  of  intoxicating  drinks,  may  be  speedily  diminished,  and 
the  evil   wholly  removed. 

The  principles  involved  in  the  law  of  the  Church,  and  particularly 
set  forth  in  the  action  of  this  Synod  in  1841,  should  be  carried  out 
in  civil  legislation  so  as  to  forbid,  and  wholly  prevent,  the  traffic  in 
intoxicating  drinks  as  beverages.  Civil  government  is  intended,  among 
other  objects,  to  protect  the  people  against  the  wrongs  inflicted  by 
venders  of  ardent  spirits.  This  can  be  done  effectually  only  by  utterly 
prohibiting   the   traffic.     Therefore, 

Resolved,  i.  That  we  hail  with  joy  the  efforts  that  have  been  made 
recently  in  several  of  the  States,  to  suppress  entirely  the  traffic  in 
intoxicating  drinks,  and  we  earnestly  hope  that  the  work  may  go  on 
until  there  be  no  place  where  license  will  be  given,  or  the  protection 
of  law  afforded  to  that  traffic,  so  wicked  and  so  ruinous  in  Its 


Resolved,  2.  That  this  Synod  gives  its  hearty  approbation  to  the 
principles  involved  in  the  law  commonly  called  the  Maine  Liquor 
Law,  viz  ;  the  right  and  the  duty  of  civil  government  to  wholly  prohibit 
the  sale  of  intoxicating  drinks,  except  for  medicinal,  chemical,  mechani- 
cal,   and   sacramental   purposes. 

Resolved,  3.  That  in  the  temperance  reform  we  depend  wholly  upon 
the  Spirit  of  God  for  success,  and  regard  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ 
as   the   only   efficient   means   of  permanently   removing   the   evil. 

The  Synod  embodied  the  following  reformatory  senti- 
ment   in    its    proceedings    at    this    session  : 

There  are  two  great  evils  which  must  be  removed  from  the  world 
before  the  state  of  society  can  be  healthy  :  Popery,  which  directly 
enslaves  the  soul  and  indirectly  the  body  ;  Slavery,  which  directly 
enslaves  the  body  and  indirectly  the,  soul.  We  cannot,  consistently, 
claim  the  character  of  Reformers  if  we  do  not  untiringly  employ  the 
armour  of  light  on  the  right  and  left  against  these  great,  and  alas  ! 
yet  growing  evils  in  our  land.  We  may  incur  some  temporary  odium, 
and,  perhaps,  not  only  be  reproached,  but  persecuted  on  this  account ; 
but,  assuredly,  the  advocates  of  impartial  liberty  for  the  souls  and 
bodies  of  men  will  prevail,  and  their  memories  be  savory  if  they  die 
in  the  field  of  contest  ;  and  their  persons  will  be  honoured  if  they 
survive   the   strife. 

The  Synod  of  1855,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania.  The  reports  of  Presbyteries  revealed  the 
fact  that  there  had  been  great  emigration  to  the 
Western  States  and  Territories,  and  that  mission 
stations  were  springing  up  in  various  places,  demand- 
ing the  care  of  the  Mission  Board.  A  delegation  from 
the  New  School  body  invited  the  Synod  to  attend  a 
farewell  missionary  meeting  in  Pittsburg,  and  also  ex- 
pressed the  Christian  affection  and  respect  of  the  body 
they  represented.  The  Committee  preparing  a  "  Form 
of  Covenant,"  reported,  and  it  was  published  in  the 
appendix    to    the  minutes  of  Synod.     Arrangements  were 


made  to  renew  the  Covenants,  at  the  next  meeting 
of  Synod,  if  the  way  should  be  open.  The  organiza- 
tion of  a  Foreign  Mission  was  recommended,  as  well 
as    the    resuscitation    of   the    Theological    Seminary. 

The  Synod  of  1856,  met  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania.  The  Board  of  Foreign  Missions  selected 
Syria  as  the  field  of  operations,  and,  after  .several 
elections,  the  Rev.  Robert  J.  Dodds  and  Mr.  Joseph 
Beattie,  licentiate,  accepted  appointments  to  that  field. 
They    left    the    same    Fall    for    the    scene  of   their  labors. 

The  Theological  Seminary  was  reorganized.  and 
located  in  the  city  of  Allegheny,  Pennsylvania,  where 
it  has  since  remained.  Revs.  Drs.  James  Christie  and 
Thomas  Sproull  were  chosen  professors.  A  friendly  cor- 
respondence was  carried  on  with  the  Associate  Presby- 
terian Church  and  New  School  body,  but  nothing 
agreed    upon    as    a    basis    of    union. 

The  Synod  of  1857,  met  in  Northwood,  Ohio.  There 
was  a  large  delegation  and  much  interest  manifested 
in  all  the  proceedings.  The  vexed  question  of  "  the 
deacon  "  disturbed  some  parts  of  the  Church  for  many 
years,  and  the  following  paper,  after  being  amended, 
was    adopted,    and    is    as    follows  : 

Whereas,  Much  of  our  troubles  in  the  Church,  and  at  our  meetings 
of  Synod  for  some  years  past,  has  originated  in  the  attempts,  too  often 
successful,  to  form  congregations  on  the  principle  known  as  that  of 
"elective  affinity;"  as  also  in  the  formation  of  congregations  by  com- 
missions of  Synod,  and  not  by  Presbyteries  to  whom  the  business  of 
organizing  congregations  belongs  ;    therefore. 

Resolved,  I.  That  hereafter  no  congregation  shall  be  organized  by 
any  Presbytery  on  the  principle  of  elective  affinity,  to  evade  discipline, 
or  reconcile  parties  at  variance,  or   to   settle   difficulties   which    properly 


belong  to  the  discipline  of  the  Church,  or  upon  a  difl'erence  in  prin- 
ciple, or   the   meaning   of  the  Standards   of  the  Church. 

Resolved,  2.  Synod  shall  hereafter  leave  the  organization  of  con- 
gregations  to   the   Presbyteries   to   whom   it   belongs ;  and 

Whereas,  The  Form  of  Church  Government  recognizes  deacons 
as  ordained  officers  in  the  Church,  and  "requisite"  among  the  officers 
of  a  particular  congregation,  and  this  by  the  will  and  appointment  of 
the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  ;    and 

Whereas,  The  Form  of  Church  Government  defines  the  duty 
of  the  deacon  to  be  "  to  take  special  care  in  distributing  to  the 
necessities  of  the  poor,"  and  the  Testimony  declares  that  the  "deacons 
have   no   power   except   about   the   temporalities    of    the    Church  ;"    and 

Whereas,  This  office  has  not  yet  been  exemplified  in  all  our 
congregations  ;     therefore 

Resolved,  i.  That  Presbyteries  be  directed  to  exercise  due  care  and 
diligence  to  have  deacons  chosen  and  ordained  in  congregations  where 
they  are  still  wanting,  with  no  other  powers  than  those  defined  in 
the    Standards. 

Resohed,  2.  That  Presbyteries  be  enjoined  in  organizing  new  con- 
gregations,  to   see   to   it    that   deacons  be  chosen    and  ordained  in    them. 

Resolved,  3.  That  no  action  of  last  Synod  was  intended  to  rescind 
or  repeal  the  resolutions  of  1845  and  1847,  on  the  subject  of  the 
deacon's   office,    the   trustee   or  consistory,  nor  were  they  so  affected. 

An  elaborate  and  convincing  report  on  "Systematic 
Beneficence  and  a  Sustentation  Fund "  was  submitted 
and  its  claims  enforced.  The  reports  from  all  the 
Presbyteries  were  full,  satisfactory,  and  represented  the 
Church  to  be  ^in  a  generally  good  condition.  Another 
lengthy  report  was  submitted  on  the  subject  of  slavery, 
and  the  Church  resolved  to  plead  with  more  earnest- 
ness for  the  cause  of  the  oppressed,  and  work  more 
diligently  for  the  emancipation  of  the  slave.  Large 
contributions  and  bequests  were  made  to  the  support 
of  the  Theological  Seminary,  and  a  plan  of  endow- 
ment was  submitted.  The  Foreign  and  Domestic 
Mission    Boards    reported    affairs     to     be     in     an    encour- 


aging  condition,  and  the  Church  was  generally  support- 
ing these  departments  of  her  work.  The  Synod  was  not 
yet    ready  to   enter    into    the    work    of    Covenanting. 

During  the  year  1858,  a  conference  of  two  Com- 
mittees from  the  Synod  and  the  General  Synod  of  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Churches,  met  in  the  city  of 
Allegheny,  Pennsylvania,  to  confer  on  the  subject  of 
union.  There  were  present  of  the  Synod,  Revs. 
Thomas  Sproull,  J.  B.  John.ston  and  J.  M.  Willson. 
Of  the  General  Synod,  Revs.  Hugh  McMillan,  A.  W. 
Black,  William  Wilson  and  J.  N.  McLeod.  Dr.  Sproull 
was  chosen  Chairman,  and  Dr.  McLeod,  Secretary. 
After  much  discussion  and  the  reading  of  letters  which 
had  passed  between  the  Committees  and  the  Synods, 
and  after  holding  several  sessions,  the  delegates  finally 
submitted  the  grounds  upon  which  a  union  could  be 
effected.  Rev.  J.  B.  Johnston  submitted  the  following, 
in  behalf  of  the  Synod,  as  the  only  ground  •  upon 
which    a    reunion    could    be    effected : 

The  Committee  present  the  brethren,  the  Committee  of  the  other 
Synod,  the  following  theses,  as  embracing  for  substance  the  ground  on 
which  we  understand  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  stood  in 
regard  io  civil  relations  anterior  to  1833,  and  as  the  only  ground  on 
which  we  can  give  any  encouragement  to  our  brethren  to  expect  that 
a    re-union   of   the   two  Synods   can   be   effected. 

1.  That  we  dissent  from  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States, 
because    of   its    immoralities. 

2.  That  this  dissent  from  the  Constitution  requires  to  abstain  from 
the  oath  of  allegiance,  and  from  oaths  of  ofifice  binding  to  support 
the    Constitution. 

3.  That  it  prohibits  voting  for  officers  who  must  be  qualified  by 
an    oath    to  support    the    Constitution. 

4.  That  it  prohibits  sitting  on  juries,  as  e.xplained  by  our  Testi- 
mony,   understanding    that    such    juries    do    not    include   various    other 


juries,  where  there  is  neither  an  incorporation  with  the  government, 
an  oath  to  an  immoral  law,  nor  any  implied  engagement  to  support 
1he  Constitution. 

Rev.  Andrew  W.  Black  then  read  the  following 
statement  on  behalf  of  the  General  Synod,  in  reply  to 
the    these.s    already    presented : 

1.  The  ground  occupied  by  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in 
reference  to  the  civil  institutions  of  the  United  States,  State  and 
Federal,  prior  to  the  disruption,  is  as  expressed  in  her  own  language 
in  1821,  "That  no  connection  with  the  laws,  officers,  or  the  order  of 
the  State,  is  forbidden  by  the  Church,  except  what  truly  involves 

2.  That  in  the  application  of  the  above  principles,  we  regard  our- 
selves as  dissenters  from  immorally  constituted  civil  establishments  ; 
that  is  to  say,  whenever  the  recognition  of  an  immoral  law  is  made  , 
essential  to  the  action  of  the  juror ;  or  to  the  exercise  of  the  elective 
franchise  ;  or  to  holding  civil  oflfice  ;  or  to  the  discharge  of  any  other 
>civil  duty.  Reformed  Presbyterians  must  abstain  from  all  such  acts,  as 
involving  immorality. 

3.  That  the  moral  character  of  the  Federal  Constitution  of  the 
United  States,  being  a  matter  of  opinion,  and  undecided  by  any  com- 
petent authority,  the  recognition  or  non-recognition  of  it  should  not  be 
jnade  a  term  of  ecclesiastical  communion. 

4.  We  therefore  recommend,  that  as  the  two  churches  are  united  in 
their  views  of  the  great  principles  of  civil  government,  and  in  the  belief 
and  declaration  of  the  fact  that  no  communion  should  be  held  with  im- 
morality, the  ground  of  the  re-union  should  be  the  exercise  of  forbear- 
ance in  regard  to  those  special  governmental  questions  by  which  they 
are  now  divided.  It  is  the  belief  of  this  Committee  that  the  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Church  was  divided,  not  by  difference  of  religious  princi- 
ples, but  by  other  causes,  as  is  shown  in  the  letter,  to  which  a  reply  is 

5.  Should  the  brethren  of  the  other  Committee  and  the  Synod  not 
agree  to  these  grounds  of  re-union,  we  recommend  to  the  ministers  and 
members  of  these  Churches  to  treat  each  other  with  Christian  courtesy 
and  respect,  and  to  co-operate  as  far  as  possible  on  the  large  common 
ground  they  occupy  as  Reformed  Presbyterians. 


A  rc-union  of  these  bodies  has  never  been  effected 
for  the  reason  that  the  one  party  is  not  willing 
to  come  back  to  the  high  position  from  which  it 
departed  in  1833,  and  the  other  is  not  prepared  to 
abandon    the    historic    and  true    position    of    the    Church. 

The  Synod  of  1859,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania.  A  communication  from  the  General 
Assembly  of  the  United  Presbyterian  Church  was 
received,  with  a  basis  of  union.  The  following  is  the 
reply  : 

Dear  Brethren — Your  letter  containing  a  resolution  of  your  Reverend 
Body,  and  inclosing  a  copy  of  the  Basis  of  Union  of  the  United  Pres- 
byterian Church,  was  received  during  the  session  of  our  Synod. 

Your  kind  and  fraternal  greeting  we  most  heartily  reciprocate,  and 
unite  with  you  in  the  prayer  that  "  the  great  King  and  Head  of  the 
Church  will  direct  the  way  by  which  the  friends  of  Zion  and  of  the 
truth  shall  be  led  to  see  eye  to  eye."  We  have  His  sure  promise 
that    He   will   accomplish    this   in   his   own    time. 

The  steps  by  which  you  have  arrived  at  your  present  position  we 
have  watched  with  attention  and  interest.  It  gives  us  joy  to  find  in 
your  Basis  of  Union  the  statement  and  assertion  of  some  of  the 
principles  for  which  we  have  long  contended.  The  supreme  dominion 
of  Messiah  as  Lord  of  all — Prince  of  the  Kings  of  the  earth — occupies 
a  place  in  your  Testimony,  and  our  hearts  rejoice  on  this  account. 
It  is  the  application  of  this  and  kindred  principles  to  the  civil  insti- 
tutions of  the  country  that  has  placed  us  in  the  position  of  dis- 
senters from  a  government  that  ignores  the  claims  of  our  Prince.  In  our 
view  it  is  only  by  maintaining  this  position  that  we  can  consistently 
carry  out  our  principles,  and  succeed  in  bringing  our  land  into  sub- 
jection to  its  Lord  and  King.  Our  present  standing  has  been  delib- 
erately taken,  and  in  the  strength  of  Divine  grace  we  purpose  to- 
hold  on  till  the  great  end — the  enthronement  of  Messiah — shall  be 

In  order  to  bring  up  the  Testimony  of  the  Church 
to  prevaling  evils,  the  following  preambles  and  resolu- 
tion   were    adopted  : 


Whereas,  Secret  Associations  and  Slavery  are  present  evils  of 
enormous  magnitude,  and  are  rapidly  extending  their  power  and  perni- 
cious influence  in  this  land  ;  and 

Whereas,  In  our  present  Testimony,  there  is  no  direct  and  explicit 
utterance  against  these  sins  proportionate  to  their  prevalence  and 
heinous  character  ;  and 

Whereas,  There  is  a  demand  for  a  new  edition  ;    therefore, 

Resolved,  That  Synod  proceed  to  take,  at  once,  the  requisite  steps  for 
adding  a  section  on  Secret  Societies,  and  a  chapter  on  the  subject  of 

The  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  has  always  been 
consistent  with  her  position  and  held  that  human 
slavery  is  a  sin  against  God  and  men.  In  the  fearless 
advocacy  of  the  cause  of  the  oppressed,  the  ministers 
of  this  Church  have  been  mobbed,  stoned,  egged  and 
burned  in  ef^gy.  All  manner  of  reproachful  epithets 
have  been  pronounced  upon  them.  Notwithstanding 
the  unpopularity  of  the  cause,  they  proclaimed  fear- 
lessly the  sin  of  the  nation  and  the  outrage  committed 
upon  humanity  until  God  heard  the  cry  of  the  op- 
pressed  and    sent    them   deliverance. 

A  vacancy  being  created  in  the  corps  of  professors 
in  the  Theological  Seminary,  the  Rev.  James  M. 
Willson  was  chosen  a  professor.  Geneva  Hall  was 
taken  under  the  care  of  Synod  and  left  under  its 
present  management.  The  reports  from  the  Foreign 
and  Domestic  Missions  pronounced  both  these  depart- 
ments in  a  flourishing  condition.  The  following  memorial 
was  prepared,  generally  signed  throughout  the  Church, 
and    transmitted  : 

To  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the  United  States: 

The  memorial  of  the  Synod  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church, 
now    in  session  in  Allegheny,    Pennsylvania,  showeth — That,    desirous    to 


promote  the  best  interests  of  the  country,  and  knowing  that  "  the  Most 
High  ruleth  in  the  kingdom  of  men  ;"  that  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  is 
"  Prince  of  the  kings  of  the  earth  "  and  "  Governor  among  the  nations  ;" 
and  that  the  law  of  God  is  the  "  law  ;"  knowing,  also,  that  nations  and 
rulers  should  acknowledge  God  and  submit  to  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
obeying  God's  commands,  your  memorialists  are  also  convinced  that  this 
nation  does  not  thus  submit  itself  to  God  in  its  Constitution,  and  exposes 
itself  to  the  denunciations  of  God's  wrath — "'  the  nations  that  forget 
God  shall  be  turned  into  hell " — We,  therefore,  pray  you  to  take 
measures  for  the  amendment  of  the  Constitution,  so  that  it  may  contain, 

1.  An  express  acknowledgment  of  the  being   and    authority    of   God. 

2.  An  acknowledgment  of  submission  to  the  auth&rity  of  Christ. 

3.  That  it  should  recognize  the  paramount  obligation  of  God's  law, 
contained   in    the   Scriptures   of   the   Old   and    New   Testaments. 

4.  That  it  may  be  rendered,  in  all  its  principles  and  provisions, 
clearly  and  unmistakably  adverse  to  the  existence  of  any  form  of 
slavery   within    the   national    limits. 

The  Synod  of  1861,  met  in  the  city  of  New  York. 
The  dark  political  horizon  indicated  a  speedy  clash  of 
.arms,  and  the  war  of  the  rebellion  broke  out.  The 
position  and  duty  of  the  Church  in  the  present  crisis 
were  presented    in    the    following    report : 

That  in  view  of  the  calamities  brought  upon  this  land  by  the 
iniquitous  war  now  raging,  in  the  interest  of  slavery,  against  the  United 
States,  Synod  feels  called  upon  to  present,  for  the  information  of  all 
whom  it   may  concern,  a  brief  outline  of  our  position  as  a  Church  ;  and 

1.  We  heartily  acknowledge  the  numerous  excellencies  of  the  civil 
institutions  of  this  land ;  we  appreciate  its  code  of  laws,  as,  in 
general,  wholesome  and  just  ;  we  prize  the  privileges  and  protection 
we  here  enjoy  in  our  personal  pursuits  and  rights,  and  take  a 
•deep  interest  in  this  land  of  our  birth  or  adoption,  endeared  to  us 
as  the  early  refuge  of  the  friends  of  civil  and  religious  liberty,  as 
the  scene  of  a  noble  conflict  for  national  freedom  and  independence, 
as   our   home   and   that   of  our   children. 

2.  Notwithstanding  all  this,  we  are  constrained,  in  conscience,  to 
maintain,  as  we  and  our  fathers  have  heretofore  done,  a  state  of 
dissent   from   the  Constitution   of  the    United  States,    inasmuch  as   there 


■is  in  this  instrument  no  acknowledgment  of  the  name  of  God,  Most 
High  and  Eternal  ;  no  recognition  of  the  supremacy  of  His  law  con- 
tained in  the  Scriptures  of  the  Old  and  New  Testaments ;  no  pro- 
fession of  subjection  to  the  Mediatorial  authority  of  the  Son  of 
God,  who  is  "  King  of  kings  and  Lord  of  lords  : "  while  on  the  other 
hand,  this  Constitution  contains  certain  "compromises"  in  the  interest 
of  slavery  and  slaveholders.  On  these  grounds  we  are  compelled  to 
withhold  from  said  Constitution  our  oath  in  its  support,  and  thus  to 
deny  ourselves  certain  privileges  which  we  would  gladly  enjoy  could 
we   do   so   with   good  conscience   toward   God.     But 

3.  That  our  position  may  be  fully  and  definitely  understood,  we 

(i.)  That  we  disclaim  allegiance  to  the  government  of  any  foreign 

(2.)  That  we  "consider  ourselves  under  obligations  to  live  peace- 
ably with  all  men,  to  advanca  the  good  of  society,  and  to  conform 
to    its    order    in    everything   consistent    with    righteousness." 

(3.)  That  we  disown  all  sympathy,  even  the  least,  with  the  traitors 
styling  themselves  "the  Confederate  States,"  now  in  arms  against 
these   United    States. 

(4.)  That  we  will,  as  true  patriots,  defend  this,  our  common 
.country,    against   these   and   all    like   enemies. 

The  Synod  re-affirmed  its  position  on  the  jury  question, 
and  exhorted  the  members  to  firmness  and  confidence 
in    this    respect. 

The  Synod  of  1862,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania.  The  Domestic  Mission  Board  established 
Mission  Schools  among  the  freedmen  in  several  localities 
in  the  South,  and  several  missionaries  were  sent  out  to 
Port  Royal,  South  Carolina,  and  other  vicinities  where 
the  way  was  open  for  mission  work.  The  Theological 
Seminary  received  the  attention  of  Synod,  and  the 
professors  reported  a  good  attendance  of  students  and 
an    addition    to    the    library. 

The    Synod     of     1863,     met     in     Sharon,     Iowa.       The 


Domestic  Mission  Board  reported  the  establishment  of 
mission  schools  in  South  Carolina,  Florida,  Mississippi 
and  Arkansas,  and  missionaries  and  teachers  had  been 
sent  to  these  respective  fields.  The  Foreign  Mission 
and  Theological  Seminary  were  in  a  flourishing  con- 
dition and  received  the  generous  contributions  of  the 
Church.  The  Synod  appointed  a  Committee  to  go 
to  Washington  and  confer  with  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  and  heads  of  departments,  in  reference 
to  the  duty  of  the  nation  to  submit  to  King  Jesus. 
Presbyteries  were  directed  to  minister  to  the  sick  and 
wounded  soldiers  in  the  military  hospitals  within  their 
bounds.  Some  objection  being  brought  against  the 
army  oath,  a  Committee  framed  the  following  oath 
and  sought  the  proper  authorities  for  the  sanction  of 
the  same,  when  members  of  the  Church  entered  the 
army:  "  I  do  swear  by  the  living  God,  that  I  wnll  be 
faithful  to  the  United  States,  and  will  aid  and  defend 
them  against  the  armies  of  the  Confederate  States, 
yielding  all  due  obedience  to  military  orders."  This 
oath  neither  encouraged  members  unduly  to  enter  the 
conflict,  nor  pledged  them  to  support  an  immoral  Con- 
stitution. Covenanters  regarded  the  government  justi- 
fiable in  the  war  so  far  as  it  was  waged  to  maintain 
the  integrity  of  the  country  and  to  overthrow  the  ini-^ 
quitous  system  of  human  slavery.  Taking  this  position 
the  members  of  the  Church  generously  supported  the 
cause  of  the  Union  with  their  substance  and  their 
lives.  There  was  not  a  rebel  within  the  pale  of  this 
Church.  They  believed  that  the  Southren  Confederacy 
was    a    conspiracy    against    God    and  humanity,    and  that 


Tier  members  were  doing  God's  service  when  they 
•enlisted  to  break  it  up.  While  recognizing  this  fact 
they  still  claimed  that  the  secession  from  a  human 
government  was  not  to  be  compared  to  rebellion 
against  the  divine  government,  and  they  would  em- 
brace every  opportunity  to  teach  the  nation  this  truth 
and  insist  upon  the  recognition  of  the  same.  There 
was  no  sin  or  inconsistency  in  aiding  the  government 
in  a  lawful  and  righteous  work,  and  while  Covenanters 
heroicly  defended  their  homes  and  their  country  by 
suppressing  their  enemies,  they  in  no  sense  became 
responsible  for  the  immoralities  of  the  government 
although  some  wicked  men  were  the  brave  leaders  in 
the    conflict. 

In  February,  1863,  a  number  of  ministers  and 
members  of  several  Christian  denominations  met  in 
Xenia,  Ohio,  for  the  purpose  of  discussing  the  subject 
of  amending  the  National  Constitution.  At  a  subse- 
quent meeting  in  the  city  of  Allegheny,  Pennsylvania* 
circulars  were  addressed  to  the  supreme  judicatories  of 
several  Christian  denominations  to  appoint  delegates  to 
a  convention  in  July,  1863,  but  to  these  invitations  no 
bodies  responded  but  the  two  Synods  of  the  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Church.  This  was  the  origin  of  the  present 
National  Reform  Association,  and  the  Reformed  Presby- 
terian Church  has  ever  since  been  the  chief  supporter  of 
the  movement.  Mr.  John  Alexander  of  Philadelphia,  is, 
in  many  respects,  the  father  of  the  Association,  and  has 
been  the  chief  supporter  of  it  in  the  way  of  personal 
contributions.  Not  a  single  religious  paper  in  the 
country  had  a    word    of    cheer    to    offer,    and     when    the 


Christian  Statesman  was  founded  for  the  propogation  of 
the  principles  of  the  Association,  some  sneered  at  the 
project  and  others  passed  it  by  in  silence.  What  a 
wonderful  change  in  sentiment  in  twenty-five  years  ! 
The  most  able  ministers  and  jurists  of  the  country  are 
now  wheeled  into  line  with  its  glorious  principles,  and 
soon  the  cause  which  it  advocates  will  finally  triumph. 
The  good  which  this  Association  has  done  in  the  last 
quarter  of  a  century  is  incalculable,  and  at  the  present 
time  lecturers  are  in  the  field  from  different  denomina- 

The  Synod  of  1864,  met  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 
Among    the    first    resolutions    was    this  : 

Resolved,  That  this  Synod  recommend  to  the  members  of  the  Church 
entire  abstinence  from  the  use  of  tobacco. 

The  Committee  previously  appointed  to  wait  upon' 
the  President  of  the  United  States,  made  the  following 
report  : 

The  Committee  appointed  to  confer  with  the  President  and  heads  of 
Departments  touching  the  duty  of  the  nation  to  recognize  God  and  the 
claims  of  His  Word,  have  attended  to  the  duty  imposed  upon  them. 
About  the  beginning  of  February  we  visited  Washington,  and  had  a 
pleasant  and  satisfactory  interview  with  the  President.  We  proffered 
and  read  in  his  hearing  an  address  expressing  the  well-known  views  of 
our  Church  in  regard  to  the  duty  of  nations,  and  of  the  duty  of  this 
nation  in  particular,  in  the  present  exigency.  A  copy  of  the  address  is 
herewith  submitted.  The  Committee  also  prepared,  and  caused  to  be 
laid  before  the  National  Congress,  a  memorial  craving  such  changes  in 
and  amendments  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  as  are  set 
forth  in  the  address. 

The  Committee  took  no  steps  toward  securing  an  acceptance  by  the 
proper  Department  of  the  form  of  oath  prepared  by  Synod.  In  view  of 
the  circumstances  of  the  case,  it  was  deemed  unnecessary  to  do  so. 
The    Committee    understand    that    the    prescribed    form     of    oath      was^ 


specially  intended  to  meet  the  case  of  those  who  might  be  drafted  under 
the  new  conscription  law  of  the  United  States.  It  was  ascertained  that 
under  this  law  no  oath  of  any  kind  was  required  of  the  soldier,  and 
also  that  in  the  case  of  those  who  had  felt  it  to  be  their  duty  to  offer 
their  services  to  the  nation  in  special  emergencies,  they  had  been  ac- 
cepted without  any  oath.  Under  these  circumstances  no  end  was  to  be 
gained  by  pursuing  the  matter  any  further. 

The  Synod  of  1865,  met  in  Utica,  Ohio.  Resolu- 
tions on  slavery,  and  Committees  to  present  the  same 
to  the  President,  were  passed.  Geneva  Hall  was  revived 
for  the  education  of  colored  persons  as  well  as  all 
others.  The  Mission  Boards  reported  great  encourage- 
ment and  large  results  from  the  efforts  put  forth  at 
home  and  abroad.  The  Theological  Seminary  was  not 
as  fully  attended  as  usual  owing  to  the  disturbed  state  of 
the  country.  As  the  rebellion  was  now  put  down  the 
Synod    adopted    the    following    resolutions : 

Resolved,  ist.  That  this  Synod  congratulate  the  country  upon  the 
utter  overthrow  of  the  slaveholders'  rebellion,  which  has  for  the  past 
four  years  filled  the  land  with  mourning  and  aimed  at  the  destruction 
of  the   nation. 

Resolved,  2d.  That  we  recognize  in  the  death  of  President  Lincoln 
by  the  hand  of  an  assassin,  a  severe  chastisement  from  Almighty 
God,  and  the  legitimate  fruits  of  that  system  of  wrong  and  blood- 
shed  which    inspired   and   animated   the    Southern   conspiracy. 

Resolved,  3d.  That  inasmuch  as  it  is  a  principle  of  the  divine 
government  that  "  he  that  justifieth  the  wicked,  and  he  that  condemneth 
the  just,  even  they  both  are  an  abomination  to  the  Lord ; "  it  is 
our  calm  and  deliberate  judgment,  that  it  is  the  duty  of  the  govern- 
ment, to  inflict  the  penalty  of  death  upon  the  leaders  of  the  late 

Resolved,  4th.  That  we  recognize  in  the  late  war  a  signal  mani- 
festation of  the  divine  wrath  against  the  sins  of  the  nation,  especially 
the   rejection   of  the  authority   of   Messiah   and   oppression   of   man. 

Resolved,  5th.  That  we  heartily  rejoice  in  every  step  which  has 
been    taken    for    the    destruction    of  slavery,  and   urge   the   carrying   for- 

132  HISTORY    <3F   THE    REFORMED 

ward  of    the  work,    until    every    man    in    the    nation,    without    regard    to 
color,  stands  upon  a  perfect  equality  before  the  laws. 

Resolved,  6th.  That  we  again  call  upon  the  nation  to  abandon  its 
rebellion  against  God,  acknowledge  His  name,  submit  to  His  authority, 
and  recognize  the  mediatorial  claims  of  His  Son. 

The  Synod  of  1866,  met  in  the  city  of  Rochester, 
New  York.  Rev.  R.  J.  Dodds.  missionary  from  Syria, 
was  present  and  addressed  the  court  and  presided  over 
the  deliberations.  The  question  of  voting  for  proper 
.amendments  to  State  Constitutions  came  up,  and 
received  the    following    answer : 

That  while  there  may  be  instances  in  which  it  would  not  be  wrong 
to  do  so,  yet  as  there  are  other  ways  by  which  countenance  and  approba- 
tion may  be  given  to  what  is  proper,  as  by  petition,  and  by  public  and 
private  expression,  Synod  does  not  recommend  such  a  course. 

Strong  resolutions  were  passed  against  the  use  or 
sale  of  intoxicants,  and  Synod  gave  its  promise  to  aid 
the  cause  of  temperance  in  every  way.  Cheering  reports 
were  received  from  the  Southern  and  Foreign  Missions, 
and  the  work  of  evangelization  and  reformation  was 
liopefully     progressing     in    all    the    Church's   departments. 

The  Synod  of  1867,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania.  A  plan  for  the  endowment  of  the 
Theological  Seminary  was  set  before  the  Church.  A 
weekly  paper  was  established  for  the  dissemination  of 
the  principles  of  the  National  Reform  Association. 
Rev.  Samuel  O.  Wylie  was  chosen  professor  of  Theology 
to  fill  the  vacancy  occasioned  by  the  death  of  Rev. 
Dr.  James  M.  Willson.  To  an  inquiry  whether  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Church  living  in  Canada  may  hold  office 
in  a  case  where  no  oath  is  required,  the  following 
.answer   was    given  : 


The  principle  involved  in  this  question  is  not  local  but  general  in  its 
application.  The  position  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in 
regard  to  accepting  office,  the  committee  understand  to  be,  not  that  it  is 
sinful  in  itself  and  wrong  in  all  cases,  but  that  it  may  become  sinful 
either  by  the  imposition  of  an  immoral  oath  or  by  involving  an  obliga- 
tion to  perform  a  sinful  service.  When  either  of  these  conditions  exists, 
-the  law  and  practice  of  the  church  forbid  the  holding  of  office. 

Rev.  Joseph  McCracken  was  chosen  President  of 
Geneva  Hall  and  Seminary,  at  Northwood,  Ohio.  The 
education  of  colored  persons  at  this  institution  promised 
to  be  a  success,  and  the  Church  was  deeply  interested 
in  this  work  of  elevating  the  condition  of  the  sable 

The  Synod  of  1868,  met  at  Northwood,  Ohio.  The 
Theological  Seminary  and  Geneva  Hall  received  special 
attention.  Rev.  Samuel  O.  Wylie  having  declined  the 
professorate  in  the  former  institution,  the  Rev.  J.  R. 
W.  Sloane  was  chosen  to  the  position.  Arrangements 
Avere  made  for  Covenanting  in  the  near  future.  Synod 
re-affirmed  its  position  on  the  jury  question  and  in- 
temperance, viz  :  that  members  are  prohibited  from 
sitting  on  juries,  and  that  they  are  to  cease  touching 
intoxicants  in  any  way.  The  law  of  the  Church  was 
declared  to  be  positively  prohibitory  in  these  respects. 
Rev.  Joseph  McCracken  having  resigned  the  Presidency 
of  Geneva  Hall,  Mr.  S.  J.  Crowe,  student  of  theology, 
had  been  appointed  by  the  Board  as  Principal,  and 
conducted  the  school  several  years  in  a  most  efficient 

The  following  deliverance  of  Synod  upon  the  voting 
for    amendments    was  given : 

The  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  has  deliberately  taken  the 
position   of  dissent  from   the  civil  institutions  of  the  United   States,  not 


on  the  ground  that  participation  in  all  the  functions  and  operations 
of  government  is  sinful  in  itself,  but  on  account  of  the  immoral  char- 
acter of  the  Constitutions  and  laws  under  which  the  citizen  must  act. 
Hence  the  Church  has  applied  this  principle  by  prohibiting  her 
members  from  holding  office   and   voting   at   civil   elections. 

The  inquiry  now  demanding  an  answer  is,  Does  voting  for  an 
amendment  of  State  Constitutions  involve,  as  in  the  other  cases  already 
determined  by  the  Church,  any  thing  sinful  or  inconsistent  with  the 
principle  and  practice  of  the  Church  ?  Synod  answers  unequivocally, 
that  it  does.  Inasmuch  as  voting  for  this  object  or  any  other,  in- 
volves incorporation  with  the  national  society  and  imperils  our  dissent 
from  it.  Is.  8:12,  "Say  ye  not,  A  confederacy,  to  all  them  to  whom 
this  people  shall  say,  A  confederacy."  It  exposes  the  members  of  the 
Church  to  temptation,  i  Cor.  8:12,  "But  when  ye  sin  so  against  the 
brethren  and  wound  their  weak  conscience,  ye  sin  against  Christ."  It 
encourages  other  Christians  to  continue  their  sinful  connection  with 
an  ungodly  nation,  and  renders  nugatory  the  discipline  of  the  Church. 
On  these,  and  other  grounds.  Synod  is  resolved  to  abide  by  the  dis- 
tinctive principles  of  the  Church,  and  to  apply  the  law  of  her  exalted 
Head.  "Abstain  from  all  appearance  of  evil."  i  Thess.  5:22.  "  Lo 
the  people  shall  dwell  alone,  and  shall  not  be  reckoned  among  the 
nations."  Numb.  23:9.  And  ere  long  "the  kingdom  and  dominion  and 
the  greatness  of  the  kingdom  under  the  whole  heaven,  shall  be 
given    to    the    people  of  the  saints  of  the  Most  High."     Dan.  7:27. 

To  the  two  inquiries :  ist.  In  a  State  where  there  is  no  objection 
to  the  school  law,  except  that  it  requires  of  all  officers  an  oath  of 
allegiance  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  as  well  as  an 
oath  to  discharge  the  duties  of  their  office,  can  members  of  the 
Church  hold  the  office  of  school  director,  if  they  are  only  required  to 
take  an  oath  to  discharge  the  duties  of  the  office,  provided  they  let 
it  be  known  that  they  will  not  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  prescribed 
by  law  ?  2d.  Can  members  of  the  Church  vote  for  an  individual  for 
school  director  who  will  take  the  oath  of  office  with  the  above  limita- 
tions and  explanations  ?  In  accordance  with  the  principles  stated  in 
the   foregoing   case,    Synod   answers,    No. 

The  Synod  of  1869,  met  in  the  city  of  Newburgh, 
New  York.  A  most  stirring  and  hopeful  report  was 
given    of    the    cause    of    National    Reform.      The    educa- 


tional  and  Missionary  Departments  of  the  work  of  the 
Church  were  in  a  most  healthy  condition,  and  several 
new  organizations  of  congregations  and  settlements  of 
ministers  were  reported.  The  following  resolutions  on 
Secrecy    were    unanimously    adopted  : 

Resolved,  That  this  Synod  views  with  deep  concern  the  reviving 
growth   and   influence   of  the    Secret   Orders   in    the   United    States. 

Resolved,  That  we  condemn  these  associations,  because  their  effect 
is  to  establish  spurious  and  artificial  social  relations  among  men  and 
a  new  code  of  duties  founded  upon  these  relations ;  because  the 
secrecy  they  practice  and  enjoin  is  inconsistent  with  the  candor  be- 
coming the  Christian  character  ;  and  because  they  virtually  assume  to 
establish  a  religion  distinct  from  the  religion  of  Jesus,  and  therefore 
false.  On  these  grounds  we  renew  our  traditional  testimony  that  those 
who  enter  these   associations   are   unworthy   of  ecclesiastical    fellowship. 

Resolved,  That  we  welcome  with  great  satisfaction  the  rise  of  an 
earnest  and  wide-spread  opposition  to  the  Secret  Orders,  and  we  trust 
it  shall  increase  and  prevail  till  society  be  delivered  from  the  dangers 
and   purified   from  the   corruptions   which    they   occasion. 

The  Synod  of  1870,  met  in  the  city  of  New  York. 
The  Church  was  encouraged  to  organize  Sabbath 
Schools  in  all  the  congregations,  but  not  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  supplant  parental  training  or  home  in- 
struction. The  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  has 
always  excluded  members  of  oath-bound  secret  societies 
from  her  Communion,  the  reasons  for  which  action 
are  embodied  in  the  following  timely  report  on  the 
subject  : 

Whereas,  Secret  Orders  are  institutions  avowedly  setting  before 
themselves  ends  of  no  mere  temporary  character,  but  permanent  as 
those  of  the  Church   and   State  ;    and 

Whereas,  Their  boasted  efforts  of  friendship  and  beneficence  are 
designed  not  for  the  benefit  of  all  men,  nor  for  the  aid  of  society  and 
the  Church  in  their  work,  but  for  the  advancement  of  the  orders 
themselves   as  rivals   of  the  Church  and  State  ;    and 


Whereas,  The  social  relations  formed  by  membership  in  these 
orders  must  therefore  be  artificial  and  false,  and  the  performance  of 
the  duties  imposed  by  their  obligations  an  injustice  to  all  outside,  in- 
cluding the   families   of  members ;    and 

Whereas,  Secrecy,  which  is  an  essential  feature  of  these  orders, 
however  justifiable  in  exceptional  circumstances,  is  in  all  ordinary  cases 
needless,  opposed  to  candor,  unworthy  of  a  benevolent  enterprise,  and 
unscriptural  ;  and 

Whereas,  These  orders  become  to  many  of  the  members  a  church 
and  their  ritual  and  services  virtually  a  religion,  and  thus  not  only  tend, 
as  proved  by  fact,  to  keep  men  from  uniting  with  the  Church,  but  also 
induce  professing  Christians  to  abandon  her  ;  and 

Whereas,  In  many  of  these  orders  the  members  are  bound  together 
by  oaths,  horrible  in  themselves,  and  administered  by  no  civil  or  eccle- 
siastical authority,  and  may  thus  become  ready  instruments  in  the  hands 
of  designing  leaders  for  the  overthrow  of  our  civil  and  religious  liberties ; 

Resokh'd,  i.  That  we  emphatically  condemn  all  these  orders  as  wrong 
in  principle  and  necessarily  injurious  in  their  operation. 

2.  That  it  is  as  much  the  duty  of  the  Church  to  prohibit  the  connec- 
tion of  her  members  with  these  orders  as  to  forbid  their  participation 
in    a  system    of  rebellion  or  oppression. 

3.  That  in  view  of  the  advocacy  of  Secret  Orders  by  influential 
papers,  and  even  by  respected  Christian  men  and  ministers,  we  pledge 
ourselves  to  labor  for  the  thorough  agitation  of  the  subject,  believ- 
ing that  a  clearer  understanding  of  their  character  and  influences  will 
lead    to    the    withdrawal    of   their    most    effective    support. 

There  was  a  general  and  earnest  desire  upon  the 
part  of  the  Church  to  now  go  forward  with  the  act 
of  Covenanting,  and  definite  arrangements  were  made 
to  enter  upon  this  important  work  at  the  next 

The  Synod  of  1871,  met  in  the  city  of  Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania.  It  is  the  most  notable  meeting  because 
during  its  sessions  the  Synod  entered  into  the  solemn 
act    of    Covenanting.       The     "bond"     of    the     Covenant 


and  the  "Confession  of  Sins"  had  been  overtured  by 
the  Church.  This  important  event  in  the  history  of 
the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  America  took 
place  in  the  Pittsburgh  Church,  May  27,  1871,  after  a 
sermon  on  "Covenanting"  by  Rev.  Andrew  Stevenson^ 
D.  D.  Rev.  James  M.  Beattie  then  read  the  Covenant,. 
Rev.  J.  R.  W.  Sloane,  D.  D.,  addressed  the  Synod  on 
"The  Spirit  in  which  we  should  Covenant,"  and  Rev, 
Thomas  Sproull,  D.  D.,  offered  prayer.  After  a  few 
moments  of  silent  prayer,  the  Covenant-oath  was 
taken  by  the  members  of  Synod  and  others  who 
joined  them.  The  Covenant  was  then  again  read  by 
Rev.  Thomas  Sproull,  D.  D.,  and  at  the  close  of  each 
section  all  responded  "Amen."  At  the  close  of  the 
last  section  all  repeated  in  concert  Exodus  24 :  7, 
"All  that  the  Lord  hath  said  will  we  .do,  and  be 
obedient."  The  Covenant  was  then  subscribed  by 
seventy-four  ministers,  seventy  elders,  and  by  five 
licentiates,  four  students  of  theology,  and  nineteen 
elders  not  members  of  the  Synod  at  that  session. 
After  the  bond  was  signed,  the  Rev.  William  Milroy 
delivered  an  address  on  "Covenant-keeping,"  and  the 
service    closed    by    singing    Psalm  72:    17-19. 

As  the  proceedings  of  this  memorable  occasion  have 
been  preserved  to  the  Church  in  the  "Memorial 
Volume,"  it  is  thought  proper  to  insert  nothing  in  this 
volume  but  the  Covenant  itself,  in  order  that  this 
sacred    bond    may    meet    the    eye    of    the    casual    reader. 


"We,  Ministers.  Elders,  Deacons,  and  Members  of  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  North  America, 


with  our  hands  lifted  up,  do  jointly  and  severally  swear 
by  the  Great  and  Dreadful  Name  of  the  LORD  OUR 

I.  "That  coming  into  the  presence  of  the  Lord  God 
with  a  deep  conviction  of  His  awful  majesty  and 
glory,  of  His  omniscience,  His  purity.  His  justice  and 
His  grace  ;  of  our  guilt  and  total  depravity  by  nature, 
and  our  utter  inability  to  save  ourselves  from  deserved 
condemnation  to  everlasting  punishment  ;  with  renuncia- 
tion of  all  dependence  on  our  own  righteousness  as 
the  ground  of  pardon  and  acceptance  with  God, 
we  receive  for  ourselves  and  for  our  children  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  as  He  is  offered  in  the  Gospel,  to  be 
our  Saviour — the  Holy  Spirit  to  be  our  Enlightener, 
Sanctifier  and  Guide — and  God,  the  Father,  to  be  our 
everlasting  portion  ;  we  approve  and  accept  of  the 
Covenant  of  Grace  as  all  our  salvation  and  desire, 
and  take  the  moral  law  as  dispensed  by  the  Mediator, 
Christ,  to  be  the  rule  of  our  life,  and  to  be  obeyed 
by  us  in  all  its  precepts  and  prohibitions.  Aiming 
to  live  for  the  glory  of  God  as  our  chief  end, 
we  will,  in  reliance  upon  God's  grace,  and  feeling 
our  inability  to  perform  any  spiritual  duty  in  our  own 
strength,  diligently  attend  to  searching  the  Scriptures, 
religious  conversation,  the  duties  of  the  closet,  the 
household,  the  fellowship  meeting  and  the  sanctuary, 
and  will  seek  in  them  to  worship  God  in  spirit  and 
in  truth.  We  do  solemnly  promise  to  depart  from  all 
iniquity,  and  to  live  soberly,  righteously,  and  godly  in 
this  present  world,  commending  and  encouraging,  by 
our    example,    temperance,    charity    and    godliness. 


2.  "That  after  careful  examination,  having  embraced 
the  system  of  faith,  order  and  worship  revealed  in  the 
Holy  Scriptures,  and  summarized  as  to  doctrine  in  the 
Westminster  Confession  and  Catechisms,  and  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Testimony,  and,  as  to  order  and  worship, 
justly  set  forth  in  substance  and  outline  in  the  West- 
minster Form  of  Church  Government  and  Directory 
for  Worship,  we  do  publicly  profess  and  own  this  as 
the  true  Christian  faith  and  religion,  and  the  system 
of  order  and  worship  appointed  by  Christ  for  His  own 
house,  and,  by  the  grace  of  God,  we  will  sincerely 
and  constantly  endeavor  to  understand  it  more  fully, 
to  hold  and  observe  it  in  its  integrity,  and  to  transmit 
the  knowledge  of  the  same  to  posterity.  We  solemnly 
reject  whatever  is  known  by  us  to  be  contrary  to 
the  Word  of  God,  our  recognized  and  approved  manuals 
of  faith  and  order,  and  the  great  principles  of  the 
Protestant  Reformation.  Particularly,  we  abjure  and 
■condemn  Infidelity,  under  all  its  various  aspects  ; 
Atheism,  or  the  denial  of  the  divine  existence  ;  Pan- 
theism, with  its  denial  of  the  divine  personality ; 
Naturalism,  with  its  denial  of  the  divine  Providential 
Government  ;  Spiritualism,  with  its  denial  of  the  Bible 
redemption  ;  Indifferentism,  with  its  denial  of  man's 
responsibility  ;  Formalism,  with  its  denial  of  the  power 
of  godliness.  W^e  abjure  and  condemn  Popery,  with 
its  arrogant  assumption  of  supremacy  and  infallibility  ; 
its  corrupt  and  heretical  teachings  ;  its  dogma  of  the 
Immaculate  Conception  ;  its  hostility  to  civil  and 
religious  liberty,  to  the  progress  of  society  in  civiliza- 
tion    and     intelligence,      and     especially     its    denial,     in 


common  with  Infidelity,  of  the  right  and  duty  of  the 
State  to  educate  in  morality  and  religion  by  the  use  of 
the  Bible  in  schools  enjoying  its  patronage  and  support. 
Believing  Presbyterianism  to  be  the  only  divinely 
instituted  form  of  government  in  the  Christian  Church,, 
we  disown  and  reject  all  other  forms  of  ecclesiastical 
polity,  as  without  authority  of  Scripture,  and  as 
damaging  to  purity,  peace  and  unity  in  the  household 
of  faith.  We  reject  all  systems  of  false  religion  and 
will-worship,  and  with  these  all  forms  of  secret  oath- 
bound  societies  and  orders,  as  ensnaring  in  their  nature, 
pernicious  in  their  tendency,  and  perilous  to  the  liberties 
of  both  Church  and  State  ;  and  pledge  ourselves  to- 
pray  and  labor  according  to  our  power,  that  whatever 
is  contrary  to  godliness  may  be  removed,  and  the 
Church  beautified  with  universal  conformity  to  the  law 
and    will    of   her    Divine    Head    and    Lord. 

3.  "  Persuaded  that  God  is  the  source  of  all  legitimate 
power  ;  that  he  has  instituted  civil  government  for  His 
own  glory  and  the  good  of  man  ;  that  he  has  ap- 
pointed His  Son,  the  Mediator,  to  headship  over  the 
nations  ;  and  that  the  Bible  is  the  supreme  law  and 
rule  in  national  as  in  all  other  things,  we  will  maintain 
the  responsibility  of  nations  to  God,  the  rightful 
dominion  of  Jesus  Christ  over  the  commonwealth,  and 
the  obligation  of  nations  to  legislate  in  conformity 
with  the  written  Word.  We  take  •  ourselves  sacredly 
bound  to  regulate  all  our  civil  relations,  attachments,, 
professions  and  deportment,  by  our  allegiance  and  loyalty 
to  the  Lord,  our  King,  Lawgiver  and  Judge  ;  and  by 
this,  our  oath,  we  are  pledged   to    promote    the   interests 


of  public  order  and  justice,  to  support  cheerfully  what- 
ever is  for  the  good  of  the  commonwealth  in  which  we 
dwell,  and  to  pursue  this  object  in  all  things  not  for- 
bidden by  the  law  of  God,  or  inconsistent  with  public 
dissent  from  an  unscriptural  and  immoral  civil  power. 
We  will  pray  and  labor  for  the  peace  and  welfare  of 
our  country,  and  for  its  reformation  by  a  constitutional 
recognition  of  God  as  the  source  of  all  power,  of  Jesus- 
Christ  as  the  Ruler  of  Nations,  of  the  Holy  Scriptures- 
as  the  supreme  rule,  and  of  the  true  Christian  religion  ;. 
knd  we  will  continue  to  refuse  to  incorporate  by  any 
act,  with  the  political  body,  until  this  blessed  reforma- 
tion   has    been    secured. 

4.  "That,  believing  the  Church  to  be  07ie,  and  that 
all  the  saints  have  communion  with  God  and  with  one 
another  in  the  same  Covenant  ;  believing,  moreover, 
that  schism  and  sectarianism  are  sinful  in  themselves^ 
and  inimical  to  true  religion,  and  trusting  that  divisions' 
shall  cease,  and  the  people  of  God  become  one  Catholic 
Church  over  all  the  earth,  we  will  pray  and  labor  for 
the  visible  oneness  of  the  Church  of  God  in  our  own 
land  and  throughout  the  world,  on  the  basis  of  truth 
and  Scriptural  order.  Considering  it  a  principal  duty  of 
our  profession  to  cultivate  a  holy  brotherhood,  we  will 
strive  to  maintain  Christian  friendship  with  pious*  meii 
of  every  name,  and  to  feel  and  act  as  one  with  all 
in  every  land  who  pursue  this  grand  end.  And,  as  a 
means  of  securing  this  great  result,  we  will,  by  dis- 
semination and  application  of  the  principles  of  truth 
herein  professed  and  by  cultivating  and  exercising 
Christian     charity,    labor    to     remove     stumbling    blocks,. 


and  to  gather  into  one  the  scattered  and  divided  friends 
of    truth    and    righteousness. 

5.  "Rejoicing  that  the  enthroned  Mediator  is  not 
only  King  in  Zion.  but  King  over  all  the  earth,  and 
recognizing  the  obligation  of  His  command  to  go  into 
all  the  world  and  preach  the  gospel  to  every  creature, 
and  to  teach  all  nations,  baptizing  them  in  the  name 
of  the  Father,  of  the  Son,  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
and  resting  with  faith  in  the  promise  of  His  perpetual 
presence  as  the  pledge  of  success,  we  hereby  dedicate 
■ourselves  to  the  great  work  of  making  known  God's 
light  and  salvation  among  the  nations,  and  to  this 
end 'will  labor  that  the  Church  may  be  provided  with 
an  earnest,  self-denying  and  able  ministry.  Profoundly 
conscious  of  past  remissness  and  neglect,  we  will  hence- 
forth, by  our  prayers,  pecuniary  contributions  and  per- 
sonal exertions,  seek  the  revival  of  pure  and  undefiled 
religion,  the  conversion  of  Jews  and  Gentiles  to  Christ, 
that  all  men  may  be  blessed  in  Him,  and  that  all 
nations    may    call    Him    blessed. 

6.  "Committing  ourselves  with  all  our  interests  to 
the  keeping  of  Him  in  whom  we  have  believed :  in 
faithfulness  to  our  own  vows,  and  to  the  Covenants 
of  our  fathers,  and  to  our  children  whom  we  desire 
to  fead  in  the  right  ways  of  the  Lord ;  and  in  love 
to  all  mankind,  especially  the  household  of  faith  in 
•obedience  to  the  commandment  of  the  everlasting 
God  to  contend  earnestly  for  the  faith  once  delivered 
to  the  saints,  we  will  bear  true  testimony  in  word  and 
in  deed  for  every  known  part  of  divine  truth,  and 
for    all    the  ordinances  appointed    by  Christ    in    his  king- 


dom ;  and  we  will  tenderly  and  charitably,  but  plainly 
and  decidedly,  oppose  and  discountenance  all  and 
every  known  error,  immorality,  neglect  or  perversion 
of  divine  institutions.  Taking  as  our  example  the 
faithful  in  all  ages,  and,  most  of  all,  the  blessed 
Master  himself,  and  with  our  eye  fixed  upon  the  great 
cloud  of  witnesses  who  have  sealed  with  their  blood 
the  testimony  which  they  held,  we  will  strive  to  hold 
fast  the  profession  of  our  faith  without  wavering,  in 
hope  of  the  crown  of  life  which  fadeth  not  away. 
Finally,  we  enter  upon  this  solemn  act  of  cove- 
nanting before  the  Omniscient  God,  with  unfeigned 
purpose  of  paying  our  vow.  All  sinister  and  selfish 
ends  and  motives  we  solemnly  disavow,  and  protest 
that  we  have  no  aim  but  the  glory  of  God,  and  the 
present  and  everlasting  welfare  of  immortal  souls. 
And  our  prayer  to  God  is  and  shall  be,  to  strengthen 
us  by  His  Holy  Spirit  to  keep  this  our  promise,  vow 
and  oath,  and  to  bless  our  humble  attempt  to  glorify 
His  name  and  honor,  His  truth  and  cause  with  such 
success  as  will  bring  salvation  to  our  own  souls,  the 
wider  spread  and  triumph  of  truth  and  holiness,  and 
the  enlargement  and  establishment  of  the  kingdom  of 
our  Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  to  whom,  with  the 
Father  and  the  Spirit,  one  God  be  glory  in  the  Church 
throughout    all    ages,    world    without    end.     Amen." 

With  a  very  few  exceptions,  all  the  members  of 
the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  America  entered 
into  and  subscribed  this  same  Covenant  in  the  respective 
congregations.        The     Rev.     Samuel     R.     Galbraith    was 


chosen  missionary  to  Syria,  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused 
by  the  death  of  the  Rev.  Robert  J.  Dodds.  Rev. 
David  McAllister  was  appointed  by  Synod  to  give  his 
whole    time    to    the    interests    of    National    Reform. 

The  Synod  of  1872,  met  in  York,  New  York.  An 
offer  was  made  by  Mr.  James  Kelly  of  Wilkinsburgh,. 
Pennsylvania,  and  also  by  friends  in  Newburgh,  New 
York,  for  the  location  of  the  Theological  Seminary. 
The  Pittsburgh  Presbytery  donated  the  buildings  of 
Westminster  College  to  the  Seminary  Board.  Wilkins- 
burgh was  chosen  as  the  seat  of  the  new  Theological 
Seminary.  Elaborate  reports  on  Missions,  Education,. 
National  Reform,  and  other  vital  departments  of  the 
Church's  work  were  submitted.  The  Committee  on 
the    "  Homestead    Oath "    reported  : 

That  they  have  examined  the  Homestead  laws  of  the  United  States, 
and  find  that  every  applicant  must  swear  that  he  is  a  citizen,  or  that 
he  has  filed  his  declaration  of  intention  to  become  such,  as  required 
by  the  naturalization  laws  of  the  United  States.  (See  Brightley's. 
Digest  of  the  Laws  of  the  U.  S.,  p.  288,  sec.  41.)  At  the  time  the 
patent  is  made  out,  he  niust  swear  that  he  has  borne  true  allegiance 
to   the   government   of  the   United    States.      (Idem.,    page    288,    sec.    42.) 

There  never  has  been  a  question  in  the  Church  as  to  the  first 
oath.  It  has  always  been  deemed  wrong.  As  to  the  second,  which 
both  natives  and  foreigners  must  take,  a  majority  of  the  Com- 
mittee think  it  inconsistent  with  our  refusal  to  incorporate,  by  any 
act,   with   the   government   of  the   United   States. 

The  Committee  recommended  that  Synod  take  steps  to  obtain  such 
a    modification   of    these   oaths   as   may   be   consistent   with   our   dissent. 

The  Rev.  H.  H.  George  was  chosen  President  of 
Geneva  College,  and  has  since  continued  to  hold  that 

The  Synod  of  1873,  met  in  Northwood,  Ohio.  For 
several    reasons    the    location    of   the    Seminary     at     Wil-- 


kinsburgh  was  not  satisfactory  to  some  parts  of  the 
Church,  and  the  Synod  adopted  the  following  resolution: 

Resolved,  That  a  Committee  of  seven  persons  be  appointed  to  locate 
and  erect  the  Theological  Seminary  Building  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
and  that  the  place  and  style  of  building  and  appurtenances  be  left 
to  the  judgment  of  the  Committee ;  and  that  the  limit  of  expense  be 
thirty   thousand   dollars   ($30,000). 

The  Synod  of  1874,  met  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 
The  Committee  appointed  to  report  on  the  "  Patrons 
•of  Husbandry"  or  "Grangers,"  after  ascertaining  facts, 
report    the    following : 

I.  That  this  order  was  organized  by  Freemasons  and  Oddfellows  ; 
is  modelled  after  their  forms  in  its  rites,  ceremonies  and  officers ;  is 
largely  under  their  control,  and  as  a  matter  of  fact  furnishes  recruits 
for   these   detestable   orders. 

2.  That  it  is  in  itself  a  secret  and  substantially  oath-bound  society, 
the  candidate  for  admission  being  required  to  pledge  his  sacred  word 
and  honor,  in  the  presence  of  God,  to  keep  secrets,  obey  laws  and 
assume  responsibilities  wholly  unknown  to  him,  and  utterly  incompatible 
with    Christian    integrity    and    simplicity. 

3.  That  the  order  in  its  constitution  assumes  the  false  and  impossi- 
ble position  of  neutrality  both  with  respect  to  religion  and  politics, 
and  as  a  consequence  of  this  its  religious  services  are  conducted 
indiscriminately  in  a  Christian  or  Anti-Christian  and  pa^gan  manner ; 
and  instead  of  being  neutral  in  politics,  it  is  practically  a  political 

We  therefore  emphatically  and  unequivocally  condemn  this  and  all 
•other  secret  orders  as  ensnaring,  deceptive  and  sinful  in  themselves, 
as  prejudicial  to  the  best  interests  of  society,  and  as  a  lawless  and 
inefficient  way  of  obtaining  redress  of  grievances.  We  also  recom- 
mend that  Synod  enjoin  it  upon  all  sessions  not  to  fellowship  mem- 
bers of  this  or  any  secret  order,  and  to  warn  all  under  their  care 
to  beware  of  the  ensnaring  influences  of  such  organizations.  "Have 
no  fellowship  with  the  unfruitful  works  of  darkness,  but  rather 
reprove   them." 

The  Synod,  as  the  representative  of  the  Church, 
again    pledged     itself     to    the     hearty     support     of     the 


principles  incorporated  b}-  the  National  Reform  Associa- 
tion, and  has  unceasingly  carried  forward  the  pledge 
embodied    in    the    following    resolutions : 

Resoh'ed,  That  this  Synod,  and  the  whole  Church,  in  whose  interests 
it  is  met,  regard  with  the  liveliest  interest  all  efforts  to  reform  our 
nation,  and  to  bring  it,  in  its  constitution,  and  administration,  and 
into   conformity  with    the   revealed  will   and   written  Word   of  God. 

Resolved,  That  a  distinct  constitutional  recognition  of  Jesus  Christ, 
the  Mediator  between  God  and  man,  as  the  legislative  head  and  ruler 
of  nations  is  the  indispensable  duty  of  this  nation,  and  that  any  pro- 
posed form  of  amendment  to  the  national  constitution,  or  States  con- 
stitution, in  which  such  recognition  is  omitted,  is  and  will  be  held 
by   this   Church    to   be   fundamentally    defective. 

Resolved,  That  we  will  pray  and  labor  for  the  reformation  of  our 
nation,  nor  cease  our  efiforts  until  we  see  it  a  Christian  state,  adminis- 
tering its  authority  in  subserviency  to  the  kingdom  of  Christ,  in  sup- 
pressing blasphemy,  idolatry,  licentiousness,  and  every  other  form  of 
public  hindrance  to  its  progress,  and  in  giving  positive  countenance, 
encouragement,  and  support  to  the  Christian  Church  throughout  the 
commonwealth  as  the  great  restorer  and  conservator  of  the  true  relig- 
ion, which,  as  a  leaf  of  the  tree  of  life,  restores   and   heals  the  nations. 

The  Synod  of  1875,  "^^t  in  Coultersville,  Illinois. 
Rev.  David  B.  Willson  was  elected  to  a  professorate 
in  the  Theological  Seminary.  All  the  reports  from 
the  different  agencies  of  the  Church  were  full  and 
satisfactory,  and,  with  the  exception  of  direction  in  the 
settlement  of  a  few  local  cases  of  discipline,  the 
proceedings    of    this    Synod    were    routine. 

The  Synod  of  1876,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny,. 
Pennsylvania.  Rev.  Joseph  Beattie,  of  Syria,  was  pres- 
ent,   and    presided    over    the    sessions    of    Synod. 

Strong  and  definite  resolutions  bearing  upon  the 
different  reforms  of  the  day  were  passed  at  the  meeting, 
and  they  were  of    such    a    character    as     to     conclusively 


show  that  this  Church  is  composed  of  thorough 

The  Synod  of  1877,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny,. 
Pennsylvania.     The    following    report    explains  itself : 

The  Committee  appoiated  to  confer  with  a  similar  Committee  ap- 
pointed by  the  General  Synod  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church, 
reports  that,  after  several  meetings  of  the  joint  Committee,  it  was 
agreed  to  report  to  the  respective  Synods,  that  while  we  recognize  with 
thankfulness  the  identity  in  faith,  and  practice  and  testimony  in  many 
important  respects  of  these  closely  related  branches  of  the  Church  of 
Christ,  we  are  constrained  to  admit  that  the  obstacles  in  the  way  of 
organic  reunion  appear,  for  the  present,  to  be  insuperable. 

The  special  Committee,  to  which  were  referred  peti- 
tions relating  to  inviting  clergymen  of  other  denomina- 
tions   into    our    pulpits,    report  : 

1.  That,  while  desiring  to  cultivate  and  cherish  the  most  friendly 
and  fraternal  relations  with  our  brethren  of  other  evangelical  denomina- 
tions, it  has  never  been  the  custom  of  the  Church  to  invite  them  to 
minister  to  our  people  in  the  preaching  of  the  Word. 

2.  That  we  see  no  good  reason,  in  the  present  condition  of  the 
visible  Church  of  Christ,  for  departing  from  existing  usage. 

The  Synod  of  1878,  met  at  Linton,  Iowa.  With 
reference  to  the  conference  on  union  with  the  New 
School   body,  the  Committee  made  the   following  report  : 

After  a  frank,  earnest  and  friendly  conference,  it  was  agreed  that 
there  was  not,  at  present,  any  special  encouragement  to  take  steps  in 
the  direction  of  attempting  to  heal  the  breach  between  these  two 
branches  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church,  and  while  it  was 
agreed  that  we  should  foster  in  all  proper  ways  friendly,  fraternal 
feelings,    that  it   was   not   advisable   to   continue   the   conference  further. 

Synod  thought  it  proper  for  women  to  speak  and 
lead  in  prayer  in  social  praying  societies.  The  Fourth 
Term   of    Communion    was    revised,    and  is  as  printed. 

Synod  advised  the  Missionary  among  the  Chinese  to 
baptize    such    persons    as    give     evidence    of    "  intelligent 


.and  unfeigned  faith  and  repentance."  Synod  also 
regarded  "  the  language  of  the  Testimony  on  the  duties 
•of  the  Christian  magistrate  as  the  exhibition  of  the 
doctrines  we  hold  upon  this  subject,  and  as  properly 
interpreting    the    Confession   of    Faith." 

The  Synod  of  1879,  met  in  the  city  of  New  York. 
Rev.  David  Metheny,  M.  D.,  Missionary  to  Syria,  was 
present,  and  was  chosen  to  preside  over  the  sessions. 
Rev.  A.  M,  Stavely,  of  New  Brunswick,  was  also  present, 
.and   addressed    the    meeting. 

The  following  resolutions  on  tobacco  were  unani- 
mously   adopted    by    Synod  : 

Inasmuch  as  tobacco  is  extensively  used  throughout  society,  and  in 
its  use  is  a  positive  evil,  which  manifests  itself — i.  As  an  injury  to 
physical  health  ;  2.  As  an  offence  to  good  manners ;  3.  As  an  unneces- 
sary expenditure  of  money ;  4.  As  it  is  associated  with  much  vice ; 
5.  As  it  exerts  a  demoralizing  influence  upon  the  youth  ;  6.  As  it  is 
inconsistent  with  moral  and  spiritual  purity.     Therefore, 

Resolved,  i.  That  this  Synod  condemn  all  indulgence  in  the  use  of 

Resolved,  2.  That  we  urge  our  people  to  abstain  from  it  in  every 
form  except  as  prescribed  by  competent  medical  authority,  and  use  all 
lawful    and    wise    means   to   eradicate    this    evil    from    society. 

Resolved,  3.  That  Presbyteries  be  hereby  advised  to  license  no  one 
to  preach  the  gospel  who  indulges  in  the  use  of  tobacco  ;  and  sessions 
be  advised  not  to  ordain  any  officers  in  the  Church  who  practice 
this   habit   for   mere   carnal    gratification. 

Resglved,  4.  That  this  Synod  condemn  the  cultivation,  manufacture, 
and   sale   of  tobacco. 

With  its  earnest  desire,  and  with  the  hearty  con- 
<:urrence  of  the  Irish  Synod,  the  Presbytery  of  New 
Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia  was  received  under  the 
care  of  this  Synod.  The  change  of  the  location  of 
Geneva    College    having   been     agitated     for    some    time, 


the  Synod  now  chose  to  remove  the  institution  from 
Northwood,  Ohio,  to  Beaver  Falls,  Pennsylvania,  on  the 
condition  that  ten  acres  of  ground  and  twenty  thousand 
dollars  were  given  for  the  erection  of  buildings.  This 
offer  was  made  by  the  Economite  Society  and 
accepted  by  Synod.  The  College  first  opened  in 
Beaver  Falls  in  September,  1880,  and  the  building 
erected  for  the  purpose  was  occupied  the  following  year. 
The  'Synod  re-affirmed  the  law  of  the  Church  with 
reference  to  marriage  with  a  deceased  wife's  sister, 
that  it  is  prohibitory.  In  a  concrete  case  of  a  member 
of  the  Church  being  summoned  to  sit  upon  a  jury  in 
Pittsburgh,  and  the  Judge  refusing  to  excuse  him,  a 
Committee  of  Synod  was  appointed  to  wait  upon  the 
Judge,  who  decided  that  he  would  not  excuse  the 
member,  but  was  willing  to  accept,  instead  of  the 
usual  juror's  oath,  such  an  oath  as  would  be  approved 
by   the    Reformed    Presbyterian    Church, 

The  Synod  of  1880,  met  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 
General  Rules  for  the  organization  and  government  of 
Geneva  College  were  submitted.  The  following  report 
explains  the  manner  in  which  affairs  were  settled  by 
the    removal    of   the    College    to    Beaver    Falls : 

That  the  notes  given  to  the  endowment  by  persons  in  the  vicinity 
of  Northwood,  on  the  condition  that  the  College  remain  in  that  place, 
be   returned   to   those   who   make   this   request. 

That  the  Board  of  Education,  as  connected  with  the  College  in 
Northwood,  Ohio,  be  continued  in  existence  until  all  business  matters 
relating  to  the  transfer  of  the  College  to  Beaver  Falls  shall  be  fully 
accomplished,  and  that  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Board  be 
authorized  to  make  a  quit  claim  deed  to  a  Committee  to  be  appointed 
by   members  of  the   Church   at   Northwood,   of    all   the  buildings   there 


belonging  to   Synod,   on  condition  that   the  Northwood  Committee  meet 
all   the   expenses   afterwards   accruing. 

That  the  movable  property  of  the  College,  such  as  the  library, 
apparatus,  &c.,   be    removed    to    the   College    building   at   Beaver   Falls. 

The  Synod  of  1881,  met  in  the  city  of  Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania.  The  following  preamble  and  resolutions 
were    adopted  : 

Whereas,  It  is  important  for  the  interests  of  the  Church  to  place 
before  our  people  and  others  a  statement  and  vindication  of  the  prin- 
ciples professed  by  us,  and  to  justify  the  practice  grounded  upoQ  these 
principles,  and  particularly  in  connection  with  questions  made  of  im- 
mediate and  pressing  urgency  from  the  circumstances  of  the  times ; 

Resolved,  i.  That  Synod  take  measures  for  the  issuing  of  a  series  of 
tracts,  of  not  more  than  4  pages,  12  mo.,  for  distribution  among  our 
people,  and  for  general  circulation,  so  far  as  it  can  be  accomplished. 

2.  That  D.  S.  Faris  be  appointed  to  write  on  the  duty  of  our 
members  in  regard  to  the  exercise  of  the  Elective  Franchises,  Dr. 
Sloane  on  Psalmody,  James  Kennedy  on  Instrumental  Music,  Professor 
Willson  on  Dancing,  J.  Lynd  on  Temperance,  D.  M'Allister  on  the  Jury 
Question,  and  Dr.  Sproull  on  the  Testimony  of  the  Church,  in  regard 
to  Christian  people  who  are  in  political  fellowship  with  nations,  which 
disown  the  Kingship  of  the  Lord  Jesus  ;  and  that  these  papers  be 
published   at  once  in  the  magazines  of  the  Church. 

On  the  question  of  voting  for  temperance  amend- 
ments,   the    Committee    say : 

On  this  paper  we  report  that  as  the  Synod  by  its  action  of  1866  and 
1867  refused  to  authorize  such  voting  on  the  part  of  the  members  of 
the  Church,  and  as  it  not  only  appears  to  many  inconsistent  with  our 
position  on  the  jury  question,  and  in  some  measure  an  incorporating 
with  government,  but  also  inconsistent  with  the  position,  solemnly  taken 
in  our  act  of  Covenanting  of  1871,  that  therefore  Synod  should  distinctly 
declare  that  it  disapproves  of  and  discourages  such  voting  on  the  part 
of  our  members  as  if  not  positively  a  breach  of  their  testimony,  at 
least  in  many  respects   dangerous  and   ensnaring. 

Synod    thought    that    members  acceding    to    our    Com- 


munion  in  Syria  from  the  Greek  Roman  Catholic  Church 
should  be  baptized.  Not  only  in  this  but  in  all  similar 
cases  baptism  is  to  be  administered.  Rev.  W.  J. 
Coleman  was  chosen  to  labor  in  the  interests  of  the 
National  Reform  Association  as  the  representative  of 
this    Church. 

The  Synod  of  1882,  met  in  New  Concord,  Ohio. 
From  the  following  resolutions  it  will  be  seen  that  this 
is    a    temperance    Church  : 

1.  Resolved,  That  we  unite  in  sincere  thanksgiving  to  God  for  the 
firm  hold  the  cause  of  Temperance  has  taken  in  the  public  conscience, 
for  the  able  instrumentalities  that  are  raised  up  in  its  advocacy,  and  for 
its  marked  progress  in  the  Church  and  throughout  the  Nation. 

2.  Resolved,  That  we  hereby  lift  up  an  uncompromising  testimony 
against  the  use,  manufacture  or  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors,  including 
beer,  ale,  wine  and  hard  cider,  as  a  beverage  ;  against  the  renting  of 
property  for  the  manufacture  or  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors ;  against  the 
selling  the  fruits  of  the  earth  for  the  purpose  of  being  manufactured 
into  intoxicating  drinks  ;  and  against  giving  countenance  in  any  way  to 
the   nefarious   traffic   or   use. 

3.  Resolved,  That  the  ministers,  officers  and  members  of  the  Church 
be  enjoined  to  take  a  public  stand  in  the  present  Temperance  move- 
ment, and  openly  wage,  in  all  legitimate  ways,  an  unceasing  warfare 
against  the  atrocious  liquor  business  and  the  pernicious  evils  of 

4.  Resolved,  That  sessions  see  to  it  that  members  of  the  Church  act 
consistently  with  her  public  position  on  the  Temperance  question,  and 
that  the  discipline  of  the  Church  be  rigidly  applied  in  all  cases 
where  the  law  of  the   Church   in   this   regard   is  violated. 

5.  Resolved,  That  the  Sabbath  Schools  make  Temperance  a  part  of 
their  instruction ;  and  that  teachers  and  scholars  be  urged  to  pledge 
themselves  to  total  abstinence  from  intoxicating  liquors,  and  to  earnest 
work  in   the  Temperance   cause. 

6.  Resolved,  That  Synod  reiterate  its  former  recommendation  against 
the   use   of  intoxicating   wine   in   the   Lord's   supper. 

7.  Retolved,  That  we  rejoice  at  the  progress  of    legal    Prohibition    in 


our  country ;  and  that  we  put  forth  every  effort,  consistent  with  our 
position  as  a  Church,  to  secure  an  amendment  to  the  United  States 
Constitution,  and  also  to  the  Constitutions  of  the  different  States,  for- 
bidding the  importation,  manufacture  and  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors 
as   a   beverage. 

8.  Resolved,  That  the  time  has  come  when  our  Church  should  take 
an  advanced  step  in  the  temperance  cause  by  incorporating  in  her 
written  Testimony  an  article  forever  prohibiting  the  manufacture,  sale 
and  use  of  intoxicating  liquors   as  a   beverage. 

9.  Resolved,  That  this  Synod  express  its  hearty  approval  of  the  action 
of  the  legislature  of  this  State  in  closing  the  liquor  saloons  on  the 
Lord's   day. 

10.  Resolved,  That  Synod  renew,  in  more  emphatic  terms,  its  con- 
demnation of  the  production,  manufacture,  sale  and  use  of  tobacco,  as 
it  is  injurious  to  the  best  interests  of  man  socially,  morally  and 
spiritually  ;  and  that  Presbyteries  be  enjoined  to  refuse  licensure  to 
any  candidate  who  is  in  the  habit  of  indulging  in  the  use  thereof. 

Synod  declared  itself  opposed  to  the  action  of  the 
government  in  closing  the  western  gate,  while  through 
the  east  gate  a  far  more  dangerous  class  of  emigrants 
is    received    with    no    restrictions : 

Resolved,  That  this  Synod  express  its  condemnation  of  the  recent 
Anti-Chinese  bill  which  has  passed  both  houses  of  Congress,  and  been 
signed  by  the  President,  as  a  breach  of  treaty  obligations,  opposed  to 
the  spirit  of  the  age,  a  gross  violation  of  the  law  of  God,  and  as 
calculated  to  arrest  the  earnest  missionary  efforts  now  being  put  forth 
for   the   Christianization   of  that   numerous    people. 

Rev.  Henry  Easson,  missionary  from  Syria,  was 
present  and  addressed  the  court,  A  suitable  notice 
was  taken  of  the  providential  death  of  President  Gar- 
field, A  Committee  was  appointed  to  prepare  an  edition 
of  the  Book  of  Psalms  with  verbal  corrections  and 
suitable    music, 

A  long  and  able  discussion  of  the  true  and  historic 
position    of   the    Church    was    entered    into    in    reference 


to  the  question  of  voting  for  temperance  amendments 
in  some  of  the  States.  The  question  was  "Could 
Covenanters,  consistent  with  their  position,  vote  for 
amendments  to  State  Constitutions.?  The  following  was 
the    deliverance    of    Synod    on    this    subject: 

Resolved,  i.  That  this  Synod  declares  anew  our  position  of  dissent, 
on  moral  grounds,  from  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and 
rejoices  in  the  evidence  which  this  discussion  has  afforded  of  una- 
bated  and   unanimous   convictions   in   support   of  this   position. 

2.  That  it  has  always  been  regarded  as  the  privilege  and  the 
duty  of  our  members  to  unite  in  all  civil  action  which  is  not  incon- 
sistent  with    this   dissent. 

3.  That  in  view  of  the  varying  conditions  under  which  constitu- 
tional amendments  are  submitted  in  different  States,  we  leave  it  with 
Presbyteries  and  sessions  to  administer  the  discipline  of  the  Church 
in   harmony   with   these   principles. 

The  Synod  of  1883,  met  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania.  It  was  largely  attended  and  much 
important  business  was  transacted.  The  Commission 
visiting  the  Churches  in  the  Maritime  Provinces  made 
an  interesting  report.  A  charter  for  Geneva  College 
was    submitted. 

A  memorial  from  Nova  Scotia  with  reference  to  the 
validity    of    sacraments,    received    the    following    answer: 

Whilst  we  are  in  full  harmony  with  the  Memorialists  as  to  the  nature 
and  Scriptural  mode  of  administering  the  ordinance  of  baptism,  yet 
we  cannot  acquiesce  in  their  prayer,  asking  this  court  to  pronounce 
baptism  by  immersion  to  be  in  all  cases  invalid,  and  that  applicants 
from  the  Baptist  connection,  seeking  fellowship  with  us,  should  be 
required  to  receive  baptism  before  admission,  according  to  the  mode 
of  administration    followed   by   us,    for   the   following   reasons : 

I.  Because  it  has  never  been,  either  in  principle  or  practice^ 
recognized  as  necessary  in  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church,  in  this 
or  any  other  country,  that  such  a  condition  of  admission  to  our  mem- 
bership should  be  required  on  the  part  of  such  applicants. 


2.  Because,  while  we  strenuously  contend  for  the  Scriptural  admin- 
istration of  religious  ordinances,  we  cannot  admit  the  principle  that 
mere  imperfections  in  the  mode  of  administration  do  invalidate  them  or 
destroy  their  efficacy.  The  "Westminster  divines  declare  that  "The  sac- 
raments become  effectual  means  of  salvation,  not  from  any  virtue  in  them, 
or  in  him  that  doth  administer  them  ; "  therefore  when  the  appointed 
sign  is  employed  in  baptism,  and  when  it  is  applied  as  directed,  in  the 
name  of  the  Father  and  of  the  Son  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  that  in 
an  avowed  symbolical  and  sacramental  sense,  and  for  a  symbolical  and 
sacramental  purpose,  then  there  are  present  substantially  all  the  elements 
constituting  a  real  administration  of  that  ordinance. 

3.  Because,  as  the  validity  and  efficacy  of  a  sacrament  do  not  depend 
on  the  amount  of  the  material  sign  employed  on  the  occasion,  but  upon 
the  right  apprehension,  in  its  use,  of  its  spiritual  import  and  significance 
as  an  appointment  of  Christ,  it  is  not  impossible  to  realize  the  spiritual 
benefits  of  baptism  even  when  administered  by  immersion.  The 
leading  idea  in  employing  water  in  baptism  is  that  of  purifying  from 
defilement,  and  as  in  ordinary  life,  from  which  the  term  is  taken,  this 
is  sometimes  effected  by  applying  water  to  the  object  to  be  made  clean, 
and  sometimes  by  putting  it  into  the  water,  we  do  not  think  that  the 
ends  contemplated  in  baptism  cannot  be  reached,  or  that  the  ordinance 
is  invalidated  when  the  mode  of  administering  is  by  immersion,  any 
more  than  that  the  Lord's  Supper  is  invalidated  when  in  some  Evan- 
gelical Churches  it  is  administered  in  a  manner  which  we  cannot 
regard   as   altogether    Scriptural. 

4.  Because  we  cannot  refuse  to  accept  the  validity  of  this  ordi- 
nance, as  administered  by  Baptists  without  unchurching  the  connection, 
or  in  other  words  refusing  to  acknowledge  them  as  a  part  of  the 
true  church  of  Christ.  This  we  do  in  relation  to  Rome  by  refusing 
to  accept  her  baptism  and  ordination,  but  we  think  it  would  be 
utterly   unjustifiable   to   place   Baptist   Churches   in   the   same    category. 

The  following  sentiment  with  reference  to  an  old 
form    and   custom   of    the    Church    is    interesting : 

1.  That  the  distribution  of  tokens  on  a  week  day  evening  previous 
to  'the  administration  of  the  ordinance  of  the  Lord's  supper  has  never 
been   considered   an   integral   element   of  the  ordinance. 

2.  That  it  is  in  no  sense  an  act  of  worship,  nor  is  the  token  a 
religious   symbol. 


3.  That  it  is  simply  a  custom  relating  to  the  well  ordering  of  the 
■Church  that  has  come  down  to  us  from  persecuting  times,  and  as  such 
has  a  strong   hold   upon   the   minds   of  many   in   the   Church. 

4.  That  it  cannot  in  any  way  be  productive  of  mischief  unless 
elevated  into  a  prominence  and  significance  that  does  not  in  any  sense 
attach  to  it. 

5.  In  view  of  these  considerations  we  advise  all  our  people  to 
observe  the  custom  as  heretofore  until  such  time  as  the  Church  in  its 
wisdom   may   deem   it   proper   to   dispense   with   it. 

An  article  on  Temperance  was  inserted  in  the  Testi- 

The  Synod  of  1884,  met  in  Northwood,  Ohio.  While 
there  was  a  large  attendance  of  delegates,  the  business 
was  interesting  but  of  a  routine  character.  The  prin- 
•cipal  question  that  demanded  the  especial  attention  of 
this  Synod  was  that  of  voting  for  amendments.  The 
following    is   the    report    of   this    item  : 

1.  Does  voting  for  amendments  to  State  Constitutions  involve  any- 
thing sinful  or  inconsistent  with  the  principles  and  practice  of  the 
Church  ? 

2.  Has  the  deliverance  of  this  Synod  in  1868  on  the  question  of 
voting  for    amendments   been   repealed  ? 

To  the  first  of  these  inquiries  the  following  answer  is  submitted  : 
That  it  is  a  fundamental  principle  of  the  Church,  in  regard  to  which 
we  are  persuaded  there  is  no  diversity  either  of  sentiment  or  practice 
amongst  us,  that  all  acts  performed  under  the  government,  that  either 
require  or  imply  an  oath  to  the  National  Constitution  or  to  the  Con- 
stitution of  any  of  the  States,  are  manifestly  acts  of  incorporation  with 
the  government ;  and  although  the  service  should  be  right  in  itself, 
yet  it  becomes  wrong  and  sinful  by  reason  of  the  sinful  condition 

It  should,  however,  be  borne  in  mind  that  in  guarding  with  watch- 
ful jealousy  against  the  sin  of  identification  with  an  unscriptural 
government,  the  Church,  both  in  the  practice  of  her  members,  and  in 
the  deliverances  of  Synod,   has  wisely    avoided    the    evil  of    being    led 


aside   into   any   unwarranted   extremes,    as    regards    our    relation    to  the 
Nation,  and  its  government. 

In  order  that  we  may  take  no  step  of  departure  from  our  peculiar 
position,  either  to  the  right  hand  or  to  the  left,  it  requires  to  be 
studied  and  observed  with  special  care.  There  are  forms  of  civil  action 
in  which  our  members  have  always  held  it  their  privilege  to  engage, 
without  fear  of  complicity  in  the  sin  of  an  unholy  confederacy. 
Among  the  latest  utterances  of  Synod  on  this  subject  are  these  words  :  , 
"The  general  rule  for  guidance  is  that  participation  in  acts  of  civil 
administration  is  not  in  itself  wrong  and  sinful,  but  becomes  so  when 
any  sinful  condition  in  the  way  of  an  immoral  oath  is  involved." 
And,  "that  it  has  always  been  regarded  as  the  privilege  and  the  duty 
of  our  members  to  unite  in  all  civil  actioQ  which  is  not  inconsistent 
with   our  dissent "    from    the   Constitution   of  the   United    States. 

Upon  an  examination  of  the  entire  ground  occupied  by  these  questions 
the   following   conclusions   appear   safe   and   just  : 

All  civil  action  that  involves  an  immoral  oath  is  sinful  and  wrong. 
There  are  certain  acts  that  do  not  involve  an  immoral  oath,  that  are 
not  acts  of  incorporation  with  the  government,  and  that  our  members 
have   alw3ys   claimed   the   right    to   perform. 

The  simple  act  of  voting  for  such  an  amendment  to  the  State  Con- 
stitution as  will  secure  some  important  principle  of  moral  right  and 
reform  such  as  the  prohibitory  amendments  recently  submitted  to  the 
people  of  Kansas,  Iowa  and  Ohio,  belongs  to  the  class  of  acts  con- 
sistent with  the  principles  and  position  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 

Act  of  1868. — To  the  second  inquiry  the  following  answer  is  respect- 
fully  returned  : 

That  we  should  recall  the  peculiar  circumstances  under  which  the 
deliverance   of   1868   was   given. 

It  is  a  matter  of  history  that  the  report  was  taken  up  at  the  last 
hour,  immediately  before  the  final  adjournment  of  the  court.  There 
was  almost  no  opportunity  for  the  examination  and  discussion  of  its 
merits.  It  was  adopted  amid  much  confusion  and  at  a  time  when  the 
attention  of  only  a  fraction  of  the  court  could  be  secured.  Such  ill 
considered  action  thus  hastily  taken  must  be  wanting  in  force  of 
authority,  and  cannot  be  expected  to  command  the  hearty  respect  and 
united   submission  of  the   Church. 

Again,    in   so   far   as   this   deliverance   prohibits   all    civil    action,    not 


only  when  the  service  is  right  in  itself,  but  even  when  no  immoral 
oath  is  involved,  it  contravenes  the  historical  position  of  the  Church,, 
and   the   repeated   deliberate   utterances   of  this   court. 

Finally,  although  this  measure  has  never,  in  so  many  words,  been 
formally  rescinded,  yet  by  the  well-known  rule  of  law,  that  subsequent 
action  necessarily  sets  aside  prior  action  of  a  contrary  nature,  the 
deliverance  of  1868,  in  the  respect  and  to  the  extent  already  defined, 
has,  by  the  action  of  1875,  re-affirmed  in  1882,  been  virtually  and  really 

Other  members  of  the  same  Committee  submitted 
the    following    report  : 

Voting  for  amendments  to  State  Constitutions  involves  an  act  of 
voluntary  incorporation  with  the  governing  political  body,  of  which  we 
say  in  our  Covenant,  "  We  will  not  incorporate  with  it  until  Reforma- 
tion   is   secured." 

We  therefore  recommend  that  our  people  be  enjoined  to  abstain- 
from   voting   for   amendments   to    State   Constitutions. 

An  interesting  letter  was  received  from  the  Associate 
Reformed  Synod  of  the  South  recommending  a  Con- 
vention' of  all  the  Churches  holding  the  same  doctrinal 
symbols  and  who  use  exclusively  the  Psalms  of  the 
Bible    in    worship. 

The  Synod  of  1885,  met  in  Morning  Sun,  Iowa.  The 
delegates  to  the  Conference  of  Psalm-singing  Churches 
reported  that  on  account  of  our  relations  on  civil  affairs 
no  union  could  be  effected.  The  Synod  took  the 
following  action  with  reference  to  weekly  offerings  of 
worship  : 

1.  That  Synod  reaffirm  the  principle  that  the  tithe  is  the  law  of 
God  under  the  New  Testament  dispensation  and  that  it  is  the  least 
measure   of    liberality. 

2.  That  the  envelope  system  of  weekly  offerings  be  approved  as 
in  harmony  with  Scripture  and  wisely  adapted  for  the  end,  and  that 
our   congregations   be   advised    to   consider   it   for    adoption. 

3.  That   in   discussing  this  subject    the  preferences  and  convictions 


of  all  parties  be  duly  and  kindly  considered,  and  that  forbearance 
be  shown  in  reconciling  differences ;  and  whatever  plan  is  adopted 
by  a  congregation  we  most  earnestly  urge  and  exhort  the  minority, 
since  it  is  not  a  matter  of  conscience  but  of  expediency,  that  they 
cease  opposition  and  cordially  acquiesce  in  it  until  by  Christian  per- 
suasion a  change  is  effected. 

The  following  resolutions  on  Temperance  were  adopted: 

1.  We  urge  all  our  people  to  recognize  the  importance  of  the  tem- 
perance cause,  and  its  claim  on  their  active  and  earnest  support.  That 
our  Presbyteries  be  enjoined  to  hold  temperance  institutes  or  conven- 
tions, for  the  discussion  and  advocacy  of  this  cause.  That  sessions  be 
urged  to  give  practical  force  to  the  recently  adopted  article  on  temper- 
ance, in  admitting  members,  and  faithfully  to  enforce  the  discipline  of 
the  church,  in  all  cases  where  the  law  is  violated. 

2.  We  denounce  the  whole  license  system,  as  wrong  in  principle 
and  most  pernicious  in  practice — involving  the  nation  in  the  guilt  and 
shame  of  the  liquor  traffic  to  which  it  gives  its  consent,  as  ineffectual 
for  the  restraint  or  suppression  of  the  evil,  and  an  utter  violation  of 
the  high  trust  God  has  committed  to  civil  government  as  His  ordinance. 

3.  Support  of  political  parties  that  favor  or  ignore  this  nefarious 
business,  or  even  incorporation  with  the  government,  is  inconsistent 
with  fidelity  to  Christ,  and  involves  those  who  continue  in  such  alliance 
in  the  guilt  and  ignominy  of  the  liquor   trafi&c. 

4.  That  it  is  our  duty  as  a  Church  to  give  to  all  scriptural  measures, 
moral,  political  or  legislative,  for  the  suppression  of  this  traffic,  all  that 
support  and  advocacy  which  is  consistent  with  our  position  of  political 
dissent ;  and  especially  that  our  women  be  encouraged  to  co-operate 
with  the  W.  C.  T.  U.  in  its  noble  work  of  faith  and  labor  of  love. 

5.  We  re-affirm  the  former  actions  of  this  court,  enjoining  sessions 
as  far  as  possible,  to  use  only  unintoxicating  wine  in  the  administration 
of  the  Lord's  Supper. 

Having  a  concrete  case  before  it,  the  Synod  directs 
members  of  the  Church  to  "  take  no  part  in  the 
use  of  uninspired  hymns  in  any  service  that  may 
be  regarded  as  the  worship  of  God."  Synod  also  says  : 
"  It  is  most  expedient  that  the  Mod'erator  of  a  Church 
court    be    a    minister    of   the   Gospel." 


The  Synod  of  1886,  met  in  the  city  of  Rochester, 
New  York.     On  Secret  Societies  the  Committee  reported: 

Speculative  Freemasonry,  the  type  of  all  modern  secret  societies, 
•originated  at  Appletree  Tavern,  London,  in  1717.  The  idea  is  bor- 
rowed from  the  heathen.  Secret  societies  have  been  known  in  all 
lands  in  connection  with  the  worship  of  false  deities.  Some  of  these 
claim  the  highest  degree  of  piety  ;  others  still  claiming  to  worship 
their  God,  are  expressly   designed  for  criminal  purposes. 

The  immediate  parentage  of  Freemasonry  were  the  guilds  of  opera- 
tive masons,  in  the  middle  ages,  their  object  being  to  control  architec- 
ture, like  the  present  trades  unions.  They  are,  therefore,  necessarily 
of  a  selfish   character,   and    charity    is   the   veil   to   hide    the   real   end. 

The  principal  feature  of  secret  societies  is  the  oath  or  promise  of 
perpetual  concealment,  and  this  often  with  horrible  penalties  annexed. 
The  effect  of  such  engagement  is  to  take  away  the  right  of  private 
judgment   and   to   put   another's   conscience   in   place   of  one's  own. 

The  penalties  have  been  understood  by  the  lodges  themselves  to  be 
literal,  and  to  forfeit  life,  property  and  character.  Foul  murders  and 
implacable  persecutions  have  followed  the  attempt  of  good  men  to 
free   conscience   from   lodge   tyranny. 

Yet  they  claim  to  be  religious — more  religious  and  charitable  than 
the  Church.  The  Masons  boast  of  the  universal  religion  in  which  all 
men  agree.  This  places  Jew,  heathen  and  Christian  on  a  common 
platform,  on  which  God,  under  the  name  of  Grand  Architect,  is  wor- 
shipped without  Christ.  Other  societies  model  after  the  same  pattern. 
These  orders  also  are  in  spirit  and  forms  despotic,  as  their  own 
authorities  affirm.  They  are  readily  used  by  bad  men  to  screen  them 
from  the  just  punishment  of  their  crimes.  The  so-called  benevolent 
•societies  provide  and  hold  in  readiness  the  machinery  which  bad  men 
use   for   the   destruction   of  life   and  property. 

Socialists  employ  them  for  revolutionary  purposes,  and  conspiring  and 
plotting  in  secret  have  filled  the  world  with  horror  and  alarm.  They 
liinder  the  freedom  of  manufacture  and  business,  and  force  trade  into 
ways   injurious   to    the   public. 

How  should  the  Church  stand  toward  such  organizations?  If  Baal 
■worship  was  the  abomination  that  God  hated  of  old,  surely  he  hates 
the  abomination  done  in  secret  lodges  ;  all  good  men  should  hold  their 
works  in  detestation. 

l60         ^  HISTORY    OF    THE    REFORMED 

Among  other  things  the  report  on  the  tobacco- 
question    says  : 

The  cultivation,  manufacture,  sale  and  use  of  tobacco  are  in  measure 
under  ban  in  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church.  Tobacco  is  pro- 
hibited to  theological  students.  Presbyteries  are  enjoined  to  refuse 
license  to  any  who  are  addicted  to  its  use.  Presbyteries  are  justified 
in  refusing  appointments  to  any  laborer  who  may  be  assigned  to  them, 
and  is  a  user  of  tobacco.  Ministers,  elders,  deacons  and  Sabbath 
School  teachers  are  admonished  to  abstain  from  the  use  of  this  filthy 
weed.  Members  of  the  Church  are  warned  against  its  use  as  a  blemish 
on  Christian   character. 

The  following  strong  resolutions  on  the  same  subject 
were  passed  : 

1.  We  hold  that  the  habitual  use  of  tobacco  in  the  usual  forms,  as 
well  as  the  cultivation  and  sale  of  tobacco  for  such  use,  are  incon- 
sistent with  the  Christian  profession,  and  our  members  are  solemnly 
enjoined   not  to  engage  in  or  continue  in  this  business. 

2.  We  earnestly  and  affectionately  urge  every  member  of  the  Church 
who  is   addicted   to  its  use  in  any  form,  to  break  oflf  the  habit  at   once. 

3.  That  we  renew  the  injunction  to  Presbyteries,  not  to  license  any 
one  to  preach,  nor  to  ordain  any  one  to  the  ministry,  who  persists  in 
the  use  of  this  filthy  weed. 

4.  That  Sessions  be  enjoined  not  to  ordain  any  one  to  the  office  of 
elder  or  deacon,  who  is  addicted  to  this   habit. 

5.  That  Sessions  be  instructed  to  strongly  urge  youthful  applicants 
for  membership   in  the  Church,  to  refrain  from  using  tobacco. 

Rev.  James  Kennedy  was  chosen  professor  of 
Theology  to  fill  the  vacancy  occasioned  by  the  death 
of  the  Rev.  J.  R.  W.  Sloane,  D.  D.  Mr.  Kennedy, 
however,  declined  the  position,  and  the  Rev.  R.  J. 
George  temporarily  filled  the  chair  for  the  following 
winter.  Synod  condemned  the  organization  and  methods 
of   the    Knights    of    Labor,    for    the    following  reasons : 

I.  Because  they  are  confessedly  organized  on  the  principles  of 
secrecy,  contrary   to   our   standing   Testimony. 


2.  The  form  of  their  society  is  that  of  absolute  despotism,  the 
members  being  under  obligation  to  render  unqestioning  obedience  in 
carrying  out  the  dictates  ot  their  leaders,  right  or  wrong,  often  in 
violation   of  the   rights   of  their  fellow-citizens. 

3.  Because  they  assume  to  dictate  to  the  employer,  not  only  the 
wages  to  be  paid  for  service,  but  the  persons  to  be  employed,  and  all 
the  conditions  of  the  service,  leaving  him  a  helpless  slave  in  the  hands 
of  a  society  with  which  he  holds  no  relation. 

4.  They  forbid  non-union  men  to  labor,  and  contractors  to  employ 
them,  thus  by  the  grossest  tyranny  monopolizing  all  rights  and  privi- 
leges to  themselves. 

5.  They  compel  manufacturers  and  dealers  to  discharge  freemen,  or 
refuse  them  the  right  to  buy  or  sell  or  carry  on  their  business. 

6.  They  interfere  with  the  rights  of  the  government  by  dictating  to 
legislators  and  executors  of  law,  and  by  making  void  all  authority 
save  their  own. 

7.  All  this  they  do,  following  the  example  of  Freemasons,  by 
•secretly  pursuing  the  objects  of  their  vengeance,  and  hunting  down 
their  reputation  and  their  business  in  a  way  that  prevents  obtaining 
redress  by   the   law. 

We,  therefore,  declare  that  Reformed  Presbyterians  cannot  belong  to 
these  Associations  without  renouncing  all  the  traditions  of  their  history 
in  favor  of  civil  and  ecclesiastical  liberty  and  the  rights  of  God  and 
man.  Further,  we  declare  that  our  members  ought  to  suffer  rather 
than  sin,  by  partnership  in  such  practices.  And  further,  we  enjoin 
the  members  of  our  Church,  rich  and  poor,  to  stand  shoulder  to  shoulder 
in  opposition  to  this  tyranny,  and  we  pledge  ourselves  and  our  members 
that  we  will  not  permit  the  poor  to  suffer  unaided,  but  will  consider 
what  is  done  to  persecute  the  least  as  done  to  all,  and  we  will  not  stand 
by  and  see  our  dear  brethren  driven  under  the  cruel  lash  of  this  new 
task-master,  but  will  come  to  their  aid  with  our  goods,  and  if  need 
be,    with   our   lives. 

Synod  gave  the  following  deliverances  :  That  in 
■cases  where  our  ministers  conduct  services  in  other 
Churches,  they  must  not  give  out  hymns  of  human 
composition,  but  use  any  good  version  of  the  Psalms ; 
and,    if    instrumental    music    is    used,    they   must    have    it 


understood  that  they  do  not  sanction  that  part  of  the 
service.  Members  were  urged  not  to  sit  on  juries 
where  an  immoral  oath  was  required.  The  Synod 
adopted    the    following    resolutions : 

Whereas,  This  Church  has  occupied  a  position  of  dissent  from  the 
government  of  the  country  on  account  of  the  infidel  character  of  the 
National   Constitution  ;    and, 

Whereas,  This   reason   of  dissent   is   not  removed  ;  therefore, 

Resolved,  i.  That  voting  on  amendments  to  State  Constitutions,  or  tO' 
the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  or  to  revised  forms  of  Con- 
stitutions, when  conditioned  on  an  expressed  or  implied  approval  of 
the  National  Constitution  as  a  compact  of  government,  is  inconsistent 
with  our   position   of  political   dissent. 

Resolved,  2.  That  Presbyteries  be  directed  to  take  no  notice  of 
inconsistencies  which  may  have  occurred  during  the  discussion  of  this- 
question  by  Synod. 

Resolved,  3.  That  Synod  will  hold  Presbyteries  hereafter  strictly 
responsible  for  the   maintenance    of  discipline   on   this   point. 

The  Synod  of  1887,  met  in  the  city  of  Newburgh^ 
New  York.  The  meeting  was  a  large  and  harmonious 
one,  and  the  papers  and  discussions  were  of  a  most 
interesting  character.  The  Synod  re-afifirmed  her 
distinctive  position,  leaving  no  misunderstanding  about 
what  she  believed  and  practiced.  Rev.  R.  J.  George 
was  twice  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy  in  the  Theolog- 
ical Seminary,  but  declined.  The  Rev.  J.  K.  McClurkin 
was  then  chosen,  and  accepted.  Revs.  J.  P.  Dardier  of 
Switzerland,  and  Dr.  A.  P.  Happer  ot  China,  addressed 
the  court  on  the  cause  of  evangelization  in  those 
countries.  Rev.  W.  J.  Sproull,  returned  missionary  from 
Syria,  addressed  the  Synod.  A  Committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  make  a  suitable  revision  of  the  Psalms. 
With    reference    to    the   character    of    mission    work     that 


may    be    properly    done     by    students     of    theology,     the 
Synod    says : 

That  while  students  of  ;theology  are  not  authorized  to  preach  the 
gospel  until  they  are  licensed  by  Presbytery  ;  yet  there  is  a  large  amount 
of  work  in  which  they  may  be  profitably  employed.  They  may  act 
as  colporteurs ;  organize  and  teach  in  Sabbath  Schools,  and  under 
the  direction  and  supervision  of  the  Presbytery  to  which  they  belong, 
they  may  be  employed  in  such  evangelical  work  as  Presbytery  may 

With  a  concrete  case  before  it,  Synod  decided  that 
mutes,  who  are  members  of  the  Church,  are  entitled 
to  all  privileges  as  such,  and  have  a  right  to  vote 
in  elections  of  the  congregations,  and  to  pay  all  their 
quotas  to  the  schemes  of  the  Church.  A  pastoral 
letter  was  directed  to  be  written  touching  upon  the 
matters  that  were  before  Synod,  and  press  them  on 
the  attention  of  the  people.  Plans  for  the  establish- 
ment of  an  Indian  Mission,  for  the  better  support  of 
the  Theological  Seminary,  and  for  a  fund  for  Ministers' 
Widows'  and  Orphans'  were  laid  before  the  court.  In 
the  report  on  the  jury  question  it  is  plainly  and  satis- 
factorily shown  that  Reformed  Presbyterians  cannot  take 
the  immoral  oath  required,  and  serve  the  designs  of 
that  ofifice  in  consistency  with  their  avowed  position  of 
dissent  from  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 
A  revision  of  the  Book  of  Psalms  for  the  use  of  the 
Church  was  completed  in  the  fall  of  1887.  The  Com- 
mittee performing  this  work  consisted  of  Revs.  David 
McAllister,  T.  P.  Stevenson,  R.  M,  Sommerville,  J.  C. 
K.  Milligan,  and  elders  Henry  O'Neil,  William  Neely 
and  W.  T.  Miller.  The  work  will  be  presented  at  the 
meeting    of    Synod    in    May,     1888.     A     Committee     of 


Synod  met  a  similar  Committee  of  the  United  Pres- 
byterian Church  to  formulate  a  basis  of  union.  While 
there  seemed  to  be  a  general  agreement  as  to  the 
-doctrine  of  the  headship  of  Christ,  the  latter  body 
was  not  prepared  to  make  a  practical  application  of 
that  principle,  and  it  is  not  likely  that  a  union  can 
be    effected. 

The  principal  deliverances  of  Synod,  touching  upon 
the  distinctive  principles  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church,  have  been  noticed,  leaving  the  members  of  this 
Church  inexcusable,  and  others  instructed,  with  reference 
to  her  peculiar  principles.  It  is  believed  that  her 
principles  are  Scriptural  and  her  conduct  consistent 
with  her  high  profession,  and  that  the  cause  for  which 
■Covenanters    contend    will    ultimately    prevail. 

From  the  reports  of  1887,  the  following  condition 
of    the    Church    is    gathered : 

Ministers,  114;  Licentiates,  11  ;  Students  of  Theo- 
logy, 20;  Congregations,  121;  Communicants,  10,832; 
Total    Contributions,    $24.04    per    member    for    the    year. 

The  Synod  of  1888,  meets  in  the  city  of  Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania,  during  the  sessions  of  which  the  Bi- 
centenary of  the  Revolution  Settlement  will  be  suitably 


Congregations  and  Societies. 


Saint  John.  This  city  was  settled  by  loyalists  who 
fled  from  New  England  during  the  American  Revolution, 
and  it  now  contains,  with  its  suburbs,  a  population  of 
nearly  fifty  thousand  inhabitants.  It  possesses  an  excel- 
lent harbor  and  is  a  city  of  considerable  commercial 
importance.  Very  early  in  the  present  century,  a  few 
Covenanters  from  Scotland  and  Ireland  found  abode  in 
this  city,  and  for  many  years  worshipped  together 
without  the  form  of  an  organization.  In  the  year 
1820,  these  people  made  application  to  the  Northern 
Presbytery  of  the  American  Church  for  preaching 
ordinances.  The  matter  was  brought  before  that  court 
at  the  following  meeting,  and,  in  the  spring  of  1821, 
the  Presbytery  sent  the  Revs.  James  R.  and  Samuel 
M.  Willson  on  an  exploring  expedition  to  these  Prov- 
inces. As  a  result  of  their  visit  they  found  in  the 
city  of  Saint  John,  seven  families  regularly  certified 
from  the  Covenanter  congregations  beyond  the  sea,  and 
organized  them  into  a  praying  society.  The  mission- 
aries then  opened  up  a  correspondence  with  the  sister 
Churches  of  Scotland  and  Ireland,  related  to  them  of 
their  success  and  the  needs  of  their  countrymen,  and 
urgently  requested  them  to  send  missionaries  to  these 


destitute  yet  steadfast  people.  The  Irish  Church 
regarded  it  as  a  Macedonian  cry.  The  Synod  of 
Ireland  organized  the  Home  and  Foreign  Missionary 
Society  in  1826,  and  sought  for  a  suitable  person  to 
send  as  a  missionary  to  the  British  North  American 
Provinces.  During  the  following  winter,  while  the  great 
Sheridan  Knowles  was  giving  readings  in  Belfast,  which 
were  held  in  the  largest  theatre  in  the  city,  one  of 
the  Presbyteries  sent  a  Committee  to  the  theatre  to 
wait  upon  Mr.  Alexander  Clarke,  then  a  •  theological 
student,  to  have  him  go  as  a  missionary  to  Nova 
Scotia.  He  felt  that  it  was  the  call  of  his  Master 
and  accepted  the  appointment.  The  following  spring 
he  was  duly  licensed  and  ordained  for  this  field,  and, 
in  August,  1827,  arrived  safely  in  the  city  of  Saint 
John.  In  1828,  he  organized  the  congregation  of  Saint 
John  with  forty-five  members.  In  1833,  a  comfortable 
house  of  worship  was  erected  in  that  portion  of  the 
city  known  as  the  Lower  Cove.  Mr.  Clarke  continued 
to  preach  to  them,  and  societies  adjacent,  for  several 
years,  and  then  removed  to  the  more  inviting  field  of 
Eastern  Nova  Scotia.  Saint  John  being  now  destitute 
of  regular  preaching,  the  needs  of  the  congregation 
were  repeatedly  presented  to  the  notice  of  the  Church 
in  Ireland  and  to  the  Society  which  was  sustaining 
the  Mission.  These  applications,  however,  were  not 
answered  until  the  spring  of  1841,  when  Mr.  Alexander 
McLeod  Stavely  offered  his  services  as  a  missionary 
to  this  city.  His  offer  was  joyfully  accepted,  and,  for 
this  purpose,  he  was  ordained  by  the  Northern  Presby- 
tery   at    Kilraughts,    Ireland,    May    12,    1841.     He  sailed 

Presbyterian  church  in  America.  167 

from  Greenock  in  June,  and  arrived  safely  in  Saint 
John  in  August,  1841.  He  found  a  congregation  of 
about  seventy-five  members,  to  whose  spiritual  \yants 
he  at  once  devoted  his  labors  with  energy  and  suc- 
cess. The  old  house  of  worship  in  Lower  Cove  was 
sold  in  1850,  because  it  was  neither  in  a  desirable 
nor  central  location.  The  congregation  erected  a  well- 
appointed  church  and  manse  on  the  corner  of  Sydney 
and  Princess  streets.  Here  the  people  worshipped  for 
twenty-seven  years,  and  gradually  grew  in  numbers 
and  Christian  influence.  The  church  and  manse,  with 
all  their  contents,  were  swept  away  by  the  great  con- 
flagration of  June,  1877,  when  two  hundred  acres  of 
the  best  of  the  city  were  laid  in  ashes.  This  great 
loss  to  the  Covenanter  congregation  at  a  time  when 
a  serious  financial  depression  immediately  followed, 
disheartened  many  of  the  people,  who  left  the  city  to 
seek  their  fortunes  in  a  western  clime.  With  that 
courage  which  knows  no  defeat,  and  which  is 
characteristic  of  the  Scotch-Irish,  these  people,  encour- 
aged by  their  pastor,  began  the  erection  of  the 
present  commodious  and  convenient  church  building 
in  1878,  situated  on  the  corner  of  Carleton  and  Peele 
streets.  Notwithstanding  the  encouragements  that  pre- 
sented themselves,  Mr.  Stavely  resigned  the  congrega- 
tion in  July,  1879,  and  returned  to  his  native  Ireland. 
Licentiates  were  now  sent  from  the  States  and  Saint 
John  was  one  of  the  vacancies.  The  Rev.  A.  J. 
McFarland  spent  a  part  of  the  winter  of  1881  in  the 
congregation.  Having  received  a  unanimous  call  to 
become  their  pastor,  he  accepted,  and  was  duly  installed 

l68    •  HISTORY   OF   THE    REFORMED 

August  4,  1882.  The  church  and  manse,  which  are 
models  of  neatness  and  convenience,  were  completed 
in  the  fall  of  1883,  and  the  congregation  began  a  new 
lease  of  life.  In  the  spring  of  1887,  the  congregation 
suffered  a  severe  financial  stroke  by  the  failure  of  one 
of  the  chief  supporters  and  most  efficient  members. 
The  Church  in  the  States  nobly  contributed  to  the 
cause,  and  soon  these  worthy  people  will  be  lifted  out 
of  their  straits.  Among  the  fathers  and  heads  of 
families  who  have  been  prominent  in  the  life  of  the 
Saint  John  congregation  are :  Thomas  Maclellan,  John 
Boyd,  George  Suffren,  Robert  Ewing,  John  Millen, 
William  Dougall,  George  Bell,  John  McMaster,  Samuel 
Reid,  John  Toland,  James  Miller,  Mrs.  Russell,  Mrs. 
Cunningham,  James  Dunbar,  Neil  Morrison,  R.  A.  H. 
Morrow,  John  Baxter,  J.  O.  Miller,  W.  G.  Brown, 
Dr.    Morrison    and    Thomas    A.    Dunlap. 

Barnesville.  This  is  a  beautiful  little  villa  cosily 
nestled  among  the  evergreen  hills  between  the  Ham- 
mond River  and  the  lakes  of  Loch  Lomond,  twenty 
miles  south-east  of  the  city  of  Saint  John.  The  con- 
gregation now  derives  its  name  from  the  village  but 
was  formerly  known  as  South  Stream.  The  Rev. 
James  Reid  Lawson,  who  came  as  a  missionary  from 
Ireland  in  1845,  after  visiting  several  localities,  settled 
in  this  place  the  following  year  when  there  were  only 
two  Covenanters  in  this  section  of  the  country.  In 
1856,  he  resigned  the  charge  and  accepted  a  call  to 
the  congregation  of  Boston,  Massachusetts,  but  after  a 
year's  labor  in  that  city,  he  returned  to  his  first  charge 
at    Barnesville.     Here    he    continued    his    labor     of     love. 


not  only  preaching  to  his  own  congregation,  but  making 
missionary  tours  through  all  parts  of  the  Province. 
Suffering  from  a  stroke  of  paralysis,  which  rendered 
almost  useless  his  left  side,  he  was  compelled  to  resign 
the  charge  in  the  spring  of  1882,  since  which  time 
he  has  lived  in  comparative  retirement  at  his  country 
home  in  the  suburbs  of  Barnesville.  For  five  years 
the  congregation  was  supplied  by  the  Central  Board  of 
Missions,  and  the  services  were  kept  up  pretty  regularly. 
The  Rev.  Thomas  Patton  became  the  pastor  in  May, 
1887,  and  the  Covenanters  of  Barnesville  have  the 
prospect  of  becoming  a  flourishing  congregation.  Among 
those  who  have  long  been  connected  with  the  Barnes- 
ville congregation  are  the  families  of  Rev.  Mr.  Lawson, 
Dr.  Brady,  Parks,  Curry,  Millican,  Toland,  Kelso,  Hender- 
son,   McCracken,     Armstrong,     Barnes,  Bell,  and    others. 

Mill  Stream.  This  was  a  Mission  Station  about 
fifty  miles  east  of  the  city  of  Saint  John,  and  was 
established  by  the  Rev.  A.  M.  Stavely  about  1858.  A 
small  house  of  worship  was  erected  near  Queenstown, 
and  the  society,  which  at  one  time  was  composed  of 
thirty  members,  frequently  received  preaching  by  the 
ministers  in  the  Provinces.  It  was  an  out-of-the-way 
place,  and  by  emigration  and  death  it  is  nearly  extinct. 
The  Elders,  Galleys  and  Grindons,  were  among  the 
principal   families. 

MONCTON.  This  is  a  live  young  city  of  some  eight 
thousand  inhabitants,  situated  ninety  miles  east  of  Saint: 
John  and  within  fifteen  miles  of  the  Strait  of  North- 
umberland. Having  received  many  urgent  invitations; 
from    members    of   the    congregations    of  Barnesville    andl 


Saint  ^John,  who  were  living  in  this  city,  the  Rev.  A. 
J.  McFarland  visited  them  in  the  spring  of  1884.  His 
services  were  followed  by  those  of  several  licentiates 
from  the  States,  who  preached  in  Ruddick's  Hall  and 
the  old  Union  Church  in  Steadman  street.  Quite  a 
congregation  gathered  from  those  who  were  dissatisfied 
with  the  human  inventions  of  other  Churches,  and  a 
few  disaffected  members  of  the  Presbyterian  Church 
joined  them.  In  the  fall  of  1885,  Mr.  McFarland 
organized  them  into  a  mission  station  and  they  con- 
tinued to  receive  occasional  supplies.  Among  the  prin- 
cipal members  and  supporters  are  the  families  of  A. 
J.  Millican,  Charles  Elliot,  Dr.  Ross  and  the  Misses 
Grindon.  There  were  other  places  in  the  Province  of 
New  Brunswick  where  the  ministers  frequently  preached, 
but  no  organizations  were  effected.  Among  these  are 
Ouaco,  Black  River,  Chepody,  Hopewell,  Neripis,  Lon- 
donderry, Jerusalem,  Salt  Springs  and  Passakeag.  Rev. 
Alexander  Clarke  established  mission  stations  in  Sack- 
ville,  Nappan  and  Murray's  Corner,  but  these  passed 
under  the  control  of  the  New  School  brethren  in  1847, 
and    are    since    about    extinct. 


Amherst.  The  Rev.  Alexander  Clarke,  missionary 
from  Ireland,  first  visited  this  region  in  1828,  and  this 
was    the    scene    of    most    of    his    labors    for    forty    years. 

When  he  came  to  this  part  of  the  Province  he 
found  a  few  adhering  to  Reformation  principles  scattered 
over   a   vast    area    of  country,  but  the  outside  world  was 


a  vast  moral  wilderness.  If  he  had  followed  the  method 
of  many  missionaries  in  a  new  country,  and  admitted 
indiscriminately  persons  to  the  privileges  of,  the  Church, 
he  could  have  had  large  accessions.  But  this  he  would 
not  do.  He  preferred  the  purity  of  the  Church  to  the 
number  of  her  members,  and  gave  applicants  a  careful 
examination  before  he  admitted  them  to  the  privileges 
of  the  Church.  He  dispensed  the  first  Covenanter  Com- 
munion in  the  fall  of  1830,  and  a  large  audience 
waited  upon  the  services.  Fifty  communicants  from 
New  Brunswick,  Nova  Scotia  and  Prince  Edward  Island 
sat  down  at  the  table  of  the  Lord  for  the  first  time 
in  their  adopted  country.*  In  1 831,  the  Rev.  William 
Sommerville  and  Mr.  Andrew  Stevenson,  Catechist,  were 
sent  to  Nova  Scotia  as  missionaries  by  the  Church  in 
Ireland.  Revs.  Alexander  Clarke  and  William  Som- 
merville, with  Elders,  constituted  the  Reformed  Presby- 
tery of  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia,  under  the 
care  of  the  Synod  of  Ireland,  April  25,  1832.  The 
congregation  of  Amherst  was  placed  under  the  charge  of 
Rev.  Alexander  Clarke,  and  was  composed  of  numerous 
branches.  Among  the  preaching  stations,  which  subse- 
quently became  congregations,  were  Shemogue,  River 
Hebert,  Goose  River,  Port  Elgin,  Rockland,  Truro  and 
Pictou.  In  the  year  1847,  Mr.  Clarke  identified  himself 
with  the  government  which  the  Covenanters  under  the 
British  Crown  had  been  endeavoring  to  reform  for  many 
years,  and  the  same  government  which  had  inflicted  the 
persecution  upon  his  forefathers  in  Scotland.  He  con- 
nected    himself,    and    all    the     societies    he     represented, 

*  Report   to   Irish   Synod,  1831. 


with  the  New  School  body  of  the  United  States,  and 
by  defection,  death  and  emigration.  New  School  Cove- 
nanterism  is  almost  extinct  in  this  region. 

HORTOX.  The  congregation  which  was  gathered  in 
the  historic  village  of  Grand  Pre,  was  commonly  called 
Lower  Horton,  from  its  location  in  the  township  of 
Horton.  It  is  near  the  Basin  of  Minas,  sixty-two 
miles  north-west  of  the  city  of  Halifax.  This  was  the 
land  of  the  Acadians,  and  where,  in  1755,  over  two 
thousand  souls  were  exiled  from  peaceful  homes  and 
fruitful  fields  which  they  had  built  by  their  own 
industry  and  reclaimed  from  the  sea  by  hard  labor. 
There  may  be  viewed  to-day  the  ruins  of  their  church 
and  those  of  hundreds  of  dwellings,  as  well  as  the 
place  of  the  graveyard  and  home  of  Evangeline,  and 
the  beach  at  the  mouth  of  the  Gaspereaux  from 
which  they  embarked  in  the  ships  which  had  been 
prepared  for  them.*  Horton  was  first  supplied  with 
regular  preaching  in  1765,  by  the  Rev.  John  Murdock, 
a  Presbyterian  minister  from  Ireland.  His  connection 
with  this  congregation  ceased  in  1790,  on  account  of 
his  intemperate  habits.  In  1829,  the  Rev.  Alexander 
Clarke  visited  them  and  preached  in  this  community 
several  Sabbaths.  In  1832,  the  Rev.  William  Sommer- 
ville  was  invited  by  these  people  to  settle  in  Horton. 
They  promised  him  the  use  of  a  free  house  and  garden 
owned  by  the  congregation,  and  as  much  money  as 
they    could    possibly    raise    for    preaching    every  alternate 

*  The  situation  and  incidents  of  the  expulsion  of  the  peaceful  Acadians 
have  been  minutely  described  by  the  lamented  Longfellow  in  his  "Exile 
of  the  Acadians,"  and  the  pathetic  story  of  "  Evangeline." 


Sabbath.  They  agreed  also  to  sing  the  Psahns  of 
David  and  comply  to  other  practices  of  the  church,.. 
and  gradually  the  congregation  became  in  theory  and 
practice  a  Covenanter  congregation.  He  accepted  their 
invitation  and  terms,  and  became  the  regular  pastor 
in  1835.  This  same  year  he  was  also  presented  with, 
a  call  from  the  people  of  West  Cornwallis  for  a  part 
of  his  time,  which  was  by  him  accepted,  and  from 
this  date  to  that  of  his  death,  in  1878,  he  was  pastor 
of  the .  united  congregations  of  Horton  and  Cornwallis. 
His  increased  labor,  and  that  under  physical  decline,, 
demanded  the  assistance  of  another  minister.  To  meet 
this  requirement,  his  son,  the  Rev.  Robert  M.  Sommer- 
ville,  was  ordained  and  installed  co-pastor,  October  16, 
1 86 1.  He  soon  afterwards  built  a  church  in  Wolfville 
for  the  better  accommodation  of  some  of  the  people  of 
that  community,  where  he  preached  until  1873.  The 
building  was  afterwards  sold  and  the  services  all  con- 
ducted at  Horton  congregation  in  the  village  of  Grand 
Pre.  The  church  building  here  is  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  historic  village,  with  the  accustomed  large 
grounds  and  spacious  graveyard.  It  was  built  about 
1 8 10,  and  is  decidedly  antique  in  architecture,  having 
the  regulation  high  pulpit,  sounding  board,  box  pews 
and  commodious  gallery.  In  the  summer  of  1881,  the 
Rev.  Thomas  McFall  became  the  pastor  at  Cornwallis^ 
and  preached  here  a  part  of  his  time,  until  it  became 
disorganized  by  the  death  of  an  elder  in  1886.  Among 
the  families  in  this  branch  are  those  of  Harvey,. 
McDonald,    Chase,    Trenholm    and    Newcomb. 

Cornwallis.     This     congregation     derives     its     name 
from    the     township    in    Kings    County,     in     the     central 


part  of  the  Province,  and  is  situated  some  eighty-five 
miles  north-west  of  Halifax.  The  valley  is  a  very  fertile 
one  and  the  orchards  are  luxuriant.  It  is  a  fruitful 
garden  and  has  long  been  occupied  by  a  thrifty  and 
industrious  people.  About  the  beginning  of  the  present 
century,  the  Rev.  William  Forsythe,  a  Scotchman, 
whose  remains  lie  in  the  silent  graveyard  of  Grand 
Pre,  labored  here  as  a  Presbyterian  missionary  for  nearly 
thirty  years.  In  1831,  the  Rev.  William  Sommerville 
entered  the  field  and  occasionally  preached  to  Presby- 
terians generally,  and  over  a  vast  extent  of  territory, 
until  the  spring  of  1835,  when  he  became  the  pastor, 
and  remained  until  his  death  in  1878.  The  Presbytery 
had  made  arrangements  previous  to  his  death  for  the 
supply  of  the  pulpit,  and,  during  the  summer  of  1878, 
Mr.  W.  J.  Sproull,  licentiate,  and  late  missionary  to 
Syria,  filled  the  pulpit  with  so  much  acceptance  that 
they  tendered  him  a  unanimous  call,  which,  however, 
he  saw  fit  to  decline.  In  the  summer  of  1881,  the 
Rev.  Thomas  McFall  was  ordained  and  installed  pastor, 
and  after  the  adjustment  of  certain  difificulties  about 
baptism,  the  congregation  has  been  in  a  harmonious 
and  flourishing  condition.  The  church  building  is  not 
far  from  the  village  of  Somerset,  and  the  parsonage, 
which  was  burned  in  November,  1887,  was  located  in 
the  village.  There  are  preaching  stations  at  North 
Mountain,  Ross'  Corners  and  the  public  hall  in  Somerset. 
Among  the  faithful  followers  of  Covenanterism  in  this 
section  are  the  families  of  Mortons,  Newcombs, 
Cochrans,  Colemans,  Woodworths,  Magees,  Sommervilles, 
.and    others. 


WiLMOT.  This  small  mission  station  is  fifteen  miles 
west  of  the  Cornwallis  congregation.  It  was  begun  in 
1834,  when  Mr.  John  Allan,  a  Covenanter  who  had 
emigrated  from  the  north  of  Ireland  to  this  place, 
travelled  forty  miles  to  Grand  Pre  to  visit  Mr.  Som- 
merville  and  have  him  come  and  preach  to  his  country- 
men on  Handly  Mountain.  This  visit  lead  to  the 
organization  of  a  society,  which  was  occasionally  visited 
until  1849,  when  the  Rev.  Robert  Stewart  took  charge 
of  it,  and  where  he  remained  until  1881.  He  also 
preached  in  Margaretville,  Lawrencetown,  and  other 
places,  and  gathered  quite  a  congregation.  The  church 
building  is  a  neat  and  comfortable  frame  structure 
near  Melverne  Square.  Since  1881,  the  congregation 
has  enjoyed  supplies  sent  out  by  the  Central  Board  of 
Missions,  and  a  good  deal  of  interest  was  manifested 
in  reviving  the  work.  The  families  of  Mr.  Stewart, 
Mr.  Kerr  and  Mr.  Outhit  have  done  much  to  keep 
the    cause    alive. 


HOULTON.  The  few  families  of  Covenanters  which 
settled  five  miles  north  of  Houlton,  were  from  Don- 
egal, Ireland,  and  were  organized  into  the  Littleton 
Society  in  1859.  These  thrifty  people  reside  on  both 
sides  of  the  line  between  Maine  and  New  Brunswick, 
and  are  tenaciously  attached  to  Reformation  principles. 
For  many  long  years  they  kept  up  the  society  meet- 
ings and  read  one  of  Dr.  Houston's  sermons  as  a 
substitute    for    a    discourse     delivered    with     the     living 

176  \  HISTORY    OF   THE    REFORMED 

voice.  They  built  a  meeting  house  which  was  replaced' 
by  a  comfortable  frame  church  in  1883.  Mr.  J.  A.  F. 
Bovard  labored  here  during  the  summer  of  1880,  under 
appointment  of  the  Central  Board  of  Missions.  He 
was  ordained  to  the  office  of  the  holy  ministry  in 
the  summer  of  1881,  and  settled  as  a  missionary  among 
them,  and  remained  until  the  spring  of  18^84.  He 
was  instrumental  in  gathering  the  people  together  and 
rebuilding  their  house  of  worship.  The  Central  Board 
of  Missions  has  almost  constantly  supplied  them  during 
the  summer  months.  The  several  families  of  Hender- 
sons, and  their  connections,  form  the  great  majority 
of  the  membership.  They  are  worthy  to  be  mentioned 
as  the  only  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  State  of  Maine 
for    many   years. 


No  congregations  of  Covenanters  were  ever  organized 
in  the  State  of  New  Hampshire.  Doubtless  individuals 
and  families  found  abode  within  its  limits,  but  not  in 
an  organized  capacity.  In  his  diary,  the  Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson  says  he  visited  New  Hampshire  in  the 
fall  of  1766,  but  he  gives  neither  the  names  of  the 
places  nor  the  families  he  visited.  In  a  missionary 
tour  through  this  State  in  1845,  ^^e  Rev.  James  R. 
Willson,  D.  D.,  found  but  two  members — one  living  in 
the  village  of  Lyman  Plains,  and  the  other  near  the 
city    of    Concord. 



Ryegate.  The  Ryegate  society  of  Covenanters  may 
:be  regarded  as  the  parent  of  all  the  congregations  in 
Vermont.  It  is  situated  on  the  Connecticut  river  and 
in  the  south-eastern  corner  of  Caledonia  County.  Dr. 
Witherspoon  was  the  original  owner  of  the  land  in 
this  section,  and  encouraged  the  Scotch  emigrants  to 
settle  upon  it  about  a  century  ago.  In  1789,  these 
people  petitioned  the  Associate  Presbytery  for  preach- 
ing, and,  as  the  outcome  of  their  earnest,  desires  for 
services,  the  Rev.  David  Goodwillie  was  installed  the 
pastor  of  Ryegate  and  Barnet,  February  8,  1791,  and 
continued  in  this  relation  until  his  death  in  1830. 
Some  of  these  Scotch  settlers,  however,  did  not  connect 
with  the  Associate  Church.  Among  these  were  the 
Whitehills,  Holmeses,  and  others.  They  continued  to 
hold  society  meetings  among  themselves  and  would  not 
wait  upon  the  ministrations  of  others,  in  this  respect 
following  the  example  of  their  forefathers  in  Scotland. 
At  the  formation  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery  in  the 
spring  of  1798,  they  petitioned  for  the  services  of  a 
Covenanter  minister ;  and,  according  to  their  wishes, 
the  Rev.  William  Gibson  was  sent  to  them  the  same 
fall.  In  the  winter  of  1798,  the  Rev.  James  McKinney 
also  visited  them,  and  encouraged  them  to  call  Mr. 
Gibson  to  be  their  pastor.  This  they  did,  and,  ac- 
cepting, he  was  duly  installed  pastor  of  the  Ryegate 
congregation,  and  societies  adjacent,  July  10,  1799.  In 
March,  1800,  he  also  became  town  minister.  Here  he 
labored    assiduously    in    defence    of    the    principles  of  the 


Church  for  fifteen  years,  and  until  his  release  in  1815. 
The  congregation  languished  for  a  little,  and  in  many 
respects  became  very  disorderly.  A  call  having  been 
importunately  presented,  the  Rev.  James  Milligan  was 
installed  pastor  in  18 17.  The  elders  at  this  time  in 
the  different  societies  were  Messrs.  Whitehill  and  Cald- 
well of  Ryegate  ;  Hindman  of  Barnet  ;  McKeith  and 
McNeice  of  Topsham.  Mr.  Milligan's  administration 
was  not  free  from  serious  trouble,  yet  he  labored  faith- 
fully for  over  twenty  years,  and,  when  he  left  the 
congregation  in  1839,  the  parent  Church  was  twice  as 
large  as  he  found  it,  and  two  others  were  organized 
from  it.  In  1844,  the  Rev.  James  M.  Beattie  was 
settled  over  the  congregation,  and  the  elders  at  the 
time  were  Messrs.  Johnston,  Coburn  and  McCIure  of 
Ryegate  ;  and  Whitehill  and  McLaren  of  Barnet.  Mr. 
Beattie  labored  faithfully  among  them  for  thirty-eight 
years,  and  resigned  on  account  of  the  state  of  his 
health  in  1882.  In  1883,  the  Rev.  Hugh  W.  Reed 
became  the  pastor,  and,  after  three  years  of  labor,  he 
resigned  the  charge,  and  efforts  have  been  made  to 
obtain  a  pastor.  Of  the  old  members  in  Ryegate  are 
James  Whitehill,  Josiah  Quint,  Robert  Dickson,  John 
Nelson,  William  Nelson,  Jonathan  Coburn,  John  Maclain, 
James  McLam,  William  Bone,  Charles  B.  Harriman, 
David  Lang,  Duncan  Ritchie,  James  Beattie,  Walter 
Buchanan,  William  Johnston,  John  Dunn,  Thomas 
Hastie,  Allan  Stewart,  John  Brock,  John  Davidson,. 
Henry    E.    Whitehill,    Archibald     Ritchie. 

Barnet.     The     present     Barnet     congregation    was    a 
part    of  the    Ryegate  charge  until   its  separate    organiza- 


tion  in  1872.  Rev.  Daniel  C.  Paris  was  installed 
pastor  in  1873,  and  is  still  in  charge.  Of  the  old 
members  at  Barnet  are  mentioned,  William  McLaren, 
William  Keenan,  William  Whitehill,  A.  W.  McLam, 
Robert    McLam,    Alexander    Shields. 

CraftsbuRV.  The  Craftsbury  congregation  of  Cove- 
nanters is  pleasantly  situated  in  Orleans  County,  some 
twenty-five  miles  directly  south  of  the  Canada  line. 
It  occupies  an  extensive  and  beautiful  table  land 
between  two  ranges  of  the  Green  mountains.*  The 
first  Covenanter,  in  this  vicinity  was  Mr.  Robert  Trum- 
bull, originally  from  Cambuslang,  Scotland,  and  who 
removed  from  Wilbraham,  Massachusetts,  to  this  place 
in  1788,  as  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Craftsbury. 
Mr.  Trumbull  was  a  member  of  the  Established 
Church  of  Scotland,  and,  in  coming  to  America, 
connected  with  the  Congregational  Church,  so  prevalent 
in  New  England.  He  never  was  satisfied  with  this 
body  of  Christians  on  account  of  their  heterodox  views 
respecting  the  atonement  of  Christ,  and  their  loose 
practices  in  many  ways.  He  earnestly  desired  and 
ceaselessly  labored  to  secure  a  return  to  puritanic 
orthodoxy.  After  unsuccessful  attempts  in  this  direction, 
he  waited  upon  tfie  Congregational  services  at  Peacham 
and  Barnet,  but  things  were  no  better  in  these 
churches.  It  was  suggested  to  him  that  no  denom- 
ination would  fit  his  ideas  and  principles  unless  it  was 
the  "McMillanites "  down  at  Ryegate,  who  had  the 
Rev.  William  Gibson  for  their  pastor.  He  determined 
to     hear     Mr.    Gibson.     It    was    a    communion     Sabbath,. 

*  Sketch  in  Covenanter,  Vol.  2,  p.  343. 


and  the  preacher  was  unusually  comforting  and  eloquent 
on  this  occasion.  Mr.  Trumbull  remained  until  the 
close  of  the  services  on  Monday,  and  then  returned 
to  Craftsbury  contented  and  cheered  because  he  had 
found  a  denomination  of  Christians  with  which  he 
•could  fellowship  in  all  his  views.  In  June,  1807,  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Gibson  preached  in  Craftsbury  in  compliance 
with  a  cordial  invitation  extended  by  Colonel  Crafts, 
Mr.  Trumbull,  and  others.  This  was  the  first  Cove- 
nanter preaching  known  to  have  been  given  in  Crafts- 
bury. In  the  spring  of  1808,  Mr.  Trumbull  and 
his  family  connected  with  the  Covenanter  congregation 
of  Ryegate.  Mr.  Gibson  preached  his  last  discourses 
in  Craftsbury,  September  4,  18 14.  The  subject  of  his 
morning  lecture  was  a  part  of  the  fifty-third  chapter 
of  Isaiah,  and  in  the  afternoon  he  preached  upon  the 
sixth  verse  of  the  same  chapter.  On  the  following 
Sabbath,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Farren,  the  Congregational 
minister,  argued  against  the  doctrine  of  the  substi- 
tutionary sacrifice  of  Christ,  which  Mr.  Gibson  had 
taught,  and  maintained  the  doctrine  of  universal  atone- 
ment, which  was  the  system  known  as  the  "  Hopkinsian 
heresy."  This  discourse  of  Mr.  Farren  gave  offence  to 
many  of  his  hearers,  and  a  considerable  number  left 
the  communion  of  the  Congregational  Church  and  kept 
society  meetings  with  Mr.  Trumbull.  In  the  winter  of 
181 5,  the  Rev.  John  Cannon,  then  a  licentiate,  preached 
with  great  acceptance,  and  convinced  many  of  the 
impropriety  of  the  New  England  custom  of  beginning 
the  Sabbath  on  Saturday  evening  and  ending  it  at 
sundown    on    the    Lord's    day.     In  September,    18 16,   the 


first  session  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  Mr. 
Robert  Trumbull,  and  the  Craftsbury  society  became 
a  regularly  organized  congregation.  Among  the  first 
members  enrolled  were :  Robert  Trumbull,  Lucy  Bab- 
cock  Trumbull  his  wife,  his  children  James,  Mary, 
Nancy,  Clarissa,  and  his  nephew  James  Trumbull ; 
John  Babcock,  Elizabeth  Babcock,  Leonard  Morse, 
Elizabeth  Morse,  Mrs,  Johnston,  Phebe  Johnston,  Benja- 
min Morse,  Ephraim  Morse,  Mrs.  Rodgers  and  Mrs. 
Wylie.  The  society  continued  to  enjoy  the  ministra- 
tions of  the  Rev.  James  Milligan  of  Ryegate  until 
1833,  when  they  felt  they  were  able  to  support  a 
pastor  themselves.  In  the  spring  of  1833,  the  Rev. 
Samuel  M.  Willson  became  the  pastor  when  their 
membership  numbered  sixty  communicants.  Mr.  Willson 
labored  diligently  for  twelve  years  and  gathered  many 
into  the  church.  He  resigned  in  1845,  and  returned  to 
the  State  of  New  York.  In  1846,  the  Rev.  Renwick 
Z.  Willson,  nephew  of  the  former  pastor,  took  charge 
of  the  congregation.  At  this  time  the  elders  were 
James  Trumbull,  Alexander  Shields,  John  A.  Morse, 
Stephen  Babcock,  Leonard  Harriman  and  John  Anderson. 
After  nine  years  of  service,  Mr.  Willson  resigned  in 
1855.  Henceforth  the  pastorates  were  of  short  duration 
owing  to  the  severity  of  the  climate  and  the  paucity 
of  members.  In  1857,  the  Rev.  John  M.  Armour  was 
installed  pastor  and  remained  until  1865.  Three  years 
it  was  a  vacancy.  The  Rev.  Archibald  W.  Johnston 
took  the  charge  in  1868,  and  resigned  in  1871,  on 
account  oi  the  impaired  health  of  his  wife.  Since 
1873,     the    Rev.    John     C.    Taylor    has    been    the   pastor, 


and  has  done  a  good  work.  The  congregation  is  small, 
but  they  are  a  worthy  people,  and  have  a  noble 
history  for  faithfulness  to  Reformation  principles.  Other 
worthy  members  are  Aurelius  Morse,  John  Wylie,. 
James    Mitchell,    John    Gillies    and    James    Anderson. 

TOPSHAM.  The  Topsham  society  was  a  part  of  the 
Ryegate  and  Barnet  congregation  until  its  separate 
existence  in  the  fall  of  1818.  The  elders  in  this  branch 
were  Robert  McNeice,  William  McNutt  and  Thomas 
McKeith.  In  the  fall  of  1820,  they  succeeded  in  getting 
a  pastor  in  the  person  of  the  eminent  Rev.  William 
Sloane.  Including  the  societies  of  Tunbridge  and  New- 
bury, they  numbered  forty  members.  In  a  short  time 
the  congregation  nearly  doubled  its  numbers  and  many 
worthy  Christians  were  added  to  the  Church.  Mr. 
Sloane  resigned  in  1829,  and  removed  to  Ohio.  For 
twenty-three  long  years  it  was  a  vacancy,  but  held 
its  organization,  and  enjo)'ed  occasional  supplies  by 
Presbytery.  In  1852,  the  Rev.  Nathan  R.  Johnston 
was  installed  pastor,  and  labored  under  many  difficulties 
and  sacrifices  for  thirteen  years.  He  resigned  in  1865. 
For  four  years  they  were  without  pastoral  oversight. 
In  1869,  the  Rev.  James  M.  Faris  undertook  the 
office  of  pastor  among  them,  but  resigned  in  1872. 
Since  1874,  the  Rev.  J.  C.  K.  Faris  has  been  the 
efficient  pastor,  and  the  Covenanter  cause  is  still 
maintained  with  many  tokens  of  the  Divine  blessing. 
Of  old  members  are  Daniel  Keenan,  John  Peabody, 
Josiah  Divoll,  John  McNeice,  Parker  McNeice,  Ebenezer 

Saint  Johnsburv.  This  is  a  new  field.  The  Rev. 
W.    R.    Laird,    then     a    licentiate,     began     labor     in    this 


growing  city  in  the  spring  of  1879,  and  was  the  first 
Covenanter  minister  to  preach  in  this  community.  By 
his  pubHc  ministrations  in  the  pulpit  and  his  indefatiga- 
ble labors  among  the  people,  he  saw  the  fruits  of  his 
work  in  the  organization  of  a  congregation  of  thirty 
eight  members  in  the  summer  of  1879,  only  a  few 
months  after  he  entered  the  field.  Having  received  a 
call  from  these  people,  Mr.  Laird  was  duly  ordained 
and  installed  pastor  of  the  Saint  Johnsbury  congrega- 
tion in  May,  1880,  and  is  yet  in  charge.  They  soon 
erected  a  beautiful  and  comfortable  church  building, 
and  the  congregation  has  steadily  grown  in  numbers 
and   influence. 


According  to  the  diary  of  the  Rev.  John  Cuthbert- 
son  there  must  have  been  a  society  of  Covenanters 
at  Pelham,  Hampshire  County,  a  little  east  of  the 
Connecticut  river.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  visited  this  region 
in  the  fall  of  1759,  and  preached  on  his  way  at 
different  places  in  Connecticut.  His  places  of  preach- 
ing in  Massachusetts  were  Sheffield,  Berkshire  County  ; 
Westfield,  Hampden  County  ;  Northampton  and  Pelham, 
Hampshire  County.  He  preached  in  the  latter  place 
several  Sabbaths,  and  on  October  28,  1759,  he  preached 
in  the  meeting  house,  which  seems  to  imply  that  the 
Covenanters  had  such  a  place  of  worship  in  that  town. 
The  Rev.  Alexander  McDowell  was  a  disaffected  min- 
ister once  placed  over  the  Presbyterian  congregation 
at    Colerain,     in     the    same     neighborhood,    and    who,     in 


1759,  seems  to  have  left  that  body  and  associated 
himself  wath  the  Covenanter  societies  of  Massachusetts 
and  Connecticut.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  remained  in  this 
region  for  two  months  and  returned  to  Pennsylvania 
in  the  middle  of  December,  1759,  and  probably  did 
not  visit  this  part  of  the  country  again.  In  the  fall 
of  1845,  the  Rev.  James  R.  Willson,  D.  D.,  made  a 
missionary  tour  through  this  State  and  found  a  few 
families  of  Covenanters.  In  the  city  of  Lowell  he 
found  five  families,  all  from  the  congregations  of  Ver- 
mont, who  procured  a  church  and  he  preached  to  them 
and  others  who  composed  a  respectable  audience.* 
These  families  were  organized  into  a  society,  applied 
for  preaching,  which  they  occasionally  received  for 
some    time. 

Boston.  Mr.  Willson  also  visited  the  city  of 
Boston,  and  called  upon  William  Lloyd  Garrison 
and  Wendell  Phillips,  t  who  were  heartily  in  sympathy 
with  the  principles  of  the  Covenanter  Church,  especially 
in  its  relation  and  attitude  towards  the  sin  of  slavery, 
Mr.  Willson  only  found  one  family  of  Covenanters  in 
Boston,  but  the  Rev.  A.  M.  Stavely  found  several- 
families  and  preached  to  them  shortly  afterwards.  In 
1850,  another  worthy  family  arrived  from  Ireland,  and 
still  later  another  branch  of  the  same  family,  and,  in 
1853,  these  people  made  application  to  the  New  York 
Presbytery  for  preaching,  which  was  granted.  They 
rented  a  comfortable  hall,  centrally  located,  and  Cove- 
nanterism  began  to  grow  in  the  cultured  metropolis  of 
New    England     and     the     Hub     of    the     Universe.      The 

*  Covenanter,   Vol.  i,  p.  150.  \  Covenanter,   Vol.  i,  p.  241. 


congregation  of  Boston  was  regularly  organized  by  a: 
Commission  of  the  New  York  Presbytery,  consisting  of- 
the  Rev.  Samuel  M.  Willson  and  elders  James  Wiggins 
and  Andrew  Knox,  July  12,  1854.  The  congregation 
numbered  twenty  members,  two  elders  and  one  deacon. 
The  Rev.  James  R.  Lawson  was  the  first  pastor, 
installed  November  20,  1856.  The  congregation  then 
worshipped  in  a  hall  on  the  second  f^oor  of  the  building 
at  the  corner  of  Province  and  Bromfield  streets.  *  Mr. 
Lawson  remained  less  than  a  year,  and  returned  to 
his  former  charge  in  New  Brunswick.  The  rent  of  halls 
became  so  burdensome  that  the  congregation  frequently 
moved.  For  nearly  three  years  the  congregation  was 
a  vacancy.  In  March,  i860,  the  Rev.  William  Graham, 
then  a  licentiate,  supplied  them,  and  until  his  settle- 
ment as  the  pastor,  July  12,  i860.  At  the  time  of 
his  ordination  there  were  thirty-nine  members  and  some 
adherents.  Mr,  Graham  is  still  in  charge.  On  account 
of  some  discord,  the  seeds  of  which  had  been  sown 
many  years  before,  a  grant  was  given  for  another 
organization.  This  was  effected  by  a  Commission  of 
the  New  York  Presbytery,  November  21,  1871.  Thirty- 
one  members  were  certified  from  the  First  congrega- 
tion, and  two  elders  and  two  deacons  were  chosen. 
For  many  years  they  met  in  halls  on  Hanover  and 
Tremont  streets  for  worship.  In  1873,  the  First  con- 
gregation erected  a  magnificent  church  edifice  at  the 
corner  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  streets,  at  a  total' 
cost  of  sixty-three  thousand  dollars.  In  1878,  the 
Second    congregation    bought    a    large     and     commodious 

*  Sketch  by  Rev.  W.  Graham,   R.  P.  &  C,   1885,  page  332. 


church  at  a  very  reasonable  price  on  Chambers  street. 
The  Rev.  David  McFall  was  installed  pastor  of  the 
Second  congregation,  July  ii,  1873,  and  is  now  in 
charge.  Both  the  congregations  are  well  housed  and 
increasing  in  numbers  and  usefulness.  The  importance 
of  Boston  as  a  commercial  and  cultured  city  gives  our 
people  a  prominence  that  is  seldom  eqiialled.  The 
Warnock  family  have  been  connected  with  the  cause 
from  the  beginning.  The  names  of  Mitchell,  Riley, 
Gillespie,  Grier,  Stevenson,  Warnock,  Larkins,  Graham, 
Ross,  Adams,  McClosky,  Spragg,  Calderwood,  Oliver, 
Semple,  Glasgow,  Caldwell,  McClelland,  Burnett,  and 
many  other  faithful  standard  bearers,  should  find  mention 
in    this    connection. 


There  never  were  any  regularly  organized  congrega- 
tions in  the  State  of  Connecticut,  but,  no  doubt,  there 
were  a  few  families  who  found  abode  within  the 
borders.  When  the  first  Covenanters  were  banished  to 
America,  historians  say  that  some  of  them  "went  to 
Connecticut  and  found  employment  after  their  several 
trades."  It  is  not  recorded  who  they  were,  or  where 
they  settled.  In  the  fall  of  1759,  the  Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson  visited  this  region  and  remained  several 
weeks.  He  preached  at  Ridgefield,  Danbury  and  New- 
town in  Fairfield  County ;  Woodbury  in  Litchfield 
County ;  and  at  Waterbury  in  New  Haven  County. 
Doubtless  the  Rev.  Alexander  McDowell  visited  these 
same  people  and^]  they  were  in  sympathy  with  the 
principles   of    the    Reformed    Covenanting    Church. 



Ramsey.  The  region  of  Ontario  south  and  west  of 
the  city  of  Ottawa,  and  bordering  on  the  St.  Lawrence 
and  the  lakes,  was  early  settled  by  a  religious  and 
thrifty  people  from  Scotland  and  Ireland.*  In  the 
year  181 5,  large  numbers  of  Scotch  people  settled  in 
the  County  of  Lanark,  and  in  1820,  at  Dalhousie  and 
Ramsey.  Many  of  them  were  consistent  members  of 
the  different  branches  of  the  Presbyterian  family,  and 
a  few  trained  in  the  faith  of  the  Covenanter  Church. 
In  1 8 16,  they  petitioned  the  Associate  Church  of 
Scotland  to  send  them  a  minister.  Their  request  was 
granted,  and  in  the  spring  of  1817,  the  Rev.  William 
Bell  settled  among  them.  In  1821,  the  Rev.  Dr.  John 
Gemmill  was  sent  to  this  Scotch  settlement  by  the 
London  Missionary  Society,  and  in  1822,  the  Rev, 
George  Buchanan  of  the  Relief  Church  arrived  in  this 
country.  In  a  few  years  all' these  ministers,  and  many 
of  the  people,  joined  the  Presbyterian  Church  of 
Canada  in  connection  with  the  Established  Church  of 
Scotland.  There  were  a  few  Covenanters,  however, 
who  did  not  follow  their  brethren,  and  they  were 
joined  by  others,  and  a  praying  society  was  formed 
of  those  living  in  the  township  of  Ramsey.  About 
this  time  the  families  of  Walter  Gardner,  John  McEuan 
and  James  Smith  emigrated  from  Scotland  and  joined 
the  Covenanter  society.  In  1828,  the  Rev.  James 
Milligan  of  Vermont  visited  this  region  and  preached 
to    these    people.       On    his    second     visit    in     1830,     he 

*From   sketch    by    Rev.  R.  Shields,   in  Banner,   1877,  pp.  33,    68,    107. 


organized  them  into  a  congregation,  dispensed  the 
sacraments  and  constituted  a  session.  James  Rea,  WilHam 
Moir  and  William  McQueen  were  chosen  and  ordained 
ruling  elders.  Among  the  members  enrolled  at  the  organi- 
zation of  the  first  Covenanter  congregation  in  Canada, 
were :  James  Rea  and  his  wife,  William  Moir  and  wife, 
William  McQueen  and  wife,  James  Smith,  Thomas  Craig 
and  wife,  Alexander  Duncan  and  wife,  Robert  Duncan,. 
Duncan  Ferguson,  John  Fulford,  Walter  Gardner  and 
wife,  John  Graham,  John  Hutcheson  and  wife,  David 
Kemp,  Thomas  Kennedy,  Mrs.  John  Kilpatrick,  William 
Lindsay  and  wife,  John  McEuan  and  wife,  Thomas 
McKean  and  wife.  In  the  fall  of  1830,  they  were 
visited  by  the  Rev.  Robert  McKee,  and  in  1831,  by 
Rev.  John  H.  Symmes,  and  others.  In  1831,  the  con- 
gregation received  strength  by  the  accession  of  the 
family  of  James  Waddell  from  Scotland.  Mr.  Waddell 
was  directed  by  the  congregation  to  write  to  the  Com- 
mittee of  the  Covenanter  Synod  of  Scotland  urging 
them  to  send  a  minister  to  them.  In  answer  to  this 
petition,  the  late  Rev.  James  McLachlane  arrived  in 
the  summer  of  1833.  At  this  time  a  serious  division 
was  taking  place  in  the  Covenanter  Church  in  America, 
and  it  effected  this  congregation  to  the  extent  of 
losing  most  of  its  members  and  its  organization.  Mr. 
McLachlane  reorganized  the  congregation  with  nine 
members  under  the  care  of  the  Synod  of  Scotland. 
James  Rea,  William  Moir  and  James  Waddell  were 
chosen  ruling  elders.  Preaching  services  were  also 
dispensed  at  Packenham,  Lanark  and  Carleton  Place. 
David    Moffet    of    Carleton  Place    was    ordained    a    ruling 


elder  February  16,  1834.  During  the  summer  of  1834, 
a  comfortable  log  church  was  erected  on  the  "  Eighth 
line  of  Ramsey,"  about  one  mile  from  Bennies  Corners. 
Carleton  Place  had  grown  to  a  considerable  society 
and  now  received  one-half  the  time  of  Mr.  McLachlane. 
During  the  summer  of  1835,  another  log  church  was 
erected  by  the  people  on  the  "Second  line  of  Ramsey," 
and  near  the  spot  where  the  village  of  Clayton  now 
stands.  In  the  fall  of  1835,  a  petition  was  received 
from  Perth  for  a  part  of  Mr.  McLachlane's  time,  and 
he  preached  every  fifth  Sabbath  in  this  settlement. 
The  Perth  congregation  was  organized  in  April,  1836, 
and  John  Brown  and  John  Holliday  were  ordained 
ruling  elders,  and  Francis  Holliday  and  John  Walker, 
deacons.  Among  the  original  families  at  Perth  were 
those  of  John,  James,  Francis,  George  and  David 
Holliday,  Lachlan  Arthur,  James  Brice,  John  Brown, 
Thomas  Dobbie,  Adam  Elliot,  John  Graham,  John 
Grierson,  Thomas  Oliver  and  John  Walker — in  all  about 
thirty  members.  In  the  summer  of  1837,  for  the 
better  convenience  and  comfort  of  all  concerned, 
Carleton  Place,  Perth  and  Ramsey  were  organized  into 
three  distinct  and  separate  congregations  and  each 
had  a  session.  The  session  of  Carleton  Place  was 
composed  of  David  Moffet  and  James  Waddell  ;  that 
of  Perth  of  John  Holliday  and  John  Brown  ;  and  that 
of  Ramsey  of  James  Rea,  William  Moir  and  Andrew 
Given.  John  McWhinnie  was  added  to  the  latter 
session,  February  i,  1838.  Mr.  McLachlane  preached 
frequently  at  Clarendon,  Bristol,  Toronto,  Hamilton, 
Guelph    and    Gait.     At    a    general   meeting    of   the    three 


sessions,  held  February  7,  1839,  the  matter  of  the 
pastor  missionating  came  up  for  adjudication.  The 
strife  was  so  great  and  the  feehng  so  bitter  that 
elders  James  Rea  and  William  Moir  of  Ramsey  were 
deposed,  and  many  members  were  suspended  on  various 
charges.  The  present  church  occupied  by  the  people 
of  Carleton  Place  was  erected  in  1841.  In  the  summer 
of  1847,  Ramsey  being  without  a  session  of  its  own, 
James  Waddell  and  Andrew  McKenzie  were  chosen 
elders.  In  the  fall  of  1850,  the  question  of  accession 
to  the  Covenanter  Synod  of  the  United  States  came 
up  before  the  session,  and  the  Canadian  congregations 
were  taken  under  the  care  of  the  Rochester  Presbytery, 
October  7,  1851.  A  Commission  repaired  to  Perth  to 
settle  certain  difficulties  existing  between  Mr.  McLach- 
lane  and  his  people.  After  hearing  the  whole  case, 
the  Commission  decided  that,  for  the  peace  and  comfort 
of  all  concerned,  the  pastoral  relation  should  be 
dissolved.  This  caused  a  division  in  the  congregation, 
a  part  of  which  strenuously  adhered  to  Mr.  McLachlane. 
A  second  congregation  was  organized  at  Perth,  June 
12,  1852,  and  those  who  followed  Mr.  McLachlane  were 
Icnown  as  the  First  congregation.  John  and  Francis 
Holliday  were  ordained  ruling  elders  in  the  new 
organization.  The  Rev.  John  Middleton  was  installed 
pastor  of  the  Second  congregation  of  Perth  in  October, 
1854.  A  large  and  convenient  house  of  worship  was 
erected  in  the  town  of  Perth,  but  the  debt  was  so  heavy 
upon  it  that  the  building  was  sold  a  few  years  after- 
wards. In  the  fall  of  1855,  Mr.  McLachlane  resigned 
the    charge    of    First    Perth,    and    removed    to    the    con- 


gregation  of  Lisbon,  New  York.  In  the  fall  of  1856, 
Mr.  Middleton  resigned  the  pastorate  of  Second  Perth, 
and  these  congregations  never  again  enjoyed  a  settled 
pastor.  For  nearly  ten  years  there  was  not  a  settled 
Covenanter  minister  in  Canada,  and  by  defection  and 
emigration  the  cause  began  to  look  like  speedy  extinc- 
tion. In  the  summer  of  1861,  the  Rev.  David  Scott 
reorganized  the  Ramsey  congregation  by  the  election 
of  James  Waddell  and  John  Lindsay  ruling  elders,  and 
James  Smith  and  John  Waddell,  deacons.  At  this  time 
there  were  only  twenty  members.  Supplies  were  sent 
as  often  as  practicable  and  the  cause  began  to  revive. 
The  Rev.  Robert  Shields  was  ordained  and  installed 
pastor,  July  13,  1865.  During  his  pastorate,  Messrs. 
John  Rorison,  James  Thom,  John  Waddell,  David  Holli- 
day,  David  Thom,  and  others,  have  been  connected 
with  the  session.  Mr.  Shields  died  in  1883,  greatly 
lamented  by  the  Church,  and  especially  by  the  com- 
munity and  congregation  where  he  had  done  yeoman 
service  for  his  Master.  The  congregation  has  enjoyed 
almost  constant  preaching  sent  out  by  the  Central 
Board  of  Missions,  and  has  made  efforts  to  obtain  a 

LOCHIEL.  The  village  of  Lochiel  is  situated  between 
the  St.  Lawrence  and  Ottawa  rivers,  and  about  sixty 
miles  east  of  the  city  of  Ottawa,  or  half  way  towards 
Montreal.  This  society  is  of  a  more  recent  settlement 
than  Ramsey  and  Perth.  It  was  fully  organized  in  the 
summer  of  1861,  as  Glengary,  and  the  name  was 
changed  to  Lochiel  in  1867.  Elders  Andrew  Brodie 
and  William   Jamison  have  been  instrumental  in   securing 


supplies  and  keeping  the  cause  alive  in  this  section. 
There  are  about  twenty-five  members  and  they  have  a 
house  of  worship  and  a  manse.  The  Rev.  R.  C.  Allen 
was  settled  as  the  pastor  in  the  fall  of  1887,  ^'^d 
the  principles  of  the  Church  are  being  faithfully  pre- 
sented in  that  part  of  Canada.  Oneida  and  Hamilton 
were  mission  stations,  and  made  out  a  call  for  the  Rev. 
James  McLachlane  in  1852,  which  he  did  not  accept. 
The  cause  in  the  city  of  Hamilton  was  presented  by 
the  Rev.  Joseph  Henderson,  who,  in  1854,  made  defec- 
tion, and  took  some  members  with  him  into  the  Free 
Church.  North-west  of  the  city  of  Hamilton  were  the 
stations  of  Galt  and  GUELPH,  which  were  cultivated 
awhile  with  some  degree  of  encouragement,  but  dropped 
from    the    list. 

Toronto.  The  city  of  Toronto  was  long  the 
abode  of  a  few  families  of  Covenanters.  In  1850, 
these  people  raised  quite  a  sum  of  money  for 
preaching,  and  the  Revs.  Robert  Johnson,  David  Scott, 
and  others,  were  sent  as  supplies.  In  the  spring  of 
185 1,  a  congregation  of  twenty  members  was  organized, 
soon  a  church  was  secured,  and  the  cause  began  to- 
flourish.  The  Rev.  Robert  Johnson  was  installed  pastor 
in  the  fall  of  1852,  and  built  up  a  flourishing  con- 
gregation, which  he  resigned  in  1859.  He  was  an  able 
preacher  and  a  fearless  advocate  of  the  cause  of 
Protestantism  against  the  evils  of  Roman  Catholicism. 
After  his  departure,  the  congregation  made  several  un- 
successful efforts  to  obtain  a  pastor,  and  Rev.  David 
Scott  preached  a  great  deal  for  them.  The  congrega- 
tion   became  disorganized  in   1868.     The  church  property 


was  in  jeopardy  ;  and  after  being  in  litigation  before 
the  courts  for  a  considerable  time,  was  fully  secured 
to  the  Church.  The  congregation  was  reorganized  in 
the  winter  of  1872,  and  consisted  of  nineteen  members. 
The  Rev.  J.  L.  McCartney  was  called,  but  declined. 
Not  succeeding  in  getting  a  pastor,  and  often  not 
supplies,  the  people  became  discouraged  and  rented 
the  church.  They  lost  their  organization  in  1875,  and 
a  number  of  the  members  connected  with  other 
Churches.  The  church  property  is  again  in  dispute  and 
is  in  the  hands  of  the  Rev.  John  Graham  of  Rochester, 
^ho  represents  the  Church  in  the  settlement  of  affairs. 
Morpeth.  There  was  another  station  at  Morpeth, 
about  sixty  miles  east  of  Detroit  and  near  Lake  Erie. 
It  was  visited  several  times,  and,  in  the  spring  of 
1852,  the  Rev.  James  Neill  was  appointed  stated  supply, 
and  remained  over  a  year.  Mr.  William  McClure,  a 
late  elder  in  the  congregation  of  Belle  Centre,  Ohio, 
was  the  leading  member,  and  the  cause  was  liberally 
supported  for  some  time.  By  emigration  and  death 
Covenanterism  has  become  extinct  in  that  part  of 

•NEW    YORK. 

New  York  City.  So  far  as  is  known  the  first 
'Covenanters  settling  in  the  city  of  New  York  were 
Mr.  John  Agnew  and  his  wife,  who  emigrated  from 
Ireland  and  settled  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia  in  1784, 
where     they     resided      three     years.*       In      1787,     they 

*  Covenanter,  Vol.  3,  p.  371.  Presbyterian  Historical  Almanac,  Vol.  4,  p. 
251.  R.  P.  &  C,  1877,  p.  294.  Stone  of  Help,  a  pamphlet  by  Dr.  J.  N. 
McLeod.     Church  Records. 


removed  to  the  city  of  New  York,  where  Mr.  Agnew 
became  a  prosperous  merchant  and  the  founder  of 
Covenanterism  in  the  metropoHs  of  America.  In  the 
summer  of  1790,  when  the  Rev.  James  Reid,  of  Scot- 
land, was  making  a  missionary  tour  in  America,  and 
when  about  to  embark  for  his  native  land,  he  was 
providentially  introduced  to  Mr.  Agnew,  who  was  then 
doing  business  in  Peck's  Slip,  near  the  East  river. 
Mutual  friends  of  the  Covenant  were  highly  gratified 
at  the  discovery,  and  Mr.  Reid  preached  in  the  house 
of  Mr.  Agnew  the  following  Sabbath,  and  baptized 
two  of  his  children.  Among  those  who  heard  Mr. 
Reid  preach  at  this  time  was  Mr.  James  Donaldson,, 
a  native  of  Scotland,  and  a  worthy  Covenanter.  He 
joined  Mr.  Agnew  in  forming  a  praying  society,  and 
these  meetings  were  regularly  held  until  the  arrival  of 
the  Rev.  James  McKinney  in  1793.  Among  those 
who  heard  Mr.  McKinney  preach,  was  Mr.  Andrew 
Gifford,  a  Scotchman  brought  up  in  the  Covenanter 
Church,  but  now  a  member  of  the  Scotch  Presbyterian. 
.Church  under  the  pastoral  care  of  the  Rev.  John  M. 
Mason.  He,  however,  now  joined  the  Church  of  his 
birth,  and  the  society  held  regular  preaching  services 
in  school  houses  and  halls.  In  1795,  the  society  was 
strengthened  by  the  arrival  of  John  Currie,  James 
Smith,  James  Nelson  and  David  Clark.  In  October,. 
1797,  the  Rev.  Willliam  Gibson,  and  some  private 
members,  had  emigrated  from  Ireland,  some  oi  whom 
settled  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia.  The  Rev.  William 
Gibson  gave  one-half  of  his  time  to  the  congregation 
of    New    York,    and    the    cause    began    to    flourish.       The 


first  Covenanter  congregation  in  the  city  of  New  York 
was  organized  by  the  Rev.  William  Gibson,  December 
26,  1797.  The  first  session  was  then  constituted  and 
consisted  of  James  Nelson,  John  Currie,  John  Agnew, 
Andrew  Gifford  and  David  Clark.  *  The  number  of 
communicants  was  fifteen.  They  were  very  liberal,  and 
paid  seventy-five  dollars  rent  annually  for  the  occasional 
use  of  a  school  house  for  public  services.  They  paid 
the  ministers  twelve  dollars  per  Sabbath  for  their 
services  and  entertained  them  hospitably  in  their 
homes.  The  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper  was  first 
dispensed  in  August,  1798,  in  a  school  room  on  Cedar 
street.  Revs.  James  McKinney  and  William  Gibson 
conducted  the  services.  The  number  of  communicants^ 
was  eighteen,  six  of  whom  were  from  a  distance. 
Mr.  McKinney  alluded  very  touchingly  to  the  paucity 
of  their  members,  but  said  the  number  was  greater 
than  that  present  in  the  upper  room  when  the 
Supper  was  first  administered  by  our  Lord.  Among 
the  communicants  were  John  Black,  S.  B.  Wylie 
and  Alexander  McLeod,  students  of  theology. 
On  the  following  Tuesday,  the  Reformed  Presbytery  met 
in  "the  Orchard,"  the  country  residence  of  Mr.  John 
Agnew.  Here  these  theological  students  gave  specimens 
of  improvement  and  had  others  assigned  to  them.  In 
the  fall  of  1800,  this  congregation  made  out  a  call,  in 
connection  with  Coldenham,  for  the  services  of  Alex- 
ander McLeod.  Several  matters  at  Coldenham  having 
been  rectified,  Mr.  McLeod  was  ordained  and  installed 
the  first  pastor  of  the  congregation  of  New  York,  July 
6,    1 801.     In    1803,    he    resigned    the    Coldenham    branch 


and  devoted  his  whole  time  to  the  rapidly  growing 
congregation  in  New  York,  where  he  remained  thirty- 
two  years,  and  until  his  death  in  February,  1833.  In 
1804,  a  frame  church  building  was  erected  on  Chambers 
street  east  of  Broadway.  The  same  year  the  elder- 
ship was  increased  by  the  election  of  Dr.  Samuel 
Guthrie,  Hugh  Orr  and  William  Acheson.  In  18 12, 
there  were  one  hundred  and  thirty-eight  members,  and 
this  year  Mr.  William  Pattison  was  added  to  the  session. 
In  1 817,  Thomas  Cummings  was  made  an  elder.  In 
1818,  the  first  church  building  was  found  to  be  too 
small  to  accommodate  the  worshippers,  and  it  was 
taken  down,  and  a  more  commodious  brick  structure 
was  erected  upon  the  same  site.  Directly  opposite  the 
church  on  Chambers  street  stood  the  city  Alms  House. 
A  poor  widow,  and  a  member  of  the  Church,  by  the 
name  of  Mrs.  Grant  Bussing,  formed  a  class  among 
these  poor  and  destitute  children,  and  this  was  the  first 
Sabbath  School  established  in  New  York  city.  In  18 19, 
Joseph  McKee  and  William  Cowan  were  ordained  ruling 
elders,  and  in  1827,  Robert  Pattison,  Hugh  Galbraith, 
John  Brown  and  John  W'ilson  were  added  to  the 
session.  At  the  close  of  the  year  1827,  a  few  members 
living  in  the  upper  part  of  the  city  purchased  a  house 
of  worship  formerly  occupied  by  the  Dutch  Reformed 
congregation  of  Greenwich,  and,  on  January  11,  1828, 
offered  it,  with  all  the  papers,  to  the  consistory.  It 
stood  at  the  corner  of  Waverly  Place  and  Grove  street. 
The  object  of  this  movement  was  to  furnish  preaching 
to  the  members  and  others  who  lived  far  from  Chambers 
street.     The    offer,    however,  was    opposed    by    the    down 


town  people,  who  were  in  the  majority.  Notwith- 
standing the  opposition  to  the  enterprize  the  place 
was  opened  for  public  service,  and  Dr.  McLeod  and 
others  preached  there.  Over  this  step  in  the  right 
direction  great  bitterness  and  strife  arose,  and  Dr. 
McLeod  left  the  scene  of  contention  and  went  to 
Europe  for  his  health.  The  up  town  people  applied 
and  secured  a  second  and  separate  organization,  June 
II,  1830.  The  Presbytery  made  a  geographical  divi- 
sion of  the  congregation,  and  all  the  members  residing 
above  this  given  line  were  to  be  recognized  as 
members  of  the  Second  New  York  congregation.  This 
division  included  elders  Andrew  Gifford,  John  Brown 
.and  Thomas  Cummings  in  the  new  organization.  In 
December,  1830,  and  soon  after  his  arrival,  Dr«  McLeod 
was  presented  with  calls  from  both  the  congregations. 
He  decided  to  remain  with  the  mother  congregation, 
which  was  the  First  congregation  of  New  York.  The 
Second  congregation  then  presented  a  call  to  the  Rev. 
Robert  Gibson,  who,  having  accepted  it,  was  duly 
installed  pastor.  May  31,  1831.  The  health  of  Dr. 
McLeod  began  to  fail  very  rapidly  and  he  desired 
the  help  of  an  associate  pastor.  His  son,  the  -Rev. 
John  N.  McLeod,  was  installed  pastor  as  his  father's 
successor  against  the  wishes  of  many  of  the  congrega- 
tion, January  14,  1833.  Dr.  Alexander  McLeod  died 
February  17,  1833.  At  this  time  the  New  School 
controversy  was  agitating  the  Church,  and  Rev.  J.  N. 
McLeod,  and  the  majority  of  the  congregation,  went 
into  the  New  School  body.  Mr.  Gibson,  who  took  a 
prominent  part  in  the  discussions,  remained  true  to 


the  distinctive  principles  of  the  Covenanter  Church.  Of 
the  eldership,  Andrew  Gifford,  John  Brown  and  Thomas 
Cummings,  with  their  families  and  connections,  of  the 
Second  congregation,  also  went  into  the  New  School 
body.  This  left  the  congregation  in  a  distressing  con- 
dition, as  those  departing  were  the  main  support  of  the 
cause.  The  faithful  remnant,  however,  retained  the 
church  property  and  continued  their  services.  As  the 
members  were  generally  poor  and  laboring  people,  Mr. 
Gibson  was  compelled  to  add  to  his  ministerial  work 
the  additional  labor  of  teaching  a  classical  school  in 
order  to  sustain  himself  and  family.  Notwithstanding 
the  poverty  of  his  devoted  flock,  they  maintained  the 
cause,  and  also  furnished  means  to  send  Mr.  Gibson 
to  Europe,  in  the  spring  of  1837,  for  his  health.  He 
returned  to  New  York  the  same  fall  not  much  im- 
proved, appeared  but  once  in  the  pulpit,  and  died  of 
consumption,  December  22,  1837.  As  the  majority  of 
the  First  congregation  had  gone  into  the  New  School 
organization,  it  involved  a  long  law  suit  for  the 
property,  which  terminated  after  reaching  the  Court  of 
Errors  by  a  compromise.  Soon  after  this  the  faithful 
remnant  of  the  First  congregation  purchased  a  church 
in  Sullivan  street,  and  Rev.  James  Christie,  D.  D.,  was 
installed  pastor,  November  16,  1836,  and  remained  in 
charge  twenty  years.  The  elders  of  the  First  con- 
gregation then  were  William  Acheson,  John  Greacen, 
John  Culbert,  James  McFarland,  Andrew  Bowden,  John 
Brown,  John  Carothers  and  James  C.  Ramsey.  The 
Rev.  Andrew  Stevenson  was  ordained  and  installed  the 
pastor    of   the    Second  congregation,  November   14,   1839, 


who  remained  in  charge  until  May,  1875,  and  emeritus 
pastor  until  his  death,  June,  1881.  When  he  became 
the  pastor  in  1839,  there  were  nearly  two  hundred 
members  and  an  efficient  session,  but  the  congrega- 
tion was  heavily  in  debt,  possessed  an  uncomfortable 
church  building,  and  the  members  were  very  poor. 
In  August,  1 841,  James  Wylie,  John  Kennedy  and 
James  Wiggins  were  added  to  the  eldership.  In  1845, 
there  were  three  hundred  and  nineteen  members.  In 
1846,  the  deacon  controversy  arose  and  seriously 
effected  this  congregation.  A  division  of  sentiment 
was  prevalent  as  to  the  lawfulness  of  the  management 
of  the  temporalities,  and  the  Presbytery,  failing  to 
amicably  settle  the  question  or  reconcile  the  parties, 
granted  a  new  organization.  The  church  property  was 
sold  at  auction  in  January,  1848,  and  equally  divided 
between  the  two  parties.  The  Third  congregation  of 
New  York  was  then  organized,  March  14,  1848,  with 
nearly  two  hundred  members.  An  arrangement  was 
made  by  which  the  new  congregation  worshipped  in 
the  old  church  on  Waverly  Place,  while  the  Second 
congregation  rented  the  lecture  room  of  the  Presby- 
terian Church  at  the  corner  of  Waverly  Place  and 
Hammond  street,  and  soon  afterwards  erected  a  large 
church  on  Eleventh  "street  near  Sixth  Avenue.  The 
Rev.  John  Little  was  installed  pastor  of  the  Third  con- 
gregation in  June,  1849.  He  was  suspended  in  April, 
1852,  for  preaching  doctrines  subversive  to  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  Covenanter  Church.  The  Rev.  J.  R.  W. 
Sloane  was  installed  the  pastor  in  1856.  The  same 
year  the  Rev.   Dr.   Christie  resigned  the  First    congrega- 


tion  to  accept  the  chair  of  Theology  in  the  Allegheny 
Seminary.  The  Rev.  J.  C.  K.  Milligan  was  installed  as 
his  successor  in  the  spring  of  1858,  and  is  still  in 
charge.  The  Third  church,  on  Twenty-Third  street,  was 
erected  in  i860.  In  1868,  Dr.  Sloane  resigned  the 
charge  of  the  Third  church  and  accepted  the  chair  of 
Theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary.  In  1869,  a 
division  occurred  in  the  Third  congregation,  and  the 
Fourth  congregation  of  New  York  was  organized, 
February  21,  1870.  The  Rev.  David  Gregg  was  in- 
stalled pastor  of  the  Third  congregation,  February  23, 
1870.  The  Rev.  James  Kennedy  was  ins^talled  pastor 
of  the  Fourth  congregation,  November  13,  1870,  and  is 
now  in  charge.  The  First  congregation  had,  some 
years  previously,  bought  a  church  from  the  United  Pres- 
byterian brethren,  many  of  whom  connected  with  the 
Covenanter  Church,  on  Twenty-Eighth  street  near  Ninth 
Avenue.  The  Fourth  congregation  secured  a  large  and 
commodious  church  in  Forty-Eighth  street  near  Eighth 
Avenue  in  1873,  which  is  their  present  place  of 
worship.  In  1875,  the  Rev.  Andrew  Stevenson  was 
retired  as  emeritus  pastor  of  the  Second  congregation, 
and  the  Rev.  Robert  M.  Sommerville  was  installed  the 
pastor,  and  is  now  in  charge.  They  sold  their  church 
in  Eleventh  street  and  purchased  a  Jewish  Synagogue 
of  magnificent  architecture  in  Thirty-Ninth  street  near 
Sixth  Avenue,  which  is  the  present  imposing  church 
building  of  the  congregation.  The  Third  church  was 
burned,  February  17,  1878,  and  immediately  rebuilt. 
In  January,  1887,  the  Rev.  David  Gregg  left  the 
communion    of    the    Church,   and     as    his     successor    the 


Rev.  Finley  M.  Foster  was  installed  pastor  of  the 
Third  congregation,  September  7,  1887.  The  First 
congregation  sold  their  church  in  Twenty-Eighth  street 
in  1883,  and  for  nearly  four  years  worshipped  in 
Trenor  Hall,  corner  of  Broadway  and  Thirty-Second 
street.  In  1887,  they  erected  a  large  and  well  ap- 
pointed church  in  Harlem,  in  One  Hundred  and 
Nineteenth  street  near  Fifth  Avenue,  where  they  are 
now  worshipping  in  one  of  the  handsomest  churches  in 
the  body.  The  Covenanters  of  New  York  are  an 
energetic  and  liberal  people,  and  are  nearly  one 
thousand  in  numbe/.  The  First  congregation  was 
organized  December  26,  1797  ;  the  present  church 
building  is  on  One  Hundred  and  Nineteenth  street, 
near  Fifth  Avenue,  Harlem,  and  the  pastor  is  the 
Rev.  J.  C.  K.  Milligan.  Members  recorded  are  Andrew 
Acheson,  William  Acheson,  William  Sterritt,  John 
Culbert,  William  Cowan,  John  Greacen,  James  C. 
Ramsey,  Joseph  Thomson,  Andrew  Bowden,  Matthew 
Bowden,  John  W.  Bowden,  Charles  Gillespie,  John 
Nightingale,  Hamilton  Biggam,  John  Whitehead,  C.  B. 
French,  James  Thomson,  Robert  Bowden,  John  Lynch, 
John  Angus,  John  Carothers,  William  Fleming. 
William  Hazlett,  E.  N.  Shields,  William  Law,  James 
Bell,  Thomas  Rusk,  W.  J.  Cromie,  David  Henderson, 
James  Cowan,  Frederick  E.  Milligan,  W.  J.  Clyde, 
Alexander  Livingstone,  David  Bell,  John  McFarland, 
Robert  Smith,  Edward  McLean,  J.  C.  Milligan.  The 
Second  congregation  was  organized  June  11,  1830;; 
the  present  church  building  is  on  Thirty-Ninth  street 
near   Sixth    Avenue,    and    the    pastor  is  the  Rev.   Robert 


M.  Sommerville.  Of  old  members  are  James  Wylie, 
John  S.  Walker,  Joseph  Wiggins,  James  Wiggins,  John 
Kennedy,  Jacob  A.  Long,  Joseph  Torrens,  David 
Torrens,  Melancthon  W.  Bartley,  Andrew  Alexander, 
Samuel  Miller,  Henry  O'Neil,  Samuel  K.  McGuire, 
Matthew  Miller,  James  Warnock,  Thomas  E.  Greacen, 
William  McCullough,  William  McLean,  John  Taylor, 
John  J.  McKay,  Robert  McCracken,  Francis  L.  Walker, 
John  Sharpe,  W.  H.  Cochran,  John  Aikin,  William 
Park,  Hugh  McCreery,  J.  J.  Montgomery,  James  Dunlap, 
Thompson  O'Neil,  John  Adams.  The  TJiird  congrega- 
tion was  organized  March  14,  1848  ;  the  present 
church  building  is  on  Twenty-Third  street  near  Eighth 
Avenue,  and  the  pastor  is  the  Rev.  Finley  M.  Foster. 
Of  the  membership  are  named  William  Neely,  Walter 
T.  Miller,  A.  J.  Echols,  Andrew  Knox,  John  Mc- 
William,  Alexander  McNeil,  Thomas  Bell,  Hugh  Glassford, 
James  Carlisle,  Andrew  C.  Bowden,  Robert  Cairns, 
Hugh  Young,  William  Brown.  The  FourtJi  congrega- 
tion was  organized  February  21,  1870 ;  the  present 
church  building  is  on  Forty-Eighth  street  near  Eighth 
Avenue,  and  the  pastor  is  the  Rev.  James  Kennedy. 
Of  the  principal  membership  are  named  Hugh  O'Neil, 
Edward  H.  Pollock,  John  Kennedy,  Hugh  Thomas, 
Hugh  Carlisle,  Dr.  Samuel  Murtland,  William  McAfee, 
Robert  McAfee,  Hugh  Getty,  Robert  Leishman,  Dr.  J. 
M.  Harvey,  David  Houston,  James  Fischer,  James 
Dunlap,  David  Donneghy,  George  Kennedy,  Robert 
Kennedy,  William  Kilpatrick,  Dr.  W.  C.  Kennedy, 
James  Bryans,  William  Pollock,  Samuel  Stevenson. 
Evangelistic    work    has     been     done    among    all  the  con- 


gregations  by  Mr.  James  M.  McElhinney,  and  his   efforts 
have   been    crowned    with  fruitful   results. 

Brooklyn.  An  organization  was  granted  to  the 
■Covenanters  residing  in  the  city  of  Brooklyn,  June  15, 
1857.  A  comfortable  church  •building  was  purchased 
in  an  eligible  location,  but  the  property  was  so  heavily 
mortgaged  that  the  small  congregation  found  themselves 
unable  to  retain  it.*  The  second  property  which  they 
bought  was  located  at  the  corner  of  Fayette  Avenue 
and  Ryerson  street.  It  was  primarily  built  for  a  chapel 
or  Sabbath  School  room,  and  the  church  proper  was 
never  built.  The  Rev.  James  M.  Dickson  was  the 
first  pastor  installed  in  November,  1857.  He  preached 
with  great  acceptance  for  five  years  and  joined  the 
Presbyterian  Church.  In  the  winter  of  1864,  the  Rev. 
John  H.  Boggs  was  installed  pastor.  After  a  pastorate 
of  sixteen  years,  he  followed  the  example  of  his 
predecessor  and  went  into  the  Presbyterian  Church  in 
1880.  Quite  a  number  of  influential  members  followed 
him,  and  are  now  found  in  the  various  Churches  of 
Brooklyn.  Mr.  T.  A.  H.  Wylie  supplied  the  pulpit 
for  nearly  a  year.  In  the  winter  of  1881,  the  Rev. 
S.  J.  Crowe  was  installed  the  pastor,  and  remained 
three  years.  During  his  pastorate  the  congregation 
not  only  increased  in  numbers,  but  in  unity  and 
liberality.  In  1883,  the  present  commodious  church 
and  chapel,  situated  at  the  corner  of  Willoughby  and 
Tompkins  Avenues,  were  purchased.  They  were  erected 
for  Miss  Anna  Oliver,  a  Methodist  preacher,  whose 
efforts     to     build     up     a     congregation     under    her     own 

*  Banner,    1883,    p.    309. 


ministry  signally  failed.  Mr.  Crowe  resigned  in  the 
fall  of  1884,  on  account  of  the  state  of  his  health.. 
Rev.  John  F.  Carson,  the  present  pastor,  was  ordained 
and  installed,  May  20,  1885.  The  congregation  and 
Sabbath  School  have  greatly  increased  in  numbers,, 
and  the  Church  has  a  very  prosperous  following. 
Among  the  members  are  named  James  A.  Patterson,. 
William  F.  Bell,  Francis  Culbert,  James  Hughes,  R.  J. 
Culbert,  Thomas  Kinkead,  M.  M.  Henry,  Henry  Fergu- 
son, John  Shannon,  James  Warnock,  John  Boyd,  Jame.s- 
Frazer,  John  \V.  Pritchard,  Thomas  Moore,  Robert 
Taylor,  Leatham  Teaz,  James  Williams.  Alexander 
Frazer,    James    Hunter,    Dr.    Palmer. 

Newburgh.  The  city  of  Newburgh  is  pleasantly 
situated  in  one  of  the  picturesque  regions  of  the  famous 
Hudson  river,  sixty  miles  above  the  city  of  New  York. 
It  was  the  headquarters  of  General  Washington  for 
some  time  during  the  Revolutionary  War,^  and  where 
the  American  army  was  disbanded  after  national  inde- 
pendence had  been  achieved  from  Great  Britain.''  The 
first  family  of  Covenanters  settling  in  this  city  was 
that  of  Mr.  Josiah  Gailey,  in  1787.  In  1793,  Mr. 
Thomas  Johnston  joined  him,  and  they  held  society 
meetings  until  Mr.  Johnston  removed  into  the  neighbor- 
ing vicinity  of  St.  Andrews.  In  1802,  James  Clarke 
emigrated  from  Scotland,  with  some  of  his  connections, 
and  in  the  fall  of  that  year,  the  first  Covenanter 
society  in  Newburgh  w^as  organized.  The  leading 
members  were  Josiah  Gailey,  Robert  Johnston,  James 
Clarke     and      John     Curry.        The     society      was      soon 

*  Covettanter,  Vol.  i,  p.  373.    Banner,  1876,  p.  121.    Ji.  P.  &-  C,  1885,  p.  148. 


strengthened  by  the  accessions  of  James  King  and 
James  Robb.  For  many  years,  and  until  the  organization 
in  18 1 7,  the  society  met  at  the  house  of  Mr.  James- 
Clarke,  and  afterwards  at  the  house  of  Mrs.  Gillespie, 
an  aged  disciple.  The  society  was  a  part  of  the 
Coldenham  congregation,  and,  in  1817,  received  one- 
fifth  of  the  time  of  the  Rev.  James  R.  Willson,  D.  D. 
In  tBio,  Samuel  Jameson  joined  them,  and,  in  181 1,. 
they  were  much  encouraged  by  the  arrival  of  the 
families  of  William  McCullough,  James  Orr,  John 
Lawson,  William  Barclay,  Sr.,  James  Barclay,  John 
Barclay  and  William  Barclay,  Jr.  The  Rev.  James 
Milligan,  pastor  at  Coldenham,  occasionally  supplied 
them  and  preached  in  the  Academy.  Infidelity  had 
a  strong  hold  in  the  village,  but  began  to  disappear 
before  the  tide  of  Reformation  principles  and  practices. 
In  1 8 19,  this  growing  society  erected  a  church  build- 
ing, and  Dr.  Willson  was  secured  for  one-half  of  his 
time.  His  eloquence  and  public  spirit  attracted  many 
to  wait  upon  his  ministrations,  and  Presbyterianism  took  ' 
a  deep  hold  upon  the  people.  In  1824,  having  increased 
to  eighty-six  members,  Newburgh  obtained  a  separate 
organization  from  Coldenham.  The  elders  at  this  time 
were  James  Clarke,  John  Lawson  and  Samuel  Wright, 
all  of  whom  had  been  elders  in  the  Coldenham  con- 
gregation. In  1825,  William  Thompson  and  William' 
M,  Wylie  were  chosen  deacons,  and  the  former  soon: 
afterwards  was  added  to  the  session.  On  September  16,. 
1825,  the '  Rev.  James  R.  Johnston  was  ordained  and 
installed  the  first  pastor  of  the  congregation  of  New- 
burgh.      Mr.    Johnston     was    a    popular    preacher.       He 


remained  four  years  and  then  connected  with  the 
Presbyterian  Church.  Rev.  Moses  Roney  was  installed 
pastor,  June  8,  1830,  and  remained  eighteen  years, 
until  his  health  demanded  his  release  in  1848.  During 
his  pastorate  the  elders  were  Matthew  Duke,  William 
Thompson,  David  T.  Cavin,  William  Brown  and  David 
Stewart.  The  deacons  were  Edward  Weir,  John  Little 
and  John  Lawson.  Other  names  worthy  of  perpetuation 
are  those  of  Kirkpatrick,  Fleming,  Ramsey,  Wiseman 
^nd  Stewart.  In  the  fall  of  1849,  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Carlisle  was  installed  pastor,  and  continued  in  this 
relationship  for  thirty-eight  years,  and  until  his  sad 
death,  by  paralysis,  in  the  summer  of  1887.  In  the 
winter  of  1854,  a  Second  Congregation  was  organized. 
They  worshipped  one  year  in  the  Court  House,  and 
then  erected  a  neat  church  building.  In  the  winter  of 
1855,  the  Rev.  James  R.  Thompson,  son  of  elder 
William  Thompson,  was  ordained  and  installed  pastor, 
and  is  the  present  incumbent.  The  first  church  of  the 
First  congregation  was  rebuilt  in  1877,  and  stands  in 
a  favorable  location  on  Grand  street.  The  Secynd 
church  is  in  a  beautiful  spot  on  the  same  street  and 
a  few  squares  away.  Among  the  early  members  of  the 
Second  church  are  the  names. of  Little,  Lawson,  Hilton, 
Cameron,  Boyne,  Fleming,  Wilson  and  Young.  Among 
the  members  of  the  First  congregation  have  been 
William  McCuUough,  J.  W.  McCullough,  William  Hilton, 
John  Hilton,  John  F.  Beattie,  Robert  Campbell, 
Alexander  Wright,  William  Willson,  William  Lynn, 
William  Brown.  Of  the  members  of  the  Second  con- 
:gregation    have  been    William    Thompson,    James  Frazer, 


John  Frazer,  John  Magee,  Andrew  Little,  John  T. . 
Brown,  James  Jamison,  John  Burnett,  John  K.  Lawson, 
Francis  Willson,  Isaac  Cochran,  WiUiam  Johnston, 
R.    M.    McAllister,    W.    B.    Hall,    Robert    Hilton. 

CoLDENHAM.  The  settlement  of  Covenanters  upon 
the  Wallkill,  in  Orange  County,  was  the  first  of  this 
Church  in  the  State  of  New  York,  and  began  about 
1748.  The  location  is  one  distinguished  for  grazing 
and  the  products  of  the  dairy,  and  is  some  nine  miles 
west  of  the  city  of  Newburgh  on  the  Hudson  river.* 
In  the  year  1748,  the  family  of  Mr.  James  Rainey 
removed  from  the  city  of  Philadelphia  and  settled  a 
little  beyond  the  Wallkill  river.  Here  he  continued 
to  stand  aloof  from  communion  with  other  denomina- 
tions, ■  and  consequently  was  deprived  of  public  ordi- 
nances for  several  years.  In  1753,  two  other  families 
joined  him,  and  a  praying  society  was  formed.  In 
September,  1759,  the  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  made  his 
first  missionary  tour  to  the  Wallkill  people,  and  preached 
in  this  vicinity  three  or  four  weeks.  On  September 
20,  1759,  he  constituted  a  session, t  and  baptized 
Susannah  and  David,  children  of  James  Rainey ;  Mary 
and  Archy,  children  of  Archy  McBride ;  Daniel  and 
Jean,  children  of  William  Wilkins ;  John,  Helen  and 
Agnes,  children  of  John  Gilchrist.  In  August,  1764, 
Mr.  Cuthbertson,  accompanied  by  elder  Phineas  White- 
side, of  Pequea,  Pennsylvania,  visited  the  society  again, 
and  preached  and  baptized  some  children.  During  the 
year  1766,  he  again  visited  the  Wallkillians  when  they 
had    grown  to    a  considerable  society.     In    the  fall   1769, 

*  Covenanter,  Vol.  i,  p.  283.     f  Cuthbertson's  Diary. 


he  made  his  fourth  visit  to  these  worthy  and  staunch 
Covenanters,  and  the  most  noted  heads  of  the  families- 
were  James  Rainey,  John  Gilchrist,  Archy  McBride,. 
James  Thomson.  William  Wilkins,  James  McCord,  John 
Archibald  and  Henry  Trapp.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  ordained 
James  Rainey  and  William  Wilkins  ruling  elders,. 
October  29,  1769.  This  pioneer  missionary  visited  the 
Wallkill  society  also  in  September,  1774,  in  October,. 
1775,  and  in  November,  1779.  On  this  latter  visit  he 
called  upon  the  Rev.  Mr.  Annan  of  the  Associate 
Church,  and  had  much  friendly  intercourse  with  him,, 
and  he  and  Mr.  Cuthbertson  soon  afterwards  effected 
a  union  forming  the  Associate  Reformed  Church  in 
1782.  At  this  coalescence  the  whole  Wallkill  Cove- 
nanter society  went  into  the  new  body,  except  Mr. 
David  Rainey,  son  of  the  late  elder  James  Rainey. 
Covenanterism  was  now  about  extinct  in  this  fertile 
valley,  and  they  continued  in  this  distressing  condition 
for  a  number  of  years.  All  honor  is  due  James 
Rainey  for  establishing,  and  David  Rainey,  his  son,, 
for  maintaining,  Covenanterism  in  Orange  County.  In. 
the  year  1790,  the  Rev.  James  Reid,  missionary  from 
Scotland,  preached  a  few  Sabbaths  to  the  people^ 
Soon  after  Mr.  Robert  Johnston  joined  Mr.  Rainey, 
and  they  kept  up  a  society  meeting  between  the  two 
families.  In  1793,  the  Rev.  James  McKinney  visited 
them,  and  found  these  two  men  loyal  to  Reformation 
principles.  Mr.  Robert  Beattie  acceded  to  the  Cove- 
nanter Society  in  1795,  from  the  Associate  Reformed 
Church.  He  was  a  remarkably  generous  and  public 
spirited    man,   and  entertained    all    the    ministers  and  the 


families  coming  from  a  distance  to  worship.  The  cause 
again  began  to  flourish,  and  they  became  a  consider- 
able society  occasionally  visited  by  Revs.  James 
McKinney  and  William  Gibson.  The  congregation  was 
regularly  organized  by  direction  of  the  Reformed  Presby- 
tery, August,  1798,  by  the  election  and  ordination  of 
David  Rainey  and  Robert  Beattie,  ruling  elders.  In 
June,  1799,  the  Reformed  Presbytery  met  in  the  barn  of 
Robert  Beattie,  and  John  Black,  Thomas  Donnelly, 
Alexander  McLeod  and  Samuel  B.  Wylie  were  licensed 
to  preach  the  gospel.  This  same  year  the  first  church 
building  was  erected  on  the  plot  of  ground  now  occupied 
by  the  church  of  the  Coldenham  congregation,  and  was 
removed  in  1838,  to  make  room  for  the  present  edifice. 
At  the  meeting  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery  held  at 
Little  Britain,  November  7,  1800,  a  call  was  entertained 
from  the  united  congregations  of  New  York  City  and 
Wallkill.*  It  was  found  that  an  equal  number  of 
votes  was  cast  for  Samuel  B.  Wylie  and  Alexander 
McLeod.  Mr.  Wylie  renounced  all  further  connection 
with  the  call,  and  informed  the  court  to  take  measures 
accordingly.  The  court  then  agreed  to  address  those 
persons  who  had  voted  for  Mr.  Wylie,  whether'  they 
would  be  willing  to  append  their  names  to  the  call  for 
Mr.  McLeod.  To  this  they  willingly  assented,  and  the 
call  was  modified  by  appending  the  names  of  all  the 
electors  to  the  call  on  Mr.  McLeod,  and  it  was  presented 
by  the  Moderator  for  his  acceptance.  Mr.  McLeod 
hesitated,  and  requested  another  day  to  consider  the 
matter.       A^ter    some    reasoning    with    him,  Mr.  McLeod 

*  Minutes  of  Reformed  Presbytery. 


consented  to  accept  the  call  only  conditionally.  One  con- 
dition was  that  those  holding  slaves  and  who  had  signed 
the  call,  should  be  required  to  free  them  and  have  no 
more  to  do  with  the  sinful  institution  of  slavery.  Agree- 
ing to  this,  Mr.  McLeod  then  accepted  the  call,  with  the 
other  condition  that  three  years  thereafter  he  was  at  liberty 
to  accept  of  either  one  of  the  congregations  or  none, 
as  he  thought  proper.  This  the  court  agreed  to,  and 
he  gave  his  pieces  as  trials  for  ordination,  and  was  duly 
installed  pastor  of  the  united  congregations  of  Wallkill 
and  New  York  City,  July  6.  1801.  The  salary  and  divi- 
sion of  time  were  as  follows :  Nezv  York,  thirty-one  days- 
in  the  year  at  eleven  dollars  per  day  ;  Wallkill,  twenty- 
one  days  in  the  }'ear  at  seven  dollars  per  day ;  making 
the  whole  salary  $488  per  annum.  In  1803,  Mr.  McLeod 
resigned  the  Wallkill  branch  to  give  his  whole  time  tO' 
the  rapidly  growing  congregation  of  New  York.  In. 
1807,  a  call  was  presented  to  Mr.  James  R.  Willson,. 
licentiate,  but  he  declined  it.  In  1808,  Mr.  Gilbert 
McMaster  was  called,  and  declined.  For  several  years 
they  enjoyed  almost  constant  supplies,  but  failed  to  obtain- 
a  pastor.  In  1812,  the  Rev.  James  Milligan  was  installed 
pastor,  and  labored  among  them  for  five  years,  and  left 
them  in  a  good  condition  in  18 17,  when  he  removed  to 
Vermont.  Rev.  James  R.  Willson  was  again  called,  and 
having  accepted,  was  installed  pastor  in  August,  181 7. 
At  this  time  there  were  about  seventy  members,  with 
societies  in  Newburgh  and  beyond  the  Wallkill  river. 
The  congregation  was  now  called  Coldenham.  At  first 
Mr.  Willson  gave  the  Newburgh  people  on^-fifth  of  his 
time,    subsequently    one-half,  and    in    1824,  the}-    became 


a  separate  organization  and  he  remained  at  Coldenham 
until  his  resignation  in  1830,  when  he  removed  to 
Albany.  Dr.  Willson  returned  to  the  pastorate  of  the 
Coldenham  congregation  in  the  fall  of  1833,  and  remained 
in  this  relation  seven  years.  In  1836,  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  Theology  in  the  Eastern  Seminary  located  at 
Coldenham,  and  also  conducted  an  Academy,  where  many 
of  the  ministers  received  their  early  education.  Dr. 
Willson  resigned  the  charge  in  1840,  and  accepted  a 
professorate  in  the  Allegheny  Theological  Seminary. 
For  four  years  Coldenham  was  a  vacancy.  In  May, 
1844,  the  Rev.  James  W.  Shaw  became  the  pastor.  At 
this  time  there  were  nearly  one  hundred  members  and 
six  praying  societies.  The  elders  were  John  Beattie,. 
James  Beattie,  Samuel  Arnott,  William  Elder  and 
Daniel  Wilkins.  Mr.  Shaw  spent  his  whole  pastoral 
life  of  thirty-eight  years  among  these  people,  and 
resigned  in  1882,  on  account  of  failing  health.  Several 
calls  were  made  upon  young  men,  but  by  them  declined. 
In  the  spring  of  1884,  the  Rev.  Robert  H.  McCready 
became  the  pastor  and  is  now  in  charge.  He  resus- 
citated the  cause,  inspired  the  members  with  new  zeal, 
repaired  and  refurnished  the  church,  and  by  no  means 
does  it  look  as  if  Covenanterism  will  soon  become 
extinct  in  Coldenham  or  Orange  County.  Among  the 
old  members  are  David  Rainey,  Adam  Rainey,  James 
Clark,  William  Beattie,  John  Beattie,  Israel  O.  Beattie, 
Dr.  Charles  Fowler,  Edward  T.  Bradner,  Matthew  Park, 
William  Park,  James  Thomson,  David  Elliot,  Jephtha 
Williams,  Samuel  Arnott,  Samuel  Wright,  William  Shaw, 
William    J.    Shaw,    Francis    Wallace,    J.    Morrison,  Natha- 


niel     Fleming,     M.     Roney    Fleming,     William     Fleming, 
Reuben    Frazer,    John    Cochran,    Robert    Fleming. 

Argyle.  This  settlement  of  Covenanters  is  now 
known  as  the  congregation  of  West  Hebron,  Wash- 
ington County,  New  York.  It  is  east  of  the  city  of 
Albany  and  near  the  Vermont  line.  It  is  probable 
the  first  Covenanters  settled  in  this  vicinity,  and  that 
of  Cambridge,  as  early  as  1755,  but  as  to  their  names 
.and  numbers  nothing  is  definitely  known.  The  Rev. 
John  Cuthbertson  first  visited  them  in  August,  1764, 
and  preached  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Ephraim  Cowan. 
He  baptized  Edward,  son  of  William  Selfridge  ;  and 
Martha,  daughter  of  Oliver  Selfridge.  From  the  amount 
■  of  visiting  he  did  in  this  neighborhood,  it  is  probable 
there  was  quite  a  respectable  society.  In  1766,  Mr. 
-Cuthbertson  visited  them  again  and  passed  over  into 
Vermont  and  New  Hampshire.  On  his  third  tour  in 
1769,  Mr.  Cuthbertson  constituted  a  session,  and  William 
:Selfridge  and  John  McClung  were  ordained  ruling 
•elders,  October  22,  1769.  He  also  spent  some  time  in 
visiting  among  the  people  in  September,  1774,  in  Octo- 
ber, 1775,  and  in  November,  1779.  The  principal 
members  at  this  time  were  Ephraim  Cowan,  Samuel 
Clark,  William  Selfridge,  Oliver  Selfridge,  John  McClung 
and  Phineas  Whiteside.  The  latter  had  some  time 
previously  removed  from  Pequea,  Pennsylvania.  The 
organization  continued  for  over  fifty  years  without  a 
settled  pastor.  In  August,  1825,  a  call  was  made  upon 
the  Rev.  James  W.  Stewart,  which,  being  accepted,  he 
was  duly  ordained  and  installed  the  first  pastor  of  the 
Argyle  congregation,  October   13,    1825.     The  small  con- 


gregation  was  poor  in  this  world's  goods,  and  it  had 
great  difficulty  in  raising  the  meagre  salary.*  Pews 
were  auctioned  off  to  the  highest  bidder,  and  often  the 
pastor  had  to  forgive  a  portion  of  the  stipends  in  order 
to  secure  the  remainder.  Soon  the  little  congregation 
was  rent  into  factions  as  the  New  School  controversy 
agitated  the  Church,  and  for  sundry  reasons  Mr.  Stewart 
was  released  from  the  charge  in  April,  1832.  At  a 
meeting  of  the  session  held  November  15,  1832,  and 
the  last  in  »which  Mr.  Stewart  moderated,  a  petition 
was  prepared  and  ordered  to  be  forwarded  to  Synod, 
requesting  that  court  to  take  the  congregation  from 
under  the  care  of  the  Northren  Presbytery  and  place  it 
under  the  Western.  Against  this  action  elders  William 
Shaw  and  Samuel  Jackson  protested,  and  these  were 
the  only  members  of  session  who  adhered  to  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  Church  at  the  division  of  1833.  The 
whole  congregation  went  with  Mr.  Stewart  into  the 
New  School  body.  They  held  the  church  building,  and 
after  running  it  in  debt  for  supplies,  sold  it  back  to 
the  few  faithful  Covenanters  who  held  the  Testimony 
intact.  Less  than  a  half  dozen  Covenanters  resorted  to 
the  praying  societies,  and  occasionally  enjoyed  a  day's 
preaching.  In  May,  1862,  one  of  these  elders  died, 
and  Argyle  lost  its  organization.  They  embraced  an 
opportunity  to  sell  the  old  church  at  Argyle  and  bought 
the  present  church  property  near  the  village  of  West 
Hebron.  The  New  York  Presbytery  re-organized  them 
as  the  West  Hebron  congregation  in  August,  1866. 
Fourteen  members  were  found  in  regular  standing  and 
*  From  notes  by  Rev.  J.  A.  Speer. 


thirteen  others  united  by  profession  of  faith.  They 
liberally  supported  the  gospel,  repeated  their  call  for  a 
pastor  nearly  every  year,  and  trusted  that  in  due  time 
the  Lord  would  send  them  an  under-shepherd.  In  this 
they  were  not  disappointed.  The  Lord  heard  their 
prayers  and  gave  them  a  pastor.  The  Rev.  James  A. 
Speer  was  duly  ordained  and  installed,  July  28,  1875. 
and  was  the  only  pastor  since  1832.  He  is  now  in 
charge.  The  congregation  now  .  owns  a  substantial  and 
comfortable  church  property  free  from  de4Dt.  For  over 
fifty  years  previous  to  1825,  and  for  forty-three  years 
since  1832,  these  people  maintained  the  unpopular 
principles  of  the  Covenanter  Church  without  a  pastor 
with  a  heroism  and  faithfulness  without  a  parallel  in 
history.  Some  of  the  old  members  of  Argyle  are  Dr. 
David  Lister,  Eli  Gifford,  James  Shaw,  William  Shaw, 
Henry  Mehaffay,  Alexander  Mehaffay,  James  Stewart, 
John  McQueen,  John  Selfridge,  William  Dennison, 
George'  Keys,  John  McNeil,  James  F.  Mehaffay,  John 
Dennison,  Samuel  Jackson. 

Troy.  This  city  contained  a  society  of  Covenanters 
as  early  as  181 8,  and  was  visited  with  supplies  with 
LaNSINGBURGH  in  Rensselaer  County.  Dr.  Christie  of 
Albany  frequently  preached  here,  and  Troy  and  Lansing- 
burgh  were  given  an  organization  in  1828.  Rev.  Robert 
McKee  was  the  first  and  only  pastor,  installed  in  1830. 
In  1835,  he  connected  with  the  Presbyterian  Church. 
These  places  were  supplied  with  preaching  by  Presby- 
tery until  1848,  when  the  field  was  abandoned.  Peter 
McKinnon    and    Robert    Campbell    were    elders. 

Albany.  Covenanters  resided  in  the  city  of  Albany 
as    early    as    1760.       In    August,    1764,     the    Rev.    John 


Cuthbertson  came  to  this  city  from  Wallkill,  Oran^^e 
County,  and  preached.  He  also  visited  the  city  in 
1766  and  1769.  He  usually  preached  at  the  house  of 
Mr.  John  Boyd,*  with  whom  he  lodged  while  remain- 
ing in  the  city.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  past  cen- 
tury supplies  were  given  by  the  Revs.  James  McKinney 
and  William  Gibson,  and,  after  the  formation  of  the 
Reformed  Presbytery,  by  other  ministers.  The  society 
was  organized  into  a  congregation  in  181 5.  The  first 
pastor  was  the  Rev.  James  Christie,  D.  D.,  who  was 
settled  in  this  city  in  the  spring  of  1822.  He  also 
conducted  a  Grammar  School  in  connection  with  his 
ministerial  duties,  and  was  regarded  as  a  preacher 
and  educator  of  considerable  influence  in  Albany.  The 
church  stood  in  Waterloo  street.  Dr.  Christie  demitted 
the  charge  in  1830.  The  people  were  not  long  in 
securing  a  pastor,  for  the  Rev.  James  R.  Willson, 
D.  D.,  was  installed  the  same  fall.  Here  was  a  field  for 
the  display  of  his  great  powers  as  a  preacher  and 
writer,  and  he  at  once  inaugurated  a  battle  against 
the  wickedness  of  the  city  and  the  ungodliness  of  the 
State  legislature.  In  the  fall  of  1833,  Dr.  Willson 
resigned  the  charge  and  returned  to  Coldenham.  For 
three  years  the  small,  but  active,  congregation  was  in 
a  distressed"  condition.  In  the  spring  of  1836,  the 
Rev.  David  Scott  was  installed  pastor  and  remained 
in  this  capacity  six  years.  He  demitted  the  charge  in 
the  spring  of  1842,  for  the  people  were  not  able  to 
sustain  a  pastor  of  his  ability  and  keep  up  the  other 
expenses    of   the    congregation.      The    field    was    supplied 

*Cuthbertson's  Diary. 

2 1 6,  HISTORY    OF   THE    REFORMED 

with  preaching  for  many  years,  but  gradually  by  emi- 
gration and  death,  Covenanterism  has  become  extinct 
in'  Albany.  The  family  of  the  great  Rev.  James 
McKinney  lived  and  died  in  this  city,  and  other 
members  were  Robert  Trumbull,  M.  J.  Johnston,  Samuel 
Graham,    Robert    Campbell    and    James    Frazer. 

Mohawk  Valley.  This  is  one  of  the  richest  and 
most  beautiful  valleys  in  the  State  of  New  York.  Lying 
a  few  miles  west  of  the  city  of  Albany  and  along  the 
picturesque  Mohawk  river,  are  the  towns  of  SCHE- 
NECTADY, DuANESBURGH  and  Princetown.  About 
1780,  a  few  families  from  the  Highlands  of  Scotland 
settled  in  this  vicinity,  and  also  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Galway,  Mn.TON  and  Broad  Albin.  Not  far 
distant  were  the  flourishing  societies  of  Galloway, 
CURRIESBUSH  and  Johnstown.  These  Scotch  people 
organized  themselves  into  praying  societies,  and  awaited 
God's  time  to  send  them  a  preacher.  No  religious 
society  ever  embraced  a  creed  with  more  intelligence, 
and  maintained  it  with  more  faithfulness,  than  these 
unsophisticated  Scotchmen  accepted  the  principles  of 
the  Covenanter  Church.'^  In  1793,  the  Rev.  James 
McKinney  came  among  them  and  preached  alternately 
in  all  the  societies  for  about  five  years.  In  1798,  his 
labors  were  mostly  confined  to  the  Duanesburgh  and 
Galway  congregations,  although  he  exercised  a  super- 
intending control  over  all  the  societies  on  either  side 
of  the  Mohawk.  The  elders  at  Duanesburgh  were 
Walter  Maxwell,  Robert  Liddle,  John  Cullings  and 
George  Dugyid.  Among  other  leading  and  influential 
*  Memoir  of  Dr.  A.  McLeod. 


members  were  the  families  of  Andrew  McMillan,  Alex- 
ander Glen,  John  Burns,  Robert  Spier,  Hugh  Ross  and 
James  Dunse.  It  is  said,  moreover,  that  the  families 
of  Andrew  McMillan  and  James  Dunse  were  the  only 
ones  in  Duanesburgh  who  held  the  principles  of  the 
Covenanter  Church  previous  to  the  arrival  of  the  Rev. 
James  McKinney  in  1793,  but  the  others  soon  after- 
wards embraced  them  under  his  eloquent  and  persua- 
sive presentation  of  truth.*  Mr.  McKinney  first  preached 
in  the  old  stone  church  near  Princetown,  erected  by 
the  community  but  under  the  control  of  the  Presby- 
terian Church.  He  resigned  this  charge  in  the  spring 
of  1802,  and  removed  to  South  Carolina.  The  first 
church  building  erected  in  Duanesburgh  was  in  1804. 
The  lot  was  given  by  Hon.  Judge  Duane,  and  a  lot 
for  the  parsonage  was  donated  by  his  daughter.  The 
parsonage  was  not  built  until  1829.  In  the  fall  of 
1807-,  the  united  congregations  of  Duanesburgh  and 
Galway  called  the  Rev.  S.  B,  Wylie,  who  declined  it. 
In  the  spring  of  1808,  the  Rev.  Gilbert  McMaster  was 
called.  He  accepted,  and  was  duly  ordained  and  in- 
stalled August  8,  1808.  The  salary  promised  Mr. 
McMaster  amounted  to  twelve  hundred  and  fifty  dollars 
a  year  and  a  parsonage.  The  number  of  commu- 
nicants at  Duanesburgh  was  fifty-four.  They  were  an 
opulent  and  liberal  people.  Besides  those  mentioned 
previously  were  the  families  of  William  Turnbull,  Daniel 
Stewart,  John  McCollum,  Alexander  Liddle,  Alexander 
McFarlan,  James  McBean,  John  McClumpha,  Charles; 
Tulloch,  James  Ingersoll,  George  Turnbull,  James  Young 
*  Sermon  by  Rev.  S.  M.  Ramsey,  Duanesburgh,   1876. 


and  Thomas  Hays.  In  1818,  Dr.  McMaster  resigned 
the  Galway  branch  and  devoted  his  whole  time  to  the 
flourishing  congregation  of  Duanesburgh.  The  first 
deacons  were  elected  in  18 18,  and  were  John  Tulloch, 
John  Liddle,  James  Maxwell,  Thomas  Kelly  and 
William  Cummings.  At  the  division  of  the  Church  in 
1833,  the  large  majority  of  the  congregation  went  with 
their  pastor  into  the  New  School  body.  The  minority 
soon  emigrated  to  other  parts  of  the  Church  and  re- 
united    with     their    brethren. 

Schenectady  was  practically  a  part  of  the  Duanes- 
burgh congregation  until  its  separate  organization  in 
1 83 1.  Rev.  John  McMaster  was  installed  pastor,  January 
25,  1832,  and  the  following  year,  he,  and  the  great 
majority  of  the  congregation,  went  into  the  New  School 
body,  and  in  a  few  years  afterwards  the  cause  declined 
and  finally  died  out  in  this  learned  city.  Among  the 
leading  members  at  Schenectady  were  John  Anderson, 
William  Cunningham,  Robert  J.  Brown  and  James 

Galway  was  a  good  congregation  connected  with 
Duanesburgh  until  1818.  It  was  located  in  Saratoga 
County,  and  attached  to  it  were  the  congregations  of 
Milton  and  Broad  Albin,  in  the  neighboring  County 
of  Fulton.  Among  the  families  here  were  those  of 
McKinley,  Adams,  Rodgers,  Guthrie,  Williams,  Wilson, 
Dannon,  McQueen,  and  others.  In  the  fall  of  1821, 
the  Rev.  Samuel  M.  Willson  was  installed  the  first 
pastor,  and  remained  among  these  worthy  people  six 
years.  In  1829,  the  Rev.  John  N.  McLeod  became 
the     pastor,     and    held     this     charge     three    years,      and 


removed  to  New  York  City.  In  April,  1833,  the  Rev. 
Algernon  S.  McMaster  was  installed,  and  in  a  few 
months  afterwards  he  and  many  of  the  congregation 
identified  themselves  with  the  New  School  body.  The 
faithful  remnant  were  reorganized,  and,  in  1835,  called 
Mr.  Francis  Gailey,  licentiate,  but  he  declined.  It  was 
regarded  as  a  mission  station  until  recent  years.  A 
small  congregation  of  Covenanters  was  organized  in 
the  city  of  Utica,  Oneida  County,  in  the  fall  of  1837, 
and  also  at  New  Hartford,  same  County,  at  the 
same  time.  These  congregations  were  supplied  by 
Dr.  W.  L.  Roberts,  David  Scott,  and  others,  for 
several  years,  but  were  finally  abandoned.  There  was 
also  a  small  society  organized  at  MiLFORD,  Otsego 
County,  but  it  never  flourished  and  received  little 
or    no    attention. 

KORTRIGHT.  This  congregation  is  situated  in  the 
north-eastern  part  of  Delaware  County.  It  was  settled 
in  the  early  part  of  the  present  century  by  emigrants 
from  Scotland.  It  was  long  a  preaching  station  and 
probably  received  its  regular  organization  as  a  con- 
gregation in  1 8 14.  In  1820,  the  Rev.  Melancthon  B. 
Williams  became  the  pastor,  and  remained  about  ten 
years.  He  built  up  a  good  congregation  of  honest 
tillers  of  the  soil,  who  afterwards  engaged  extensively 
in  the  dairy  business.  Mr.  James  Douglas  preached 
frequently  to  them,  and  Mr.  Francis  Gailey  was  called 
to  be  their  pastor.  They  were  a  great  many  years 
without  a  pastor,  and  owe  much  to  the  fidelity  of 
elder  Robert  Spence  for  the  maintenance  of  the  cause 
during  the    New  School    controversy.      The    Rev.  Samuel 


M.  Willson  was  installed  pastor  in  the  fall  of  1845,. 
and  remained  until  his  death  in  1864.  In  1866,  the 
Rev.  John  O.  Bayles,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed. 
Among  some  of  the  old  and  leading  members  at 
Kortright  have  been  George  Spence,  David  Orr, 
William  McCracken,  Robert  S.  Orr,  James  Spence, 
Joseph  Spence,  Samuel  Mehaffay,  Andrew  S.  Gilchrist, 
Andrew  McNeely,  J.  W.  Kelso,  Seth  Kelso,  Henry 
L.    Orr,    James    H.    McLowry,    Robert    Henderson. 

BOVINA.  This  was  settled  about  the  same  time  as 
Kortright,  by  Scotchmen,  and  is  situated  some  fifteen 
miles  west  of  Kortright  and  at  the  headwaters  of  the 
Delaware  river.  It  was  a  preaching  station  supplied 
for  many  years,  and  organized  into  a  congregation  in 
1 8 14.  In  1820,  it  was  under  the  pastoral  care  of  the 
Rev.  Melancthon  B.  Williams,  who  was  released  from 
them  in  1823.  In  1825,  they  invited  Mr.  James  Douglas 
of  New  York,  who  had  been  licensed  in  Scotland,  to 
preach  to  them.  This  he  did  for  six  years,  and,  in 
183 1,  received  ordination  from  the  True  Dutch 
Reformed  Church  and  continued  to  minister  to  the 
people  of  Bovina  until  1847,  ^vhen  he  was  restored, 
his  ordination  deemed  valid,  and  he  was  regularly 
installed  pastor  of  the  congregation.  Mr.  Douglas  died 
in  1857,  and  for  four  years  they  were  vacant.  The 
old  stone  church  built  in  1825,  was  now  abandoned, 
and  a  new  one  built  in  the  village  of  Brushland. 
Rev.  James  T.  Pollock  became  the  pastor  in  1861, 
and,  after  three  years  of  service,  connected  with  another 
denomination.  In  January,  1865,  the  Rev.  Joshua 
Kennedy  was   installed,  and  remained  with    these  worthy 


people  twenty  years,  when  his  health  failed,  and  he 
resigned  in  the  spring  of  1885.  The  Rev.  O.  Brown 
Milligan  was  installed  pastor  in  June,  1887;  the  church 
building  was  refurnished,  and  under  most  favorable 
circumstances  the  congregation  continues  its  work  of 
saving  souls.  Some  of  the  old  members  are  Andrew 
Thomson,  William  Telford,  Daniel  Arbuckle,  Patrick 
Sanderson,  James  Miller,  James  Russell,  James  H. 
Thomson,  William  Thomson,  James  Thomson,  James  R. 
Douglas,  James  Dean,  John  Campbell,  David  B.  Russell, 
Andrew  T.  Russell,  Andrew  Thomson,  Jr.,  A.  S.  Gilchrist. 
Walton.  This  is  a  live  young  city,  and  the  largest 
town  in  Delaware  County.  In  this  vicinity  Francis 
Gailey  made  some  disciples  in  early  times.  A  few 
families  lived  in  this  community  and  held  their  mem- 
bership in  the  Bovina  congregation  until  the  spring  of 
1 86 1,  when  they  received  a  separate  organization.  In 
1863,  the  Rev.  David  McAllister  was  ordained  and 
installed  the  first  pastor.  He  resigned  in  1871,  and 
accepted  an  appointment  of  Synod  to  labor  in  the 
interests  of  the  National  Reform  Association,  and  the 
congregation  was  vacant  four  years.  Mr.  McAllister 
was  re-installed  pastor  in  1875,  and  again  released  in  the 
fall  of  1883,  to  teach  in  Geneva  College.  Rev.  Samuel 
G.  Shaw,  the  present  pastor,  was  ordained  and  installed 
in  the  summer  of  1884.  In  1874,  the  old  church  in 
the  country  was  abandoned,  and  a  large  and  com- 
modious building  of  more  modern  architecture  was 
erected  in  the  town  of  Walton.  The  congregation  is- 
in  a  healthy  condition.  Among  the  representative  men 
of  Walton   have    been  D.  G.  McDonald,  R.  F.  McGibbin,. 


Henry  Easson,  James  Alexander,  Robert  Jameson, 
Calvin  McAllister,  T.  H.  Thompson,  J.  E.  Arbuckle, 
Smith    St.    John,    A.  J.  Easson. 

Not  far  from  the  town  of  Walton  was  the  society  of 
Colchester,  in  a  mining  district.  This  was  cultivated 
by  Dr.  Joshua  Kennedy  in  connection  with  Bovina, 
and    at    one    time    contained    about    twenty-five   members. 

White  Lake.  South  of  Delaware  County  and 
between  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  rivers  is  the  con- 
gregation of  White  Lake,  in  the  centre  of  Sullivan 
County.  These  people  are  living  amid  silver  streams 
and  placid  lakes,  the  resort  of  many  a  weary  New 
Yorker  in  the  heated  season.  It  is  not  definitely 
known  at  what  time  the  first  Covenanter^  settled  in 
this  region,  but  it  was  early  in  the  present  century. 
In  1820,  the  Rev.  Melancthon  B.  Williams  preached 
here  as  a  part  of  his  charge.  For  about  twenty-five 
years  they  were  a  vacancy,  and  some  made  defection  in 
1833.  They  enjoyed  supplies  until  1850,  when  the  Rev. 
John  B.  Williams,  the  present  pastor,  was  ordained  and 
installed  in  charge.  Mr.  Williams  has  been  an  untiring 
worker  and  has  been  a  power  for  good  in  this  com- 
munity. Among  the  old  families  of  White  Lake  have 
been  those  of  William  Pattison,  WiUiam  Stewart,  John 
Tacey,  John  McClure,  Joseph  Forsythe,  Robert  Alex- 
ander, David  McAllister,  Clark  Brown,  James  Frazer, 
Jacob    Dubois. 

Syracuse.  About  the  year  1840,  a  few  families  of 
Covenanters  found  a  home  in  this  city,  to  whose 
spiritual  wants  the  Revs.  W.  L.  Roberts,  John  Fisher, 
David    Scott,    and    others,     ministered     quite    frequently. 


The  little  society  grew  in  numbers  and  faith  until 
they  received  an  organization  in  the  fall  of  1849.  In 
the  spring  of  185 1,  they  succeeded  in  obtaining  the 
Rev.  John  Newell  for  a  pastor.  He  remained  but  two 
years,  and  in  1854,  they  lost  their  organization.  They 
were  re-organized  in  1858,  and  in  the  spring  of  1859, 
they  again  beheld  their  teacher  in  the  person  of  the 
Rev.  Josiah  M.  Johnston.  He  remained  in  charge  seven 
years,  a  part  of  which  time  he  was  engaged  in 
mission  work  in  the  South.  In  1867,  the  Rev.  John 
M.  Armour  became  the  pastor,  and  remained  six  years. 
In  the  winter  of  1874,  the  Rev.  Samuel  R.  Wallace, 
the  present  pastor,  was  installed.  The  church  building 
was  erected  in  1852,  and  is  a  comfortable  house  of 
worship.  The  Covenanters  in  the  city  of  Syracuse 
have  never  been  numerous  or  wealthy,  but  they  have 
maintained  the  principles  of  the  Church  in  a  manner 
which  deserves  commendation.  Of  the  old  families  at 
Syracuse  have  been  those  of  John  McClure,  James 
McClure,  Solomon  Spier,  John  Service,  William  J.  Park, 
William    Cannon,    James    Cannon,    Hugh    Scott. 

Rochester.  This  city  was  frequently  visited,  pre- 
vious to  1830,  by  Dr.  W.  L.  Roberts  who  preached 
to  a  few  families  who  had  removed  hither.  The  con- 
gregation was  organized  in  the  summer  of  1831,  and 
the  Rev.  John  Fisher,  of  York,  was  in  charge  for 
four  years.  In  the  spring  of  1837,  the  Rev.  Charles 
B.  McKee  became  the  pastor,  and  also  conducted 
a  flourishing  classical  school.  He  was  released  from 
this  charge  in  the  summer  of  1842.  In  the  summer 
of    1844,   the    Rev.   David    Scott,  who  had  often  supplied 


the  congregation,  became  the  pastor  and  remained 
until  the  summer  of  1862.  In  the  spring  of  1863,  the 
Rev.  Robert  D.  Sproull  was  installed  pastor,  and  was 
released  in  October,  1880,  when  he  left  the  com- 
munion of  the  Church.  In  the  spring  of  1881.  the 
Rev.  John  Graham  was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge, 
and  is  the  present  efficient  pastor.  Recently  the  old 
church  on  North  Union  street  was  sold,  and  a  beauti- 
ful and  convenient  church  on  Alexander  street  was 
purchased  and  refitted  for  worship.  Rochester  has  had 
some  worthy  members,  of  whom  have  been  Angus 
McLeod,  John  Campbell,  Hugh  Mulholland,  James 
Edmonds,  Robert  Knowls,  David  Dorn,  Samuel  Gormley, 
Robert  Kyle,  David  Logan,  James  Montgomery,  Robert 
Willson,  William  Marshall,  James  Campbell,  Hugh 
Robinson,  Hugh  McGowan,  Robert  Alton,  James  Alton, 
Abraham  Ernissee,  Thomas  S.  Linn,  Joseph  B.  Robin- 
son. James  Keers,  Thomas  Logan,  Simon  Cameron, 
John    Boyd,    Thomas    Percy,    James    S.    Peoples. 

Buffalo.  A  few  families  of  Covenanters  residing  in 
this  city  were  supplied  with  preaching  for  some  time, 
and  organized  into  a  congregation  in  1838.  They 
made  out  several  calls  but  none  were  accepted.  They 
continued  steadfast  in  their  endeavors  to  build  up  a 
Church,  and  while  they  did  not  enjoy  the  labors  of  a 
sett-led  pastor,  supplies  were  almost  constant.  A  small 
church  building  was  erected  in  1849.  Mr.  George  G. 
Barnum  was  the  leading  spirit  in  founding  a  Cove- 
nanter Church  in  Buffalo,  and  to  whom  the  Church  is 
much  indebted  for  his  public  spirit  and  unceasing 
interest.     Failing    in    their    righteous    attempt  the   church 


property    was     disposed     of    with     much     reluctance     and 

York.  The  congregation  of  York,  in  Livingston 
County,  together  with  Galen  and  Caledonia,  originated 
from  the  preaching  of  the  indefatigable  pioneer  and 
missionary,  the  Rev.  James  Milligan.  As  early  as  1815, 
he  began  preaching  in  the  Genesee  Valley,  and  the 
congregation  was  organized  in  the  fail  of  1823.*  The 
first  elders  were  ordained  at  that  time,  and  were  James 
Guthrie,  Sr.,  James  Guthrie,  Jr.,  James  Milroy  and 
James  Cullings.  The  communion  was  dispensed  at  the 
same  time  by  the  Rev.  William  Sloane.  Dr.  W.  L. 
Roberts  was  the  pastor  for  part  of  his  time  from  1826 
until  1830.  Rev.  John  Fisher  was  installed  as  the  first 
pastor  of  the  York  congregation,  July  21,  1831.  He 
preached  in  two  school  houses,  three  miles  apart,  and 
equally  distant  from  the  village  of  York.  In  1834,  a 
commodious  church  was  erected,  and  this  was  occupied 
until  1872,  when  the  present  large  and  better  build- 
ing was  completed.  Mr.  Fisher  died  in  the  summer 
of  1845,  after  a  successful  pastorate  of  fourteen  years. 
In  the  winter  of  1846,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Bowden  was 
installed  the  pastor.  The  congregation  grew  rapidly 
under  his  ministrations  until  his  release  in  1876.  Some 
internal  troubles  arose  soon  afterwards  when  he  was 
recalled,  and  he  left  the  communion  of  the  Church, 
with  some  others.  The  breach,  however,  was  healed, 
and  in  the  fall  of  1882,  the  present  pastor,  the  Rev. 
W.  C.  Allen,  was  ordained  and  installed.  The  names 
of  Milroy,  Guthrie,  McMillan,  Gay,  Logan,  Cowan, 
*R.  P.  &  C,   1872,  p.  85. 


McCracken,  Donnan,  Hart,  Morrow,  Jamison,  Cullings, 
and  others,  have  long  been  connected  with  the  cause 
in    that    region. 

Sterling.  Sterling,  Cayuga  County,  and  CLYDE,. 
Wayne  County,  were  long  supplied  with  preaching  and 
organized  into  a  congregation  in  1823.  Dr.  W.  L.. 
Roberts  became  the  first  paster  in  1826,  and  remained 
until  1830,  and  preached  in  different  localities  which 
became  societies  and  congregations.  He  was  re-installed 
pastor  of  Clyde  and  Sterling  in  the  fall  of  1837,  and 
released  in  1855.  The  following  year  the  Rev. 
Matthew  Wilkin  became  the  pastor,  and  was  in  charge 
until  1867.  For  three  years  they  were  vacant.  In  the- 
summer  of  1870,  the  Rev.  S.  R.  Galbraith  was  installed 
pastor,  and  resigned  in  the  following  year  to  accept  an. 
appointment  as  a  missionary  to  Syria.  Four  years  they 
were  without  a  pastor.  In  the  fall  of  1875,  the  Rev. 
T.  J.  Allen  was  installed,  and  remained  twelve  years. 
He  built  up  a  good  congregation  and  many  improvements 
were  made  in  the  church  property.  In  1883,  the  Sterling 
manse  was  burned  with  the  furniture  and  library  of  Mr. 
Allen.  Another  parsonage  has  been  erected.  Mr.  Allen 
resigned  in  June,  1887,  and  the  Rev.  J.  C.  B.  French 
was  ordained  and  installed  pastor,  January  12,  1888. 
Among  the  leading  members  have  been  James  Hunter, 
John  Hunter,  Hugh  Crocket.  Samuel  Cox,  Alexander 
McCrea,  John  B.  Crocket,  M.  W.  Calvert,  John  McCrea, 
Robert    Mclnroy. 

Lisbon.  This  congregation  is  situated  north  of  the 
centre  of  St.  Lawrence  County,  New  York,  and  near 
the    St.    Lawrence    river.      The    first     Covenanter     family 


settling  in  this  region  was  that  of  Mr.  William  Cole- 
man, who  came  from  the  Kellswater  congregation, 
Ireland,  in  1820."'  In  1823,  a  society  was  formed, 
which  met  at  the  house  of  Mr.  John  Smith,  and  was 
composed  of  the  families  of  William  Coleman,  John 
Smith  and  William  Glass.  They  had  no  public  preach- 
"ing  until  1830.  In  1828,  Mr.  William  Coleman  learned 
from  Ireland  the  address  of  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Stewart 
of  Argyle,  New  York,  and  Mr.  William  Craig,  a 
member  of  the  Associate  Reformed  Church,  wrote  to 
Mr.  Stewart,  but  got  no  reply.  Soon  afterwards,  Mr. 
John  Smith  wrote  and  got  an  answer  from  Mr.  Stewart 
in  February,  1829,  who  promised  to  send  them  a 
preacher.  This  messenger  came  in  the  person  of  the 
Rev.  James  Milligan,  in  the  spring  of  1830,  who  or- 
ganized a  society  and  dispensed  the  sacraments.  In 
the  fall  of  1832,  Rev.  J.  W.  Stewart,  who  had  been  sus- 
pended by  the  Northren  Presbytery  for  defection  from  the 
attainments  of  the  Reformation,  came  and  organized  a 
society  in  March,  1833,  without  authority.  He,  with 
elder  John  Smith,  withdrew  and  identified  themselves 
with  the  New  School  body  in  August,  1833.  When  the 
deception  of  Mr.  Stewart  was  exposed,  and  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  division  of  the  Church  were  published, 
the  misguided  brethren  tried  in  vain  to  destroy  the 
publications  in  order  to  keep  the  people  ignorant  of 
their  defection.  Many  of  the  people  now  returned  to 
the  Church  and  were  visited  by  Rev.  James  Milligan 
in  1837.  They  began  to  be  regularly  supplied  with 
preaching  by  John  Holmes,  Dr.  W.  L.  Roberts,  and 
*  Extract  from  Sketch   by  Rev.  W.  McFarland. 


Others.  In  October,  1840,  Rev.  John  Fisher  of  York, 
and  elder  John  Campbell  of  Rochester,  regularly  or- 
ganized the  congregation  and  admitted  thirty-four 
members.  They  were  now  supplied  by  William  Neill, 
W.  L.  Roberts,  John  Middleton,  and  others.  A  church 
building  was  erected,  but  the  property,  in  passing 
through  the  civil  courts,  was  illegally  conceded  to  the 
New  School  body  in  1843.  In  1845,  a  new  church 
building  was  erected,  and  in  the  winter  of  the  previous 
year,  the  Rev.  John  Middleton  was  ordained  and  in- 
stalled pastor,  and  resigned  in  1854,  on  account  of 
the  deacon  controversy.  In  the  summer  of  1856,  the 
Rev.  James  McLachlane,  formerly  a  Scotch  missionary 
to  Canada,  was  installed  pastor,  and  for  eight  years  he 
taught  and  maintained  the  principles  of  the  Church 
with  fidelity.  He  died  in  1864.  For  seven  long  years 
the  congregation  was  a  vacancy.  Several  calls  were 
made  and  declined.  The  present  pastor,  the  Rev. 
William  McFarland,  was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge, 
May  18,  1 87 1.  Among  those  who  have  borne  office 
in  the  Lisbon  congregation  are  John  Smith,  William 
■Glass,  James  Ballantine,  John  McCullough,  John  Cole- 
man, John  Hargrave,  Charles  Gillespie,  elders  ;  and 
John  Campbell,  John  Aiton,  William  W.  Glass,  James 
Smith  and  John  C.  Glass,  deacons.  The  congregation 
is  in  a  good  condition,  and  Reformation  principles  are 
faithfully    presented    in    the    region    of    the  St.  Lawrence. 


Perth    Amboy.       In     1685,    George     Scot,     Laird     of 
Pitlochie,    was    given    his    liberty    in    Scotland    provided 


he  transported  to  East  Jersey  many  of  the  Cove- 
nanters who  had  refused  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance 
to  a  tyrannical  and  profligate  ruler.  Thus  authorized, 
he  proceeded  to  gather  his  company  from  those  con- 
fined in  the  tolbooth  of  Leith.  He  had  to  give 
security  to  land  them  there  prior  to  September,  1686, 
and  the  penalty  was  to  be  five  hundred  merks  in 
case  of  failure  in  any  instance.  In  May,  1685,  Scot 
chartered  the  "  Henry  and  Francis "  of  New  Castle,  a 
ship  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  tons  and  twenty  great 
guns,  with  Richard  Hutton  as  master.  On  the  eve  of 
their  banishment,  twenty-eight  of  them  signed  the 
following  conjunct  testimony,  bearing  "That  now  to 
leave  their  own  native  and  Covenanted  land  by  an 
unjust  sentence  of  banishment  for  owning  truth  and 
standing  by  duty,  studying  to  keep  their  Covenant 
engagements  and  baptismal  vows,  whereby  they  stand 
obliged  to  resist  and  testify  against  all  that  is  con- 
trary to  the  Word  of  God  and  their  Covenants ;  and 
that  their  sentence  of  banishment  ran  chiefly  because 
they  refused  the  oath  of  allegiance  which  in  con- 
science they  could  not  take,  because,  in  so  doing 
they  thought  they  utterly  declined  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  from  having  any  power  in  His  own  house,  and 
practically  would,  by  taking  it,  say.  He  was  not  King 
and  Head  of  His  Church  and  over  their  consciences. 
And,  on  the  contrary,  this  was  to  take  and  put  in 
His  room  a  man  whose  breath  is  in  his  nostrils ;  yea, 
a  man  who  is  a  sworn  enemy  to  religion,  an  avowed 
papist,  whom,  by  our  Covenants,  we  are  bound  to 
withstand  and  disown, '  and  that  agreeably  to  Scripture : 


'When  thou  art  come  unto  the  land  which  the  Lord 
thy  God  giveth  thee,  and  shalt  possess  it,  and  shalt 
dwell  therein,  and  shalt  say,  I  will  set  a  King  over 
me,  like  as  all  the  nations  that  are  about  me,  thou 
shalt  in  anywise  set  him  King  over  thee,  whom  the 
Lord  thy  God  shalt  choose :  one  from  among  thy 
brethren  shalt  thou  set  King  over  thee :  thou  mayest 
not  set  a  stranger  over  thee,  which  is  not  thy 
brother.'  " — Dent.  ly :  14,  75.  They  then  bore  their 
testimony  against  the  defections  of  the  day,  and  for 
preaching  in  the  fields  and  houses,  and  then  signed 
their  names.  As  Wodrow  has  given  these  narrtes  of 
the  banished,  we  have  thought  it  proper  to  insert 
them  here.  Their  names  are:  ft  Robert  Adam,  Lady 
Athernie,^  John  Arbuckle,"  Rev.  William  Aisdale,\ 
John  Black,  George  Brown,  Robert  Campbell,  David 
Carnpbell,  John  Campbell,  William  Campbell,  Christian 
Cavie,  John  Crichton,  John  Corbet,  Andrew  Corbet, 
John  Casson,  Agnes  Corhead,  Barbara  Cowan,  Marjory 
Cowan,  William  Cunningham,  Patrick  Cuningham, 
Charles  Douglas,  William  Douglas,  Isabel  Durie,  John 
Frazer,  Thomas  Fiiilater,  Elspeth  Ferguson,  Janet 
Ferguson,  Mary  Ferret,*  John  Ford,*  James  Forsythe,* 
John  Foreman,  John  Gray,  Thomas  Gray,  Thomas 
Graham,  Grisel  Gamble,  William  Ged,\  Fergus  Grier, 
James  Grier,  Robert  Gilchrist,  John  Gilfillan,*  Bessie 
Gordon,  Annabel  Gordon,*  Katharine  Govan,  John 
Harris,*  John  Harvie,*  John  Henderson,*  Adam  Hood,* 
Charles       Honyall,*      JoJin      HntcJiinson,     John      Hodge, 

f  f  Remark  :  f  Voluntarily  left  Scotland.    *  Left  a  written  protest.    Those 
in  italics  died  on  the  voyage. 


Thomas  Jackson*  William  Jackson,  George  Johnston* 
John  Johnstone. t  James  Junk,  John  King,  John  Kippan, 
John  Kincaid,*  James  Kirkwood,  John  Kirkland,  John 
Kellie,  Kathcrine  Kellit\  John  Kennie,  Margaret 
Leslie,*  Janet  Linthron,  Gawen  Lockhart,  Michael 
Marshall,  John  Marshall,  John  Martin,  Margaret  Miller' 
George  Muir,*  Gilbert  Honor g,  Jean  Moffat,*  John 
Muirhead,  James  Muirhead,*  William  McCalmont, 
John  McEwen,  Walter  McEwen,*  Robert  McEwen,* 
John  McQueen,*  Robert  McLellan,  Margaret  McLellan, 
Andrew  McLellan,  John  McKenman,  William  McMillan, 
John  McGhie,*  William  Nevin,t  William  Oliphant, 
Andrew  Patterson,*  John  Pollock,  JoJin  Ramn,  Rev. 
Archibald  Riddell,-\  Mrs.  Archibald  Riddell,\  William 
Rigg,f  Marian  Rennie,  John  Renwick,  James  Reston, 
Thomas  Russell,  Peter  Russell,*  Christian  Strang,* 
William  Sprat,  Agnes  Stevens,*  William  Sproull,* 
Thomas  Shelston,  John  Szvinton,  John  Smith, 
John  Seton,*  George  Scot,\  Margaret  Scot;\  Eiipham 
Scot,\  Janet  Symington,*  James  Sittingtown,*  John 
Targat,  John  Turpine,  William  Turnbull,  Patrick  Urie, 
John  Vernor,t  Mrs.  Vernor,t  John  Watt,  Patrick  Walker, 
James  Wardrope,  Elizabeth  Whitelaw,  Girzel  Wither- 
spoon,  William  Wilson,  Robert  Young.*  The  charge  for 
transportation  was  five  pounds  sterling  for  each  adult, 
and  to  each  of  those  who  were  unable  to  pay  for 
their  passage  was  promised  twenty-fi\^  acres  of  land 
and  a  suit  of  new  clothes  on  the  completion  of  four 
years  of  service ;  for  children  under  twelve  years  of 
age,  fifty  shillings ;  sucking  children,  free ;  one  ton  of 
goods,    forty    shillings.       These    have     been     known     in 


American  History  as  "Redemptioners."  Many  of  these 
passengers  had  endured  much  suffering.  After  some 
delay,  the  ship  sailed  from  the  road  of  Leith,  Septem- 
ber 5,  1685.  We  hear  of  no  untoward  event  until 
after  they  had  turned  the  "Land's  End,"  when  a  fever 
began  to  prevail  with  virulence,  particularly  among  the 
prisoners  who  had  been  confined  in  the  great  vault  of 
Dunnotter.  Many  were  sick  when  they  came  aboard, 
and  the  health  of  the  others  was  endangered  by  the 
condition  of  the  provisions  laid  in  by  the  Captain. 
The  meat  began  to  putrefy  and  was  not  eatable.  In 
a  month  the  fever  assumed  a  malignant  type.  FeW 
escaped  its  ravages,  and  three  or  four  bodies  were  cast 
overboard  every  day.  Most  of  the  ship's  crew,  except 
the  Captain  and  boatswain,  died.  Pitlochie,  who  had 
freighted  the  ship,  with  his  lady,  died  likewise,  and 
so  enjoyed  nothing  of  the  gain  of  nearly  one  hundred 
prisoners  gifted  him  by  the  Council,  and  upwards  of 
seventy  persons  died  at  sea.  Death  and  unwholesome 
food  were  not  the  only  evils  the  unfortunate  Cove- 
nanters had  to  encounter  ;  the  master  of  the  ship 
was  most  cruel  to  the  prisoners.  Those  who  were 
placed  under  deck  were  not  allowed  to  go  about 
worship,  and  when  they  attempted  it  the  Captain 
would  thrown  down  great  planks  of  timber  to  disturb 
them  and  endanger  their  lives.  The  ship  sprang  a 
leak  twice,  and  frequent  storms  added  to  their  anxiety. 
After  the  death  of  Pitlochie,  the  prisoners  fell  into 
the  hands  of  John  Johnstone,  his  son-in-law.  Captain 
Hutton  began  to  tamper  with  Mr.  Johnstone,  and 
urged     him     to     carry     the     prisoners     to     Virginia     or 


Jamaica,  either  place  presenting  better  opportunity  for 
disposing  of  them  than  New  Jersey,  and  offered  as 
an  inducement  to  charge  himself  with  the  disposal  of 
the  prisoners  and  to  account  to  him  for  them  in  the 
productions  of  the  country.  But  the  wind  changed 
and  they  were  forced  to  sail  straight  for  New  Jersey. 
They  landed  at  Perth  Amboy,  New  Jersey,  in  the 
middle  of  December,  1685,  having  been  about  fifteen 
weeks  at  sea.  Before  going  ashore,  Johnstone  endeav- 
ored to  stop  them  by  urging  them  to  sign  an  agree- 
ment to  serve  four  years  at  that  place  in  considera- 
ti-on  of  the  expense  incurred  by  the  departed  Scot. 
This  they  would  not  agree  to,  but  joined  in  another 
protest  against  their  banishment  and  recounted  their 
harsh  treatment  during  the  voyage.  When  they  came 
ashore,  the  people  who  lived  on  the  coast  and  had 
not  the  gospel  preached  to  them,  were  inhospitable 
and  showed  them  no  kindness.  A  little  way  up  in 
the  country,  however,  there  was  a  town  (supposed  to 
be  Woodbridge),  and  a  minister  settled,  and  the 
inhabitants  were  very  kind  to  them.  When  they  learned 
who  the  prisoners  were  and  their  circumstances,  they 
invited  all  who  were  able  to  travel  to  come  and  live 
with  them,  and  sent  horses  for  the  rest,  and  enter- 
tained them  freely  and  liberally  that  winter.  In  the 
following  spring,  John  Johnstone  pursued  them  and 
had  them  all  cited  before  a  legal  tribunal  of  the 
Province,  After  hearing  both  sides,  the  Governor  called 
a  jury  to  sit  and  cognosce  upon  the  affair,  who  found 
that  the  pannels  had  not  of  their  own  accord  come 
to    that    ship,    nor    bargained    with    Pitlochie    for    money 


or  service,  and  therefore,  according  to  the  laws  of  the 
country,  they  were  assoiled.  Those  who  had  so 
agreed  had  their  suits  come  before  the  Court  of 
Common  Rights,  and  Captain  Hutton  was  remunerated. 
The  prisoners  then  scattered  throughout  Eastern  Penn- 
sylvania, New  York  and  Connecticut,  where  they  were 
kindly  entertained  and  found  employment  according 
to  their  different  trades."  At  different  times  the  per- 
secuted Covenanters  were  banished  to  New  Jersey, 
Delaware  and  South  Carolina,  but  in  the  latter  part 
of  the  seventeenth  century  this  cruelty  ceased.  At 
this  time  no  organized  society  of  Covenanters  has  an 
existence    in    New    Jersey. 

PatersON.  For  some  years  previous  to  its  organiza- 
tion into  a  congregation,  a  few  families  of  Covenanters 
resided  in  the  city  of  Paterson.  They  were  usually 
supplied  by  the  students  of  the  Philadelphia  Seminary 
and  received  the  organization  in  the  fall  of  1818. 
The  Rev.  William  L.  Roberts  was  the  first  pastor 
•ordained  and  installed  in  charge  in  May,  1824.  The 
'Congregation  was  small  and  rent  with  factions,  and  he 
resigned  the  charge  in  December,  1825.  The  Rev. 
William  Gibson  took  charge  of  the  congregation  in 
1826,  and  was  stated  supply  for  several  years.  In 
1833,  the  great  majority  of  the  members  went  into 
the  New  School  body  and  the  cause  gradually  de- 
clined. The  few  faithful  followers  of  the  Church  were 
supplied  but  they  lost  their  organization  in  October, 
1836.  Of  the  eldership  were  James  W.  King,  John 
Mclntire    and  Thomas    Lindon. 

*Wodrow,  Vol.  4,  p.  331. 


Newark.  A  number  of  Covenanters  residing  in  this 
•city  and  holding  membership  in  the  congregations  of 
New  York  City,  petitioned  for  an  organization,  which 
was  granted,  and  the  Newark  congregation  was  or- 
ganized, June  17,  1874,  with  eighteen  members.  David 
Houston  and  William  J.  Douglass  were  chosen  ruling 
elders.  They  were  supplied  regularly  by  Presbytery 
and  worshipped  in  Irving  Hall.  The  Rev.  David  H, 
Coulter  was  installed  pastor  in  December,  1874.  He 
resigned  in  October,  1875,  and  for  three  years  they 
were  supplied  ;  but  failing  to  maintain  the  cause,  were 
■disorganized    in    October,    1878. 


Wilmington.  Previous  to  its  organization,  the  con- 
gregation of  this  city  was  supplied  by  students  of  the 
Philadelphia  Seminary.  An  organization  was  effected 
in  December,  1832,  at  which  time  Samuel  M.  Gayley 
was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge.  In  the  following 
year,  he,  and  the  congregation,  went  into  the  New 
School  body,  and,  in  1837,  over  to  the  Presbyterian 


Philadelphia.  Early  in  the  eighteenth  century 
Covenanters  from  Scotland  and  Ireland  settled  in  the 
inviting  Cumberland  Valley  in  Eastern  Pennsylvania, 
and  doubtless  some  of  them  resided  temporarily  in  the 
city    of    Philadelphia.     The    first    account    of   any   Cove- 


nanters  in  Philadelphia  was  in  1740,*  when  a  family 
by  the  name  of  Boyd  emigrated  from  Ireland.  Mr. 
Boyd  died  soon  after  his  arrival  in  this  country,  and 
his  family  took  rooms  in  the  household  of  James 
Rainey,  an  emigrant  from  the  same  country,  Mr. 
Rainey  was  furnished  Covenanter  literature,  and,  no- 
doubt,  moral  suasion  by  Mrs.  Boyd,  and  he  soon  em- 
braced the  principles  of  the  Church.  In  1748,  Mr. 
Rainey  removed  to  the  Wallkill,  in  Orange  County^ 
New  York,  and  the  Boyd  family  are  henceforth  un- 
known to  history.  After  the  arrival  of  the  Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson,  the  first  Covenanter  minister  that  came 
to  America,  we  find  him  preaching  in  Philadelphia,  t 
He  preached  at  the  house  of  Mr.  George  Graham,  in 
this  city,  November  26,  1754,  at  which  time  he 
baptized  Jane,  daughter  of  George  Graham.  In  October, 
1761,  Mr.  Cuthbertson  accompanied  the  Rev.  Alexander 
McDowell  to  Philadelphia,  and  the  latter  preached  in 
the  city.  About  this  time  a  family  by  the  name  of 
Galbraith  settled  in  the  city,  and  Mr.  Galbraith  died 
soon  afterwards.  In  1774,  Mr.  Thomas  Thomson  and 
his  family,  from  the  congregation  of  the  Rev.  William. 
Stavely,  in  County  Down,  Ireland,  arrived,  and  social 
religious  •  worship  was  conducted  in  his  house  for  many 
years.  In  November,  1774,  the  Rev.  John  Cuthbert- 
son preached  in  the  city  and  called  upon  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Marshall,  of  the  Associate  Church.  The  Reformed 
Presbytery  met  in  Philadelphia,  November  26,  1774. 
and  a  Committee  consisting  of  Revs.  John  Cuthbert- 
son,    Matthew      Linn,     Alexander     Dobbin,     and     elder 

'^Covenanter,  Vol.  i,  p.  314.     f  Cuthbertson's    Diary. 


William  Brown,  rectified  some  irregularities  existing 
among  the  people.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  again  preached 
to  the  Philadelphians  in  November,  1779.  In  1784, 
Mr.  John  Agnew  emigrated  from  Ireland,  and,  after  a 
residence  of  three  years  in  this  city,  removed  to  that 
of  New  York.  In  1788,  Mr.  John  Wallace  emigrated 
from  Ireland,  but,  failing  to  find  any  Covenanters,  was 
starting  to  New  York  to  return  to  his  native  land,, 
when,  at  his  lodging  place,  he  providentially  met  with 
an  acquaintance  of  Thomas  Thomson,  and  directed  him 
to  his  house  in  Camden,  opposite  the  city.  Mr.  Wallace 
remained,  and  he  and  Mr.  Thomson  formed  a  society, 
which  was  held  in  the  latter's  house  for  many  years. 
In  1790,  the  Rev.  James  Reid,  missionary  from  Scot- 
land, preached  in  Mr.  Thomson's  house,  and  this  was 
the  beginning  of  the  Philadelphia  congregation.  In 
1792,  the  society  was  augmented  by  the  accessions  of 
Andrew  McLure,  William  and  James  McGowan,  Samuel: 
Campbell  and  Joseph  Sterrett.  In  1793,  the  Rev.  James 
McKinney,  from  Ireland,  came  among  them  and 
preached.  In  1795,  the  following  families  were  added 
to  the  society :  John  Stewart  and  Stephen  Young 
from  Scotland  ;  and  Charles  Huston,  John  Wallace, 
William  Acheson,  Andrew  Acheson  and  Samuel  Rad- 
cliff  from  Ireland.  Mr.  McKinney  preached  to  them 
occasionally  in  a  school  house  in  Gaskill  street  below 
Fifth.  He  now  procured  a  lot  in  St.  Mary's  street,, 
above  Sixth,  and  began  the  erection  of  a  church  build- 
ing. The  work  progressed  very  slowly  and  was  not 
finished  until  1803.  In  October,  1797,  the  society 
received    a    large    contribution    of  members  from  Ireland, 


among  which  company  were  the  Rev.  William  Gibson 
and  family,  John  Reilly,  Thomas  McAdam,  and  Messrs, 
John  Black  and  S.  B.  Wylie,  students  of  Theology. 
Mr.  John  McKinley,  a  teacher  in  New  Jersey,  visited 
the  society  occasionally.  Then  there  came  the  families 
of  Joseph  McClurg,  Hugh  Miller  and  Robert  Orr  from 
Ireland.  Rev.  William  Gibson  now  preached  to  them 
one  half  of  his  time,  and  the  other  half  in  New  York. 
Rev.  William  Gibson  formally  organized  the  first  con- 
gregation in  Philadelphia  in  the  Gaskill  street  school 
house,  January  28,  1798.  He  brought  on  elders  Andrew 
Gififord  and  David  Clark  from  New  York,  to  constitute 
the  session.  At  this  time,  Thomas  Thomson,  John 
Stewart  and  Stephen  Young  were  ordained  elders  of 
the  new  congregation.  In  May,  1798,  the  Reformed 
Presbytery,  which  had  been  dissolved  since  the  coali- 
tion of  1782,  was  constituted  in  the  same  school  house 
by  Revs.  William  Gibson  and  James  McKinney. 
William  Henry,  Thomas  McAdam  and  John  Reilly 
were  ordained  ruling  elders,  August  5,  1801.  Mr. 
Stephen  Young  had  previously  returned  to  Scotland 
and  was  a  bookseller  of  renown.  The  first  sacrament 
of  the  Lord's  supper  was  dispensed  in  Philadelphia  by 
Revs.  Alexander  McLeod  and  S.  B.  Wylie  on  the  first 
Sabbath  of  June,  1802,  to  about  thirty-five  persons, 
among  whom  were  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  Thomson, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Reilly,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  William 
Henry,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  McAdam,  John  Wallace, 
Catharine  and  Mary  Gilleland,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Service, 
Catharine  and  Jane  Service,  Miss  Hall,  Mrs.  Kidd,  Miss 
Creighton,  Hugh  Miller,  James  Vertue,  Mrs.  Gray,  Charles 


Huston,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  Black,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  George 
Graham,  Miss  Purvis,  John  McLean  and  James  Camp- 
bell. In  the  fall  of  1802,  the  Rev.  S.  B.  Wylie  was 
presented  with  a  call  from  the  united  congregations  of 
Philadelphia  and  Baltimore.*  He  accepted  the  call  on 
the  conditions  that  he  should  be  allowed  to  spend  a 
year  in  Europe,  that  his  pastoral  relation  should  begin 
■on  his  return,  and  that  at  the  end  of  two  years  he 
might  be  at  liberty  to  select  one  or  the  other,  or 
neither  of  the  congregations,  without  further  action  of 
the  Presbytery.  He  was  duly  installed  pastor  of  the 
united  congregations  of  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore,  No- 
vember 20,  1803.  He  found  the  congregations  in  both 
the  cities  in  a  feeble  condition,  although  public  or- 
dinances had  been  dispensed  as  frequently  as  possible. 
The  edifice  in  Philadelphia  was  poor  and  in  an  un- 
desirable location.  It  was  thought  proper  to  abandon 
the  old  unfinished  church.  This  was  not  done,  however, 
and  the  building  was  repaired  and  rendered  more  com- 
fortable. The  term  of  his  connection  with  the  united 
•congregations  having  expired,  Mr.  Wylie  demitted  the 
charges,  although  he  was  earnestly  invited  to  remain 
in  Philadelphia.  In  the  fall  of  1807,  he  also  received 
a  unanimous  call  from  Duanesburgh,  New  York,  but 
finally  decided  to  accept  the  call  from  Philadelphia, 
and  he  was  duly  installed  the  pastor.  At  the  next 
communion  twenty-five  persons  were  admitted  to 
Church  privileges  and  the  whole  aspect  of  the  field 
became  more  encouraging.  In  1808,  John  McKinley, 
James  Robinson  and  Robert  Orr  were  ordained  ruling 
*  Pamphlet  by  Dr.  S.  B.  Wylie,  1847. 


elders.  In  1809,  Mr,  John  Reilly  was  licensed  to 
preach  and  his  connection  with  the  congregation 
ceased.  In  18 16,  the  old  church  in  St.  Mary's  street 
was  sold  and  a  more  commodious  building  was  erected 
on  Eleventh  street,  below  Market,  and  was  opened  for 
service,  June  21,  18 18.  In  the  mean  time  they  wor- 
shipped in  the  Second  Associate  Reformed  Church  in 
Thirteenth  street,  above  Market.  In  18 19,  Isaac  Camp- 
bell, John  Murphy  and  Samuel  Bell  were  ordained 
elders,  and,  in  1820,  Caleb  Gray  was  recognized  as  a. 
member  of  session.  In  1824,  Hugh  Hardy,  of  Ohio^ 
and  in  1829,  Henry  Sterling,  of  Pittsburg,  were  added  to- 
the  eldership.  In  1829,  the  church  building  was  en- 
larged by  utilizing  the  rooms  in  the  rear  of  the 
building.  At  the  division  of  the  Church  in  1833,  this- 
congregation  suffered  a  great  loss  because  the  pastor 
was  the  leading  spirit  among  those  who  withdrew  from 
the  communion  of  the  Church.  Out  of  a  membership- 
of  about  four  hundred  and  fifty,  three  hundred  went 
with  the  pastor  into  the  New  School  body,  including 
all  the  elders,  and  they  retained  the  church  property.. 
Without  a  session,  the  faithful  Covenanters,  who  ad- 
hered to  the  principles  of  the  Church,  were  immediately 
organized  into  a  congregation  by  the'  ordination  of 
Walter  Bradford,  Joseph  Frazer  and  William  Caldwell, 
ruling  elders.  They  had,  previous  to  the  division,  be- 
come dissatisfied,  and  purchased  a  church  in  Cherry 
street,  below  Eleventh,  in  which  the  General  Synod 
met  in  August,  1833.  The  sacrament  was  administered 
on  the  first  Sabbath  of  December,  1833,  to  one  hundred 
and  forty-five  communicants.     The  Rev.  James  M.  Willson 


was  ordained  and  installed  pastor,  November  27,  1834. 
In  1838,  deacons  were  ordained  to  manage  the  temporal 
affairs  of  the  congregation,  and  this  soon  lead  to  an 
unpleasant  feeling  among  a  part  of  the  people.  The 
Second  congregation  of  Philadelphia  was  organized, 
August  10,  1842,  and  the  Rev.  Samuel  O.  Wylie  was 
installed  pastor,  December  5,  1844,  and,  after  a  long 
and  successful  pastorate,  was  released  by  death,  August 
22,  1883.  In  October,  1862,  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Willson 
resigned  the  First  congregation  to  fill  the  chair  of 
Theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  the  Rev. 
T.  P.  Stevenson,  the  present  pastor,  was  ordained  and 
installed  as  his  successor,  May  5,  1863.  In  1867,  the 
'Church  in  Cherry  street  was  sold,  and  for  two  years 
they  worshipped  in  halls.  In  1869,  they  worshipped 
at  Seventeenth  and  Filbert  streets,  and  for  ten  years, 
and  in  1879,  the  present  large  and  well  appointed 
•church  at  Seventeenth  and  Bainbridge  streets  >vas 
erected.  In  the  winter  of  1851,  the  Third  congrega- 
tion was  organized  in  Kensington,  and  held  their 
services  in  Commissioner's  Hall.  The  following  year 
the  present  house  of  worship  was  erected  on  Deal 
street  near  Frankford  Avenue.  The  officers  were  Robert 
Forsythe,  Samuel  Cameron,  W.  O.  Lindsay,  William 
White,  William  Young,  William  Brown  and  William 
Dunlap.  The  Rev.  A.  M.  Milligan  was  the  first  pastor 
installed    in    December,    1853,    and    released    in    October, 

1855.  Rev.    John    Middleton  was  installed  in  November, 

1856,  and  resigned  in  May,  1862.  Rev.  Robert  J. 
Sharpe  was  ordained  and  installed  pastor  in  April,  1866, 
and    was    released    in  April,   1879.     Rev.  John  M.  Crozier 


was  installed  in  May,  1880,  and  released  by  sudden- 
death  in  September,  1881.  The  Rev.  R.  C.  Mont- 
gomery, the  present  pastor,  was  ordained  and  installed,. 
March  27,  1883.  A  Fourth  congregation  was  or- 
ganized in  the  summer  of  1853.  In  July,  1854,  the 
Rev.  David  McKee  was  ordained  and  installed  pastor, 
and  after  laboring  for  five  years,  the  congregation  was 
disorganized  and  the  members  returned  to  the  other 
congregations.  After  the  death  of  Dr.  S.  O.  Wylie,, 
the  Second  congregation  called  the  Rev.  Prof.  J.  K. 
McClurkin,  of  Westminster  College,  who  was  ordained 
and  installed  pastor,  October  9,  1884.  The  old  church 
building  was  taken  down,  and  the  handsome  edifice 
in  which  they  now  worship  was  erected.  Mr.  McClurkin 
resigned  the  charge,  August  25,  1887,  to  accept  the 
chair  of  Theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary.  Among 
other  prominent  members  identified  with  the  cause  of 
the  Reformation  in  Philadelphia  have  been  of  the  First 
Congregation :  Walter  Bradford,  Joseph  Frazer.  John 
Ford,  John  Service,  Matthew  Mackie,  William  Craw- 
ford, John  Evans,  Samuel  McMahon,  Henry  Floyd,. 
Samuel  McMullin,  William  White,  John  Alexander 
William  Young,  David  Smith,  William  Dunlap, 
William  Pxhols,  James  Dunlap,  James  Stevenson,  Robert 
Keys,  William  W.  Keys,  Hugh  Lamont,  John  Wright,. 
William  Carson,  William  McKnight,  Robert  Patton,. 
William  Anderson,.  Matthew  McConnell,  Andrew  Mc- 
Murray,  John  M.  Graham,  James  Crawford,  Hugh 
Graham,  Samuel  Irwin,  Hugh  Lilly,  John  Marshall,  John 
Lyons,  John  Cunningham,  William  G.  Carson,  Charles 
Pullinger.     Daniel      Morrison,     T.     S.     McDonald,    James. 


Patterson.  Of  the  Second  Congregation :  William  Brown, 
Ebenezer  Craig,  Charles  Craig,  John  Caldwell,  George 
Orr,  James  Anderson,  David  Eccles,  John  Brown, 
Ezekiel  Sterritt,  Robert  Sterritt,  Samuel  Fulton,  James 
McKnight,  William  Walker,  Thomas  Walker,  James 
Carlisle,  J.  B.  Stewart,  Thomas  Brown,  William  Stewart, 
James  Keys,  Samuel  Patterson,  D.  J.  Mcllhatton,  William 
J.  Ferguson,  James  McKee,  William  Lackey,  William 
Walker,  Jr.,  Robert  Clelland,  Dr.  A.  Caldwell,  Robert 
J.  Jamison.  Of  the  TJiird  Congregation  ;  William 
Cochran,  Alexander  Mackie,  Samuel  Cameron,  Adam 
Lindsay,  William  O.  Lindsay,  Robert  Forsythe,  William 
Young,  Hiigh  Lamont,  Thomas  Laughlin,  James  Blair, 
William  Steele,  William  McHatton,  Hutcheson  McCand- 
less,  Joseph  Service,  A.  J.  H.  Mackie,  George  Alex- 
ander, John  Grier,  Joseph  Steele,  John  McQuigg, 
Thomas    J.    Crozier. 

Cumberland  Valley.  The  Commonwealth  of  Penn- 
sylvania has  no  more  productive  region  within  its 
borders  than  the  Cumberland  Valley,  extending  from 
Harrisburgh  south  into  Maryland  and  Virginia ;  and 
no  section  of  this  valley  is  richer  in  agricultural, 
mineral  and  manufacturing  resources,  than  the  fertile 
fields,  rugged  hills  and  busy  towns  of  Franklin  County. 
Early  in  the  eighteenth  century  the  persecuted  Cove- 
nanters found  an  asylum  in  this  inviting  region  and 
settled  down  to  the  "honorable  vocation  of  husband- 
men. The  principal  settlements  were  along  the  Con- 
ococheagiie  Creek,  which  word,  in  the  Indian  language, 
means  "indeed  a  long  way."  Settlements  were  also 
made    along    the    Octorara,  Pequea,  Conestoga,    Swatara, 


and  other  small  streams  that  flow  into  the  Susque- 
hanna from  the  east.  These  clusters  of  families  scat- 
tered all  over  the  eastern  part  of  Pennsylvania  had 
been  trained  in  the  faithful  practices  of  the  Covenanter 
Church  beyond  the  sea,  and  did  not  fellowship  with 
•other  denominations  in  religious  worship,  but  after  the 
example  of  their  ancestors  met  at  each  other's  houses 
for  social  worship.  In  1720,  a  society  formed  at 
Paxtang,  Dauphin  County,  and  among  the  families 
were  those  of  McClure,  Wilson,  Wills,  Foster,  Gil- 
more,  Gray,  Rutherford  and  Espy.  Still  farther  north 
-on  the  Susquehanna  near  Milton,  Northumberland 
County,  dwelt  the  families  of  Hugh  Wilson,  John 
Boyd  and  Samuel  Brown,  as  early  as  1728.  In  1731, 
there  were  a  few  families  on  "The  Barrens"  in  York 
County.  In  Adams  County  they  settled  upon  an 
immense  tract  of  land  in  1736,  called  the  "Manor  of 
Maske,"  which  was  given  by  the  Province.  The 
principal  settlements  were  at  Octorara,  Lancaster 
■County  ;  Paxtang,  Dauphin  County;  and  Conococheague, 
Franklin  County.  The  forefathers  of  the  Willson 
family,  and  the  ancestors  of  the  ministers  of  the 
Church  by  that  name,  settled  in  Franklin  County 
about  1730,  and  about  1750,  removed  to  the  Cove 
valley,  a  little  west  of  the  Blue  Ridge,  and  some 
twenty-five  miles  from  Chambersburgh.  The  McCon- 
nells,  also,  who  subsequently  became  related  to  the 
Willson  family,  resided  in  the  Cove  at  the  time  of 
the  Indian  massacre  in  1756.  They  all  migrated  to 
the  region  of  the  Yough,  in  Western  Pennsylvania, 
in  1769.     In  the  vicinity  of  Octorara,  Lancaster  County, 


a  considerable  society  of  Covenanters  had  been  col- 
lected previous  to  1740.  Rev.  Alexander  Craighead, 
a  minister  in  connection  with  the  Presbyterian  Church 
at  that  place,  withdrew  from  that  body  because  that 
Church  did  not  ratify  the  Westminster  Standards. 
Mr.  Craighead  identified  himself  with  the  languishing 
cause  of  the  Covenanters.  He  accepted  their  principles 
and  became  their  preacher.  Had  he  not  done  so, 
those  faithful  and  conscientious  Covenanters  would  not 
have  followed  him,  neither  would  they  have  heard 
him  preach  nor  received  the  sacraments  from  his 
hands.  Mr.  Craighead  was  deeply  imbued  with  the 
spirit  of  the  Scottish  Covenants,  and  contended 
earnestly  for  the  descending  obligation  of  Covenants 
upon  all  whose  ancestors  were  parties  to  the  same, 
and  insisted  upon  making  the  adoption  of  the  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant  and  the  National  Covenant  of 
Scotland  a  term  of  Communion  for  members  of  the 
Church  in  the  Colonies  as  well  as  in  the  mother 
country.  He  claimed  that  the  sea  did  not  absolve 
the  relation  nor  remove  their  obligation.  He  testified 
continually  to  the  Headship  of  Christ  over  the  Nation, 
and  the  responsibility  of  all  rulers  to  Him ;  a  failure 
of  whose  allegiance  to  Him  would  forfeit  the  allegiance 
of  the  people  to  the  ruler.  He  preached  these  good 
old  Covenanter  doctrines  with  a  zeal  and  courage 
that  commanded  admiration,  and  brought  down  upon 
him  the  censure  of  the  Synod  and  the  odium  of  the 
Governor.''^  On  November  11,  1743,  Mr.  Craighead 
gathered     all    the     Covenanters     together    at    a    meeting 

*Rev.  Dr.  A.  W.  Miller,  in  Sermon,  May  14,  1876,  Charlotte,  N.  C. 


at  Octorara,  Lancaster  County,  and.  after  various 
religious  services,  he  and  the  congregation  renewed 
the  Covenants — National  and  Solemn  League.  After 
denouncing  George  IL  as  an  unfit  King,  they  then 
swore  with  uplifted  swords  to  "  keep  their  bodies, 
property  and  consciences  against  all  attacks ;  to  defend 
Christ's  gospel  and  the  purity  of  the  Church;  to 
submit  to  no  ruler  who  would  not  submit  to  Christ, 
and  to  defend  their  liberty  from  fears  without  and 
within."  This  declaration  immediately  disturbed  the 
political  as  well  as  the  religious  waters,  for  Governor 
Morris,  in  his  message  to  the  Assembly,  denounced 
these  people  for  their  "  aspirations  and  machinations 
to  obtain  independency."*  The  following  spring  another 
General  Meeting  was  held,  the  minutes  of  which  have 
been  handed  down  to  posterity  by  Mr.  Thomas 
Wilson,  of  Marsh  Creek,  who  was  doubtless  the 
Secretary,-  and  are  inserted  as  a  fair  specimen  of  their 


''Middle  Octorara,  March  4th,    1744. 

"The  G.  M.  constituted  by  prayer.  Mr.  Creaghead 
chosen  prses.  The  following  commissioners  being  pres- 
ent commissionated  from  their  respective  corres- 
pondents,   viz : 

"From  over  Susquehanna,  Christopher  Houston;  from 
Paxton,  James  Mitchel  and  Andrew  Smith ;  from  ye 
Barrens,  Saml.  Jackson  and  Saml.  Hathorn  ;  from  Mr. 
Creaghead's,    Robert    Laughead    and    Josiah    Kerr  ;    from 

*  Wheeler's  Reminiscences,  p.  276. 


Muddy  Run,  John  Brownlee  and  Joseph  Bell  ;  from 
Pequea,  Jos.  Walker,  Neal  McNaught  and  Wm.  Ramsey  ; 
from  Marsh  Creek,  Thomas  Wilson  and  David  Dunwoodie. 

I  St.  "It  is  agreed  upon  by  ye  G.  M.  that  no  per- 
sons are  to  be  admitted  into  our  G.  M.  except  those 
that  are  commissionated  by  their  respective  C's,  except 
those  of  our  community  that  have  any  particular 
business    with    the    G.   M. 

2d/y.  "The  alteration  of  our  Society  Rules  that  were 
altered  by  a  committee  is  approven  by  the  G.  M.; 
the  G.  M.  allows  that  each  correspondent  get  a  copy 
of   ye    Rules    as    they    are    now    altered. 

3<//^.  "It  is  agreed  upon  by  ye  G.  M.  that  none  of 
our  community  hire  or  employ  a  papist  in  our  families, 
or    be    employed    by   any    papist    in    their    houses. 

4.t/ilj'y  "It  is  agreed  upon  concerning  ye  Levy  that 
it  be  paid,  until  that  there  be  some  other  end  that 
contradicts    our    testimony. 

z,t/ilj'.  "It  is  agreed  upon  concerning  Phineas  White- 
side that  Saml.  Jackson  and  Saml.  Hathorn  go  to  Mr. 
Allison's  concerning  his  learning,  and  to  agree  for  his 
boarding    where    most    convenient. 

6t/i/j'.  "It  is  agreed  upon  by  ye  G.  M.  that  Joseph 
Irwin  withdraw  from  ye  Society  until  his  case  be 
cleared    in    respect    of   ye   scandal    laid    against    him. 

•/t/i/f.  "  It  is  agreed  upon  that  Mr.  Creaghead,  John 
Brownlee  and  James  Wilson  are  ordered  to  revise  the 
minutes    of    our    G.    M.'s    before    ye    next    G.    M. 

ZtJily.  "The  G.  M.  agrees  that  John  Walker  was 
found    guilty     in    ye    affair     laid     against     him,     in     not 


giving  timous  warning  to  Matthew  Patterson  to  attend 
at    ye    running    out    of    a    line    betwixt    them. 

()thly.  "  It  is  agreed  upon  that  each  private  Society 
of  our  community  give  in  their  subscriptions  for  Mr. 
Creaghead's  stipends  against  our  next  G.  M.,  and  that 
they  make  conscience  to  pay  ye  same  yearly;  if  any 
society  fails  herein,  they  may  expect  that  ye  G.  M. 
will   take    a    particular    account    of    them." 

The  meeting  severely  condemned  mixed  marriages 
and  infairs  held  at  the  same,  and  finished  the  pro- 
tracted   meeting    with    lengthy    causes    of    fasting. 

Mr.  Craighead,  however,  did  not  possess  stability, 
and,  terminating  his  connection  with  the  Covenanters 
in  1749,  returned  to  the  Presbyterian  Church  and 
removed  to  Virginia,  thence  to  Mecklenberg,  North 
Carolina,  where  he  died  in  1766.  The  societies  were 
again  left  in  a  destitute  condition.  They  returned  to 
the  society  meetings  and  prayed  for  an  under-shepherd. 
In  answer  to  their  urgent  entreaties,  the  Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson  was  sent  to  the  lonely  societies  in  America 
by  the  Reformed  Presbytery  of  Scotland.  The  informa- 
tion of  names  and  places  of  settlements  is  taken 
directly  from  his  diary.  He  landed  at  New  Castle, 
Delaware,  August  5,  1751,  having  been  forty-six  days 
at  sea  from  Derry  Loch.  He  praised  God  for  His 
superintending  care  during  the  voyage.  He  first  lodged 
with  Thomas  Grififith,  and  the  next  day  rode  twenty 
miles  on  horse  back  to  the  home  of  Moses  Andrews, 
and  on  the  third  day  he  rode  fifteen  miles  further 
south  to  the  house  of  Joseph  Ross,  near  the  line 
between     Pennsylvania    and    Maryland,    where    he    met    a 


Presbytery  (supposed  to  be  the  New  Castle  Presbytery 
of  the  Presbyterian  Church),  and  conversed  about  some 
difficulties.  On  Friday,  August  9,  175 1,  he  preached 
his  first  sermon  in  America  at  the  house  of  Joseph 
Ross.  His  text  was  Jonah  2:  8,  "They  that  observe 
lying  vanities  forsake  their  own  mercy."  The  travels 
of  Revs.  Cuthbertson,  Linn  and  Dobbin  are  so  extensive 
that  the  societies  will  be  taken  in  the  order  of  their 
locations  and  the  names  of  the  early  members  given 
under    each. 

Northumberland  County.  On  October  21,  175 1, 
the  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  stopped  at  the  Indian 
wigwam  not  far  from  the  present  town  of  Milton  and 
conversed  with  several  persons  concerning  Church 
doctrines,  and  preached  at  the  house  of  Mitchell  Clyde. 
He  remained  in  the  neighborhood  and  preached  the 
next  Sabbath  and  baptized  George,  son  of  James  Gray, 
and  Jean,  daughter  of  Mitchell  Clyde.  Not  far  distant 
were  the  families  of  George  Gray,  James  Gilmore  and 
James  McPherson.  At  the  coalition  of  1782,  a  good 
many  went  into  the  Associate  Reformed  Church.  In 
1798,  they  were  again  organized,  and,  in  the  early 
part  of  the  present  century  they  were  sometimes  visited 
by  ministers  while  passing  between  Philadelphia  and 
Pittsburgh.  An  incident  is  related  to  show  the  great 
value  placed  upon  preaching  and  the  belief  in  prayer. 
There  had  been  a  long  interval  during  which  they 
had  enjoyed  no  preaching,  and.  their  letters  failing  to 
bring  a  reply,  they  agreed  to  observe  a  fast  day  and 
pray  for  the  desired  blessing.  This  they  did,  and,  at 
the    close    of   the    service,  one  of  the   devout  worshippers 


was  noticed  to  retire  to  an  obscure  place  and  there 
he  poured  out  his  soul  in  secret  prayer.  Another 
watched  for  his  return  to  the  company,  and,  as  he 
drew  near,  his  countenance  indicated  that  his  prayer 
was  not  in  vain.  To  the  inquiry,  "What  speed.'"  the 
reply  was,  "  It  is  neither  new  moon  nor  Sabbath,  but 
it  shall  be  well."  The  same  evening  the  Rev.  John 
Black,  of  Pittsburgh,  arrived  on  horseback  and  preached 
on  the  following  Sabbath.*  The  society  was  not 
regularly  organized  into  a  congregation  at  Milton  until 
the  fall  of  1830.  Previous  and  subsequent  to  the 
organization  it  was  supplied  by  students  from  the 
Philadelphia  Seminary.  The  Rev.  William  Wilson  was 
installed  pastor  in  the  summer  of  1832,  and  the  following 
year  he  and  the  congregation  became  identified  with 
the    New    School  body,    and    the    cause    is    now     extinct. 

Middle  Octorara,  Lanxaster  County.  There  was 
a  society  of  Covenanters  in  this  vicinity  as  early  as 
1740,  and  here  the  Rev.  Alexander  Craighead  joined 
them  and  lead  them  in  the  renewing  of  the  Cove- 
nants in  1743.  The  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  permanently 
located  here  and  lived  about  two  miles  from  the  stone 
church,  which  edifice  was  used  until  1849,  or  a  period 
of  nearly  one  hundred  years.  The  grant  of  one  hundred 
acres  of  land  was  made  to  Rev.  Alexander  Craighead 
and  his  elders,  when  he  ministered  to  the  Covenanter 
society,  by  the  proprietaries  of  William  Penn,  for 
church  and  school  purposes,  and  six  acres  for  a  grave- 
yard. The  Presbyterians  have  since  held  the  church 
property      by     right     of     pos.session,      although     it     was 

*  Dr.  Sproull's   Sketches. 


originally  granted  to  the  Covenanters.  On  August  11, 
175 1,  Mr.  Cuthbertson  first  preached  here  at  the  tent 
three  miles  from  the  house  of  Joseph  Walker.  He 
returned  from  a  monthly  trip  in  September,  1751, 
crossing  into  Lancaster  County  near  Columbia,  and 
married  Robert  Love  and  Rachael  Sloane  at  the  river. 
On  Sabbath,  September  8,  1751,  he  preached  in  the 
Octorara  tent  and  baptized  Joseph,  son  of  Joseph 
Kincaid ;  Mary,  daughter  of  Alexander  Lackey ;  Jean, 
daughter  of  William  Patterson ;  Hannah,  daughter  of 
Robert  Galbraith ;  John,  son  of  Andrew  Little ;  Jean, 
daughter  of  Jeremiah  Murray ;  Samuel  and  Andrew, 
sons  of  Joseph  Walker ;  and  Mary,  daughter  of  Moses 
Laughhead.  At  the  house  of  Robert  Laughhead, 
November  29,  1753,  Mr.  Cuthbertson  presided  in  an 
■election  of  ten  persons  for  ruling  elders.  These  were 
chosen  at  the  General  Meeting  and  were  for  all  the 
societies.  Those  for  Octorara  were  Robert  Galbraith 
and  Thomas  Ramsey,  ordained  October  20,  1754.  At 
the  same  time  and  place,  Phineas  Whiteside  and 
William  Galbraith  were  ordained  for  Pequea ;  John 
McMillan  and  John  Duncan  for  Muddy  Run,  both  of 
whom  afterwards  removed  to  York  County ;  and  Walter 
Buchanan  for  Junkin  Tent  in  Cumberland  County.  At 
the  communion  at  Octorara,  October  27,  1754,  there 
were  five  tables  and  two  hundred  and  sixty  sat  down 
and  communed.  At  the  next  communion  on  October 
1 9)  1755'  two  hundred  and  twenty  communed.  After 
the  marriage  of  Mr.  Cuthbertson,  February  25,  1756, 
he  took  up  his  permanent  residence  at  Octorara  and 
lived    the    remainder    of    his    life  on    a  farm    bought  from 


Josiah  Kerr,  which  was  about  two  miles  from  the 
church.  Revs.  Alexander  McDowell  and  Daniel 
McClelland  frequently  preached  here  and  accompanied 
Mr.  Cuthbertson  on  his  tours.  Mr.  McClelland  assisted 
at  a  communion  here  April  20,  1766,  and  also  on 
May  31,  1767,  but  his  services  were  not  highly 
appreciated.  After  the  arrival  of  Revs.  Matthew  Linn 
and  Alexander  Dobbin,  in  December,  1773.  they 
frequently  preached  at  Octorara  for  Mr.  Cuthbertson. 
After  the  organization  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery  in 
1774,  it  frequently  met  at  Octorara.  After  the  union 
of  1782,  Mr.  Cuthbertson  removed  to  Lower  Chance- 
ford,  and  the  Octorara  congregation  was  under  the  care 
of  the  Rev.  John  Smith.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  was  buried 
in  the  Lower  Octorara  graveyard.  Nearly  all  the 
Covenanters  of  Octorara  went  into  the  Associate  Re- 
formed Church  in  1782,  and  continued  in  that  relation 
until  1823,  when,  on  its  own  application,  the  congrega- 
tion was  received  by  the  Associate  Presbytery  of 
Philadelphia.  In  1858,  Octorara  went  into  the  union 
and  is  now  a  United  Presbyterian  congregation.* 
Covenanterism  is  totally  extinct  in  this  region.  The 
following  were  heads  of  families  and  members  of  the 
Covenanter  Church  at  Octorara  previous  to  1774: 
Joseph  and  John  Walker,  William  Robinson,  James, 
Robert  and  Moses  Laughhead,  William  Dunlap,  Arthur 
Scott,  Joseph  Kincaid,  Daniel  and  David  McClelland, 
Alexander  and  Samuel  Lackey,  William  and  Thomas 
Patterson,  Thomas  Paxton,  Robert  Galbraith,  Josiah  and 
Joseph  Kerr,  Andrew  Little,  Thomas  and  Robert 
*Aikin's  Sketch  of  Cuthbertson. 


Ramsey,  James  Wilson  of  Nottingham,  Henry  Coulter, 
John    Neilie    and    Joseph    Wishart. 

Muddy  Run.  This  society  was  situated  about  four 
miles  from  the  present  town  of  Mc Call's  Ferry,  on  the 
Susquehanna  river.  The  first  log  church  was  built  pre- 
vious to  1750.  The  first  visit  they  enjoyed  from  a  Cove- 
nanter preacher  was  on  October  2,  175 1,  when  the 
Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  preached  in  the  log-  meeting 
house.  At  this  time  he  baptized  Agnes,  daughter  of 
John  Reed ;  Joseph  and  Margaret,  children  of  Joseph 
McMillan ;  and  Agnes,  daughter  of  Peter  Patterson. 
John  McMillan  and  John  Duncan  were  ordained  ruling 
elders,  October  20,  1754.  Among  the  principal  families 
were  those  of  John  Reed,  Peter  and  John  Patterson, 
John  Brownlee,  Joseph  and  John  McMillan,  John 
Duncan  and  William  Mitchell.  In  1782,  the  society 
went  into  the  Associate  Reformed  Church  and  sub- 
sequently into  the  Associate  Church.  At  the  present 
time    a    few    United    Presbyterians    hold    an    organization. 

Pequea.  This  society  was  located  about  sixteen 
miles  north  of  Octorara  in  the  Pequea  valley.  It  is 
not  probable  that  the  Covenanters  had  a  house  of 
worship  here,  but  held  the  services  in  the  neighbor- 
ing house  of  Humphrey  Fullerton.  The  Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson  visited  the  society  August  14,  175 1,  and 
the  services  were  four  hours  long.  He  held  a  com- 
munion here  August  24,  1755,  at  which  one  hundred 
and  ninety  persons  communed,  and  the  services  were 
ten  hours  in  length,  conducted  without  any  assistance. 
At  a  meeting  held  October  20,  1754,  Phineas  White- 
side    and     William      Galbraith     were      ordained      ruling. 


elders;  and  on  October  4,  1767,  Humphrey  Fullerton, 
Thomas  Girvan,  James  Ramsey,  Cornelius  Colins  and 
John  Robb  were  added  to  the  session.  The  union  between 
the  Seceders  and  Covenanters  was  culminated  here  in 
1782,  and  the  majority  of  the  Covenanters  went  into 
the  Associate  Roformed  Church  and  under  the  pastoral 
care  of  the  Rev.  James  Proudfit.  Among  the  early 
Covenanters  of  this  society  were  the  families  of 
Humphrey  Fullerton,  Matthew  McClurg,  Neil  McKnight, 
Robert  McCurdy,  Thomas  Montgomery,  John  Boyd, 
Phineas  Whiteside,  Cornelius  Colins,  William  Galbraith, 
Alexander  Lackey,  James  Ramsey  and  John  Robb. 
There  was  a  Covenanter  living  there  as  late  as  1830, 
a  Mr.  McGill,  and  for  several  years  the  Rev.  James 
Douglas  of  Bovina,  New  York,  would  come  once  a 
year  and  preach  for  the  godly  old  man,  who  would 
harness  up  his  one  ox  in  his  cart,  place  a  chair  in 
it,  and  drive  the  minister  around  among  the  hills  of 
Brandywine,  and  give  the  people  an  opportunity  to 
liear  a    good    Covenanter    sermon.* 

Donegal.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  frequently  stopped  and 
preached  here  at  the  house  of  the  widow  Carson  when 
on    his    way    between    Pequea    and    Derry. 

COLERAIN.  This  was  the  home  of  Mr.  Daniel 
McClelland,  and  was  situated  about  eighteen  miles 
from  Lancaster.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  preached  here  occa- 
sionally, and,  on  September  24,  175 1,  he  had  a  pro- 
tracted pubHc  debate  with  a  Mr.  Craighead.  It  is 
not  known  what  the  dispute  was  about,  but  Mr.  Craig- 
head  was  won   over    to  Mr.  Cuthbertson's    views.     There 

*  Aikin'ff  Sketch. 


were  probably  but  five  places  of  preaching  in  Lancaster 
County  ;  the  principal  ones  being  Octorara,  Muddy  Run 
and    Pequea. 

Paxtang,  Dauphin  County.  This  society  was 
situated  about  four  miles  east  of  the  present  city 
of  Harrisburgh.  Covenanters  settled  here  as  early  as 
1740,  and  were  holding  society  meetings.  The  Rev. 
John  ("uthbertson  first  visited  them  August  15,  175 1,  and 
lodged  at  the  house  of  William  Brown.  He  baptized 
Eliza,  daughter  of  Andrew  Stuart  ;  Helen,  daughter  of 
Matthew  Taylor  ;  and  Mary  Ann,  daughter  of  Joseph 
McKnight.  A  communion  was  held  August  25,  1754, 
and  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  communed.  Mr. 
Cuthbertson  says  that  an  awful  thunder  storm,  accom- 
panied by  fearful  lightning,  occured  during  the  blessing 
of  the  elements,  and  that  four  horses  and  a  dog  were 
killed,  and  a  tree  shattered  by  lightning  not  more 
than  forty  yards  from  the  tent.  On  the  following 
Sabbath,  Mr.  Cuthbertson  had  some  unusual  appear- 
ances of  death.  William  Brown,  Henry  McCormick, 
Thomas  Mitchell  and  Benjamin  Brown  were  ordained 
ruling  elders,  February  24,  1771.  While  visiting  the 
society  in  November,  1772,  Mr.  Cuthbertson  was  pre- 
vented from  preaching  on  account  of  a  great  storm. 
In  the  spring  of  1773,  elder  William  Brown  was  sent 
to  Ireland  as  a  commissioner  to  procure  two  additional 
ministers  and  was  especially  instructed  to  get,  if 
possible,  the  Rev.  Matthew  Linn,  of  Aghadowey.  He 
was  successful,  and  Mr.  Alexander  Dobbin,  specially 
licensed  and  ordained  for  this  purpose,  accompanied 
him     to    America.       The     first     Reformed    Presbytery     in 


America  was  constituted  in  this  place,  March  10,  1774,. 
and  the  Rev.  Matthew  Linn  was  then  placed  in  charge 
of  Paxtang  and  adjacent  societies.  After  the  union  of 
1782,  the  cause  gradually  declined  and  finally  became 
extinct.  Among  the  early  families  connected  with  the 
Paxtang  society  were  those  of  William,  James,  Alex- 
ander and  Benjamin  Brown,  John  Graham,  Andrew 
and  Alexander  Stuart,  George  Williams,  Matthew  and 
John  Taylor,  Bartholomew  Hains,  Joseph  McKnight^ 
Joseph  and  John  Mien,  John  Chambers,  John  and 
Henry  McCormick,  Thomas  and  James  Finney,  Alex- 
ander Swan,  John  Thorn  and  Thomas  Mitchell.  When 
the  war  of  independence  was  over,  the  German  population 
literally  crowded  out  the  Scotch-Irish,  and,  in  a  few 
years,  Covenanterism  was  completely  exterminated. 
The  old  log  church  was  thus  disposed  of:  "On  Septem- 
ber II,  1795,  James  Byers  and  James  Wilson  executors 
of  William  Brown,  Esq.,  deceased,  of  Paxtang,  offered 
for  sale  a  log  house  near  the  residence  of  Mr.  Brown, 
and  formerly  occupied  as  a  house  of  worship  by  the 
Rev.  Matthew  Linn."  It  was  subsequently  used  as  a 
sheep    pen    and    but    recently    disappeared. 

Derry.  This  society  was  located  about  nine  miles 
east  of  Paxtang  and  was  first  visited  by  the  Rev. 
John  Cuthbertson  in  September,  1751,  when  he  preached 
and  lodged  at  the  house  of  David  McNair.  In  October,. 
1 75 1,  he  returned  and  preached,  and  called  at  the 
house  of  Alexander  Swan,  on  the  Blue  Mountain  near 
by,  when  he  baptized  James,  son  of  John  Thomson, 
and  Agnes,  daughter  of  Alexander  Swan.  The  principal 
families    here    were    those    of   John    Thomson,    Alexander 


-Swan,    Thomas    Montgomery    and    David  McNair.     They 
mostly    worshipped    with    the    people    at    Paxtang. 

Lower  Chanceford,  York  County.  This  place  is 
situated  about  twenty-two  miles  southeast  of  the  city 
of  York,  and  in  the  section  of  country  known  as  "The 
Barrens."  The  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  preached  at 
Chamber's  tavern,  York,  December  9,  175 1,  and  three 
days  afterward  preached  at  Chanceford,  at  the  house 
of  William  Wilson.  The  first  baptism  here  was  that 
of  George,  son  of  John  Buchanan,  April  15,  1752. 
He  frequently  visited  this  society,  for  it  was  a  large 
one,  and  ordained  William  Gabby  and  Daniel  Sinclair 
ruling  elders,  March  27,  1771.  After  the  organization 
of  the  Reformed  Presbytery  in  1774,  this  society  fell 
under  the  charge  of  Mr.  Cuthbertson  with  Octorara. 
During  the  last  few  years  of  his  life,  Mr.  Cuthbertson 
preached  principally  in  this  society  and  generally  at 
the  house  of  William  Maughlin.  His  last  sermon  was 
preached  here  September  20,  1790,  and  he  died  in  the 
following  March.  The  names  of  the  principal  members 
previous  to  1774,  were  William  Wilson,  George,  John 
and  William  Buchanan,  Hugh  Ross,  William  Smith, 
James  Anderson,  Robert  Greer,  Samuel  Dickson,  Elizabeth 
Ayers,  Joseph  and  John  Brownlee,  William  Fullerton, 
William  Young,  Samuel  Nelson,  John  McMillan, 
William  Maughlin,  William  Nichol,  Samuel  Hawthorn, 
Daniel  Sinclair,  John  and  Robert  Duncan,  William 
Gabby,  John  Marlin,  Daniel  Sloan,  John  Reed,  John 
Patterson,  William  Mitchell,  Alexander  Ewing  and 
■George  Henry.     At  the  union  in    1782,    the    whole    con- 


gregation  went   into  the  Associate   Reformed  Church,   and^ 
in  1858,   into    the  United    Presbyterian    Church.* 

Rock  Creek,  Adams  County.  The  old  church 
stood  about  one  mile  northeast  of  the  present  site  of 
Gettysburgh.  It  was  early  erected  and  was  used  until 
1805.  There  were  a  few  Covenanters  here  previous  to 
1750,  and  they  had  a  tent  about  two  miles  from  David 
Dinwiddle's,  who  lived  near  Marsh  Creek.  In  some  of 
the  early  records  the  society  was  termed  Marsh  Creek,, 
but  the  organization  was  known  as  Rock  Creek,  and 
subsequently  as  Gettysburgh.  When  the  Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson  came  to  this  country  from  Scotland  in  the 
summer  of  175 1,  he  was  accompanied  bv  a  colony  of 
Covenanters,  among  which  was  his  brother-in-law,. 
Archibald  Bourns,  who  married  Wattle  Cuthbertson. 
They  settled  at  the  base  of  the  Blue  Mountains  on  "  The 
Tract,"  near  Gettysburgh.  The  descendants  of  the 
family  are  now  in  connection  with  the  Conococheague 
congregation.  The  names  of  Archibal'd,  John,  Jeremy 
and  Anthony  Burns  were  long  connected  with  the 
history  of  Covenanterism  in  that  region.  The  Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson  visited  this  vicinity  immediately  after  his 
arrival  in  this  country.  He  first  preached  in  the  tent 
about  two  miles  from  the  house  of  David  Dinwiddle, 
September  i,  1751.  At  this  time  he  baptized  Jean, 
daughter  of  Thomas  Anderson ;  Isabel,  daughter  of 
Robert  McCullough  ;  Rose  Ann,  daughter  of  Joseph 
Hutchison ;  James,  son  of  Joseph  Broomfield ;  and 
Mary,  daughter  of  David  Dinwiddle.  On  November  3, 
1752,  Mr.  Cuthbertson  bought  one  hundred  acres  of 
*Aikin's  Sketch. 


land  situated  between  Marsh  Creek  and  Antietam. 
David  Dinwiddie  and  Jeremiah  Morrow,  father  of  the 
late  Governor  Morrow,  of  Ohio,  were  ordained  ruling- 
elders,  April  8,  1753.  It  is  probable  that  the  Rock 
Creek  congregation  w^as  regularly  organized  at  this 
time.  The  Rev.  Alexander  McDowell  assisted  Mr. 
Cuthbertson  at  communion  seasons,  and  this  congrega- 
tion made  out  a  call  for  him,  October  12,  1761,  which 
he  declined.  John  Murphy  and  Andrew  Branwood  were 
added  to  the  session,  May  16,  1764.  At  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  Reformed  Presbytery  in  1774,  the  Rev. 
Alexander  Dobbin  assumed  the  charge  of  this  flourishing 
congregation.  Previous  to  1774,  the  principal  members 
of  this  congregation  were  Archibald  Bourns,  David  and 
Hugh  Dinwiddie,  Jeremiah  Morrow,  John  Watt,  Thomas 
Wilson,  Joseph  Little,  Thomas  Anderson,  Neil  McKnight, 
Robert  McCuUough,  Thomas  Neillie,  Joseph  Hutchison, 
Mary  Silbuck,  Joseph  Broomfield,,  John  Murphy,  Mary 
Mair,  Robert  Stevenson,  John  Crook,  Alexander 
Patterson,  Andrew  Branwood,  John  Finney,  James 
Blackburn,  John  and  William  Morton.  At  the 
union  of  1782,  with  a  few  exceptions,  the  whole 
congregation  went  with  Alexander  Dobbin  into  the 
Associate  Reformed  Church,  and,  at  the  union  in  1858, 
it  became  a  United  Presbyterian  Church,  now  located 
in  Gettysburgh.  The  ground  then  occupied  by  the 
Covenanter  congregation  of  Rock  Creek  has  now  become 
historic  as  the  Gettysburgh  battle  field  and  the  National 

Cumberland  and  Franklin  Counties.   The  societies 
in    these    Counties   are    so    intimately    connected    both   in 


location  and  history  that  they  will  be  considered 
together  as  the  branches  of  a  single  congregation 
known  to-day  as  "Conococheague."  The  following  were 
the  places  of  preaching  in  Cumberland  County  as 
early  as  1750:  Junkin  Tent,  West  Pennsboro,  Big 
Spring,  Carlisle,  Stony  Ridge,  Newville  and  Ship- 
pensburgh.  In  Franklin  County  the  societies  were 
Lurgen,  Roxbury,  Strasburgh,  Southampton  and  Greene, 
Scotland,  Rocky  Spring,  Fayetteville,  Guilford,  Green- 
wood, Green  Castle,  Shady  Grove,  Waynesboro, 
Mercersburgh  and  Hamilton.  At  these  different  places 
there  was  usually  a  tent,  consisting  of  a  simple  stand 
with  a  shelter  over  it,  under  which  the  minister 
stood,  and  a  board  set  in  between  two  trees  for  a 
rest  for  the  Bible.  The  people  most  probably  had 
some  rude  seats  or  logs  on  which  to  sit  in  front  and 
around  the  preacher.  In  later  times  the  services  were 
held  in  orchards  and  barns,  until  meeting  houses  were 
erected  for  the  purpose.  Since  the  union  of  1782, 
most  of  the  Covenanters  resided  in  Franklin  County 
and  built  churches  respectively  in  Greenwood  in  181 7; 
in  Scotland  in  1825  ;  and  in  Fayetteville  in  1840. 
JUXKIX  Tent,  in  Cumberland  County,  was  a  preach- 
ing place  in  1751.  It  was  first  situated  on  the  farm 
of  Joseph  Junkin,  near  the  present  town  of  Kingston, 
about  nine  miles  from  Carlisle,  and  eleven  miles  from 
Harrisburgh.  The  tent  was  afterwards  removed  one 
mile  west  to  the  farm  of  James  Bell,  who  was  a 
ruling  elder.  The  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  first  visited 
this  place,  August  20,  1751,  and  stopped  at  the  house 
of    Walter    Buchanan.       He    preached    the    following    day 


and  baptized  Joseph,  son  of  Joseph  Glendenning ;  John, 
son  of  Joseph  McClelland  ;  and  Jean,  daughter  of 
Henry  Swansie.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  held  his  first  com- 
munion in  America  at  this  tent,  August  23,  1752. 
A  preparatory  fast  day  was  observed,  tokens  of 
admission  to  the  table  were  distributed,  and  the 
services  on  the  Sabbath  lasted  nine  hours.  He  par- 
aphrased the  Fifteenth  Psalm  and  preached  from  John 
3:  35.  After  the  sermon  he  prayed  fervently  and  the 
people  sang  a  Psalm.  He  then  expounded  the  words 
•of  institution,  fenced  the  tables,  and  the  commu- 
nicants came  forward  singing  the  Twenty-fourth  Psalm. 
After  four  tables  were  served  he  gave  a  parting 
exhortation  to  the  communicants.  After  an  interval  of 
half  an  hour,  he  preached  from  John  16:  31.  On 
Monday  he  preached  from  Ephesians  5:  15.  About 
two  hundred  and  fifty  communed  and  they  were 
gathered  from  all  parts  of  the  country.  To  many  it 
was  the  first  time  they  had  gathered  around  a  com- 
munion table  in  America.  No  doubt  it  awakened 
memories  of  other  days  and  scenes  across  the  sea, 
and  their  tears  were  mingled  with  joy  and  gladness. 
Such  tangible  evidences  of  the  tender  care  of  the 
Good  Shepherd  strengthened  every  heart  and  quickened 
every  grace  as  they  sang  that  triumphant  song  which 
so  often  sustained  and  cheered  their  ancestors  on  the 
moors    of   Scotland:  — 

God  is  our  refuge  and  our  strength, 

In  straits  a  present  aid  ; 

Therefore,  although  the  earth  remove, 

We  will  not  be  afraid. 

The     communions     were      dispensed     yearly      in      the 



principal  societies  and  the  majority  of  the  members 
attended  each  one.  Walter  Buchanan  was  ordained  a 
ruling  elder,  October  20,  1754.  Previous  to  I774r 
the  following  were  the  principal  members  at  Junkin 
Tent :  Walter  Buchanan,  Joseph  Junkin,  John  Leiper, 
Samuel  Gay,  James  McKnight,  William  and  Isaac 
Walker,  Joseph  McClelland,  Henry  Swansie,  Samuel 
and  Adam  Calyhoun,  Joseph  Gardner,  Robert  Bonner, 
Alexander  Lafferty,  David  Mitchell  and  William  Rose. 
After  1774,  the  Rev.  Matthew  Linn  had  charge  of 
this  station,  and,  in  1782,  the  great  majority  went 
into  the  Associate  Reformed  Church.  The  faithful 
remnant  joined  with  the  societies  in  Franklin  Count)-. 
Carlisle.  This  was  a  preaching  station  visited  by 
the  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson,  November  10,  175 1,  when 
he  preached  at  the  house  of  Joseph  Patterson,  and 
baptized  Robert,  son  of  Horace  Bratton.  Other 
members  were  Andrew  Griffin,  Frank  McNeickle,  James 
McClelland,  William  Patterson  and  Alexander  Young, 
There  was  preaching  at  Bk;  Si'RINC;,  situated  about 
four  miles  from  Newville,  at  the  house  of  Andrew 
Ralston,  August  22,  1751.  On  November  12,  1751, 
Mr.  Cuthbertson  preached  in  the  Pennsboro  meeting 
house  near  by,  and  baptized  several  children.  After 
1774,  Rev.  Matthew  Linn  had  charge  of  this  society. 
Among  the  leading  members  at  that  time  were  Andrew 
Ralston,  Robert  Gibson,  Samuel  Calhoun,  James 
McClurg.  Andrew  Giffin  and  Charles  Kilgore.  In 
1782,  they  all  went  into  the  Associate  Reformed 
Church,  and,  in  1858,  into  the  United  Presbyterian 
Church,  and  at  the  present  time  there     is    a    large    and 


flourishing  congregation  of  the  latter  body  in  Newville." 
Previous  to  1774,  the  principal  preaching  places  in 
Franklin  County  were  Rocky  Spring  and  Green  Castle. 
Rocky  Spring  was  situated  about  four  miles  northeast 
of  Chambersburgh,  and  the  tent  was  near  the  home  of 
George  Mitchell.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  preached  here,  August 
24,  1 75 1,  and  the  people  got  up  a  subscription  paper  for 
preaching.  He  baptized  Andrew  and  Moses,  sons  of 
James  Mitchell  ;  James  and  Eliza,  children  of  James 
Lowry  ;  Martha,  daughter  of  James  Thomson  ;  Sarah, 
daughter  of  Joseph  Mitchell  ;  and  Rebecca,  daughter 
of  Joseph  McClurg,  George  Mitchell  was  ordained  a 
ruling  elder  April  8,  1753-  The  leading  members  of 
the  Rocky  Spring  society  were  Andrew,  James,  George 
and  Joseph  Mitchell,  John  McCleary,  James  and  John 
Lowry,  James  Thomson,  John  Wylie,  Joseph  McClurg, 
David  Carson,  James  and  Joseph  Reed,  John  Sharp, 
Joseph  Espy  and  Thomas  Cross.  The  majority  of  the 
members  went  into  the  union  of  1782,  and  it  is  due 
to  the  memory  of  Alexander  Thomson  and  John 
Renfrew  to  say  that  they  kept  the  Covenanter  cause 
alive  and  maintained  the  principles  of  the  Church. 
Among  other  faithful  ones  at  this  time  were  William 
Galbraith,  the  only  ruling  elder,  Thomas  Paxton,  James 
Finney,  Thomas  Cross  and  Sarah  Morrow.  They 
organized  a  society  which  is  the  original  of  the  present 
Conococheague  congregation.  In  175 1,  Mr.  Cuthbertson 
visited  a  few  families  living  in  the  vicinity  of  Green 
Castle,  among  whom  were  those  of  George  Reynolds, 
George  Clark  and  Samuel  McColloch.  They  went  into 
*Dr.  J.  B.  Scouller. 


the  union  of  1782,  and  Matthew  Linn  was  the  pastor 
of  the  Associate  Reformed  Church  in  that  place.  After 
the  disastrous  union  of  1782,  the  faithful  Covenanters 
of  Franklin  and  Cumberland  Counties  gathered  them- 
selves into  a  General  Meeting,  which  (Was  usually  held 
at  the  house  of  Alexander  Thomson,  near  the  present 
village  of  Scotland.  Alexander  Thomson,  to  whom  more 
is  due  than  any  other  man  for  keeping  the  old  blue 
banner  from  trailing  in  the  dust,  deserves  a  passing 
notice.  He  was  a  Scotchman,  and  sailed  from  Greenoch 
in  July,  1 77 1,  and  arrived  in  Boston,  September  lO, 
1771-  A  Scotch  colony  was  being  organized  for 
Caledonia  County,  Vermont,  while  numerous  others 
were  going  to  settle  in  South  Carolina.  He  considered 
the  valley  of  the  Kittatinny  the  most  inviting,  and 
removed  thither  in  1773,  purchasing  five  hundred  acres 
of  land,  embracing  the  site  of  the  present  village  of 
Scotland.  These  Covenanters  here  settled  on  the 
Conococheague  Creek  and  built  saw,  grist  and  sickle 
mills.  The  house  of  Alexander  Thomson  was  the 
meeting  place  for  worship  and  business,  and  where  all 
the  distant  members  found  hospitable  entertainment. 
The  following  were  the 

I.      Let    the    meeting    be    constituted    by    prayer. 
H.      Let     the     former     Presis     (or     the     Clerk    in     his 
absence)    call    for     the    Commissions. 

in.     Let    a    Presis     be     chosen    by     a    vote    of     the 

*For  many  of  these  hitherto  unpublished  documents  the  author  was 
under  obligation  to  the  late  Samuel  Rea  Burns,  of  Scotland,  Pa.,  whose 
ancestors  came  with  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  to  this  country  in  1751. 


meeting :  the  former  Presis  taking  the  votes  beginning 
on  his  left  hand,  and  in  case  of  his  absence  let  the 
Clerk  of  the  meeting  proceed  in  the  same  manner, 
and  ye  person  having  a  majority  of  votes  shall  be 

IV.  Let  the  Presis  then  take  the  chair  ;  call  the 
meeting  to  order,  and  call  upon  the  Clerk  to  read 
the    Rules. 

V.  Let  the  Presis  then  pose  the  members  with  the 
following  queries:  i.  Do  you  carefully  and  con- 
scientiously attend  upon  social  meetings  with  your 
brethren  both  on  Sabbaths  and  week  days  when 
deprived  of  more  public  ordinances  ?  2.  Are  you 
punctual  and  conscientious  in  maintaining  the  worship  of 
God  in  your  family  morning  and  evening  in  all  the 
parts  thereof ;  and  also  secret  prayer  at  the  same 
seasons  regularly.'  3.  Have  you  observed  the  last  day 
of  Fasting  or  Thanksgiving  (as  the  case  may  be)  ? 
4.  Do  you  endeavor  to  adorn  the  doctrines  of  Chris- 
tianity by  a  life  and  conversation  becoming  the  gos- 
pel, and  are  you  in  habits  of  peace  and  friendship 
with  your  brethren  of  mankind  ?  And  are  you  satisfied 
upon  inquiry  that  the  members  of  your  society  duly 
attend    the    above    duties  .' 

VI.  Let  the  Clerk  read  the  minutes  of  the  preceed- 
ing  meeting  and  let  unfinished  business  be  taken  up 
in    order. 

VII.  Let  the  Presis  enquire  if  there  is  any  more 
business  to  come  before  the  meeting,  and  when  it 
appears  there  is  no  furthur  business,  let  him  put  the 
question,    "shall    the    meeting    be    concluded.'"     And    if 


carried,  let  the  meeting  be  concluded  by  prayer,  i. 
During  the  time  the  meeting  is  constituted,  let  no 
person  withdraw  from  the  house  without  the  consent 
of  the  Presis.  2.  Let  no  conversation  be  among  the 
members.  3.  Let  each  member  speak  to  the  question 
under  consideration  in  rotation,  beginning  on  the  left 
of  the  chair,  and  let  each  speaker  stand  and  address 
the  Presis.  4.  Let  no  motion  be  taken  under  consid- 
eration until  made  and  seconded.  5.  The  above  Rules 
shall  be  altered  or  amended  from  time  to  time  as 
the    Meeting    may    judge    proper. 


1.  The  most  punctual  attendance  to  the  time  of 
meeting  ;  all  the  members  being  careful  to  assemble 
precisely  at  the  hour  appointed,  and  if  any  shall  be 
absent  after  the  constitution,  he  shall  be  censured, 
unless    his    reasons    be    sustained    by    vote    of    the    court. 

2.  After  the  constitution  the  first  thing  to  be  done 
is    the     reading    of    the     minutes    of    the     last     sederunt. 

3.  Unfinished  business  is  always  to  be  taken  up  as 
first    in    order. 

4.  All  papers  presented  to  the  court  shall  be  filed 
in  the  order  in  which  they  are  read,  being  properly 
numbered    and    endorsed    accordingly. 

5.  Every  proposition  or  question  which  appears  to 
be  warmly  litigated  shall  be  stated  in  writing  by  the 
mover    thereof    and    given    to    the    Presis. 

6.  No  motion  can  be  admitted  unless  it  be  pre- 
viously   seconded. 

7.  No    personal     reflections     are    in     any     case    to    be 


suffered,    whether     they    respect    members    of    the    court 
or    others. 

8.  A  becoming  gravity  is  to  be  observed  by  all 
the  members;  no  whispering  is  to  be  admitted,  but 
a    close    attention    is    to  be    paid  to    the  matter  in   hand. 

9.  All  prolix  and  declamatory  harangues  are  to  be 
avoided ;  the  speaker  confining  himself  exclusively  to 
the    question. 

10.  No  person  shall  be  allowed  a  silent  vote;  but 
all  the  neutrals  shall  be  viewed  as  voting  with  the 

11.  In  taking  votes,  the  Presis  shall  begin  with  the 
youngest  members  and  proceed  according  to  juniority. 
[Sometimes    they    blind-folded    them.] 

12.  No  speaker  is  to  be  interrupted,  except  he  be  out 
of    order,    or    to    correct    mistakes    or    misrepresentations. 

13.  The  votes  by  which  a  decision  is  made,  shall 
not  be  recorded  unless  at  the  request  of  one-third  of 
the    members. 

14.  No  member  may  leave  the  house  without  the 
permission    of   the    Presis. 

15.  No  member  is  to  return  home  so  as  not  to 
attend  the  termination  of  that  session,  without  the 
consent    of    two-thirds    of   the    court. 

16.  The  Clerk  shall  keep  a  faithful  record  of  every 
decision  made  by  the  court;  the  minutes  of  it  shall 
be  read  while  the  matter  of  it  is  fresh  in  the  memory 
of    the   members. 

17.  The  Presis  shall  determine  all  questions  of 
order  that  shall  arise  during  the  session,  and  his 
decision  shall    be    submitted    unto,    unless    it   appears     by 


an     appeal    to    the    court    a    majority    is     against     him. 

The  following  is  inserted  as  a  form  of  commission 
to    the    General    Meetings  : 

"  We,  the  society  of  Guilford,  being  met  and 
constituted  by  prayer,  do  appoint  and  commissionate 
Anthony  Burns,  being  one  of  our  number  and  free 
from  public  scandal  so  far  as  known  to  us,  to  go  to 
the  Congregational  Meeting,  to  be  held  at  the  house 
of  Alexander  Thomson,  on  Wednesday,  April  ij,  1790, 
and  there  in  our  name  .  to  consent  and  agree  to  every 
thing  in  agreeableness  to  the  Word  of  God  and  Re- 
formation Principles  as  attained  to  by  the  Church  of 
Scotland  particularly  between  the  years  1638  and  1649, 
inclusive.  Signed  in  our  name  and  by  our  appointment, 
"John  Renfrew,  Presis. 
"Thomas  Duncan,  Clerk.'' 

For  eight  years  after  the  defection  of  1782,  the 
faithful  Covenanters  and  witnesses  for  Christ  in  this 
region  were  left  as  sheep  without  a  shepherd.  In 
1790,  they  were  cheered  by  the  visit  of  the  Rev, 
James  Reid  of  Scotland.  On  August  17,  1791,  a 
number  of  persons  wishing  to  adhere  to  Reformation 
attainments,  met  at  the  house  of  Alexander  Thomson 
and  constituted  themselves  into  a  social  capacity  and 
entered    into    the    following    resolutions  : 

I.  "It  was  resolved  that  two  societies  for  prayer 
and  Christian  conference  be  erected  to  meet  at  such 
convenient  times  and  places  as  each  society  shall 
from  time  to  time  agree  upon,  and  that  a  General 
Meeting  be  held  at  this  place  on  the  third  Wednesday 
of    October    next. 


2.  "  It  is  resolved  that  any  person  of  a  character 
unknown  to  this  society  desiring  to  become  a  member, 
shall  bring  a  certificate  from  the  society  he  has  been 
in  communion  with  heretofore  ;  or  in  case  he  hath  not 
been  in  communion  with  any,  then  he  shall  bring  a 
character    from  his  reputable  neighbors." 

On  October  19,  1791,  a  large  delegation  was  present 
at  the  General  Meeting,  and,  among  others,  the  follow- 
ing   resolution    was    passed  : 

"  It  was  resolved  that  the  Rev.  James  Reid's  former 
letter  be  further  pressed  by  John  Renfrew  and  Robert 
Kidd  who  were  in  correspondence  with  the  Scottish 

These  societies  were  endeavoring  to  secure  the 
services  of  the  Rev.  James  Reid  for  pastor,  but  in  this 
they  were  unsuccessful.  In  the  spring  of  1793,  the 
Rev.  William  King,  who  had  the  year  previously 
emigrated  to  South  Carolina,  visited  them  and  preached  ; 
and,  at  a  General  Meeting  held  August  17,  1793,  they 
resolved  to  "  lay  out  money  which  belonged  to  the 
meeting,  and  which  amounted  to  ^10.  14s.  lod.,  for 
defraying  the  Rev.  William  King's  expenses  in  coming 
to  visit  them  and  laboring  among  them  ;  considering 
it  as  agreeable  to  the  intention  for  which  the  money 
was  collected."  In  the  spring  of  1794,  the  Rev.  James 
McKinney,  recently  from  Ireland,  visited  them,  and 
they  were  so  well  pleased  with  his  labors  that  in 
October,  f794,  they  sent  the  following  petition  to  the 
Reformed  Presbytery  of  Ireland  to  have  him  trans- 
ferred   and    settled    in    Conococheague : 


••"  To  the  RciniicDit  mcmbeys  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery, 
to  meet  xvhen  and  tvlierecver  this  may  reach  you : 
"The  humble  petition  of  the  Old  Covenanters  in 
the  Counties  of  Cumberland,  Franklin,  and  parts 
adjacent,  humbly  sheweth  that  your  petitioners  are, 
and  have  been,  for  a  long  time  in  a  very  destitute 
<:ondition  as  to  the  Gospel  being  administered  among 
us  according  to  what  we  judge  to  be  the  pattern 
showed  us  in  the  Mount;  and  having  had  the  oppor- 
tunity of  having  heard  a  member  of  your  court,  viz : 
the  Rev,  James  McKinney,  for  some  time  past ;  and 
we  hope  his  labors  have  not  been  entirely  without 
their  use  among  us,  and  that  if  he  was  to  be  settled 
in  these  parts,  he  might  still  be  farther  useful  in 
calling  the  attention  of  this  sleepy  generation  to  their 
duty.  We  do,  therefore,  through  your  medium,  invite 
him  to  remain  and  abide  with  us  as  our  pastor,  if 
you  shall  see  meet  to  lose  him  from  his  pastoral 
relation  in  Ireland ;  and  hope  in  such  love  that  you 
will  instruct  the  Committee  here  what  measures  they  are 
to  adopt  in  order  to  bring  said  settlement  to  a  regular 
Presbyterial  issue.  We  having  at  present  no  session, 
and  being  in  a  very  scattered  situation,  cannot  be 
supposed  to  write  so  formally  as  might  otherwise  be 
expected.  But  we  are  convinced  that  you,  as  a  court 
of  Christ,  will  stand  when  there  is  no  formality  in  a 
matter  of  this  kind.  Our  situation  is,  at  the  present, 
extremely  pressing  and  loudly  calls  for  aid  from  our 
brethren  in  Britain  and  Ireland.  Mr.  McKinney  him- 
self, who  has  been  among  us,  can,  and  we  hope  will, 
more    fully    represent    these     matters    to    you    than    we 


•can  at  present  pretend.  In  case  you  should  see  cause 
to  dissolve  his  pastoral  relation  in  Ireland  and  consent 
to  his  settlement  among  us,  we'  hope  we  shall  yield 
all  dutiful  obedience  to  him  in  the  Lord,  and  afford 
such  worldly  support  to  him  as  our  circumstances 
will  admit  of,  not  doubting  but  he  will  sympathize 
with  us  and  be  willing  to  bear  his  share  in  the 
•difficulties  which  at  present  effect  us,  until  the  Lord 
shall  be  pleased  to  render  us  somewhat  stronger, 
which  we  hope  might  be  the  case  in  a  short  time 
if  the  Lord  was  pleased  to  give  us  a  fixed  pastor ; 
and,  in  the  meantime,  earnestly  desiring  the  advance- 
ment of  the  Redeemer's  Kingdom  with  you,  sym- 
pathizing with  you  under  the  yoke  of  civil  oppression, 
we  pray  that  in  this  our  particular  request,  and  in 
all  your  other  deliberations,  you  may  be  guided  by 
the  blessed  Head  till  you  and  us  meet  in  that  blessed 
-General  Assembly  where  the  Lord  God  and  the  Lamb 
Himself    will    be    our    common  lamp. 

"Signed    in    the     name    of    our    General    Meeting,    and 

by    their    order,    by 

"William    Guthrie,   Presis. 

"John   Thomson,    Clerk. 
"  ConococJieagiie,    October,    I79~l- 

The  sum  subscribed  amounted  to  about  £2^,  and  the 
list  was  signed  by  the  following  persons  :  Alexander 
Thomson,  John  Renfrew,  John  Thomson,  William 
Erwin,  James  Stevenson,  Thomas  Paxton,  Thomas 
Duncan,  John  Steel,  Jr.,  John  Steel,  Sr.,  John  Guthrie, 
John  Walker,  William  Guthrie,  William  Crow,  George 
McClure,    John    P>wen,    Samuel    Patterson,    David  Cowan, 


David  Dickey.  John  White,  Fii^la  McClure,  William 
Speer,  William  Paton,  Alexander  McHaffy  and  Samuel 
Sterling,  The  following  were  the  eight  societies  com- 
posing the  General  Meeting:  Green  and  Southampton,. 
Guilford,  Green  Castle,  Mercersburgh,  Strasburgh,  Big- 
Spring,  Hamilton  and  Newton.  At  a  meeting  held  at 
Alexander  Thomson's,  September  15,  1795,  the  following 
persons  from  the  different  societies  were  present  and 
endeavored  to  effect  the  permanent  organization  of  a 
congregation  with  the  expectation  of  having  the  Rev. 
James  McKinney  as  the  pastor:  William  Galbraith, 
John  White,  John  Renfrew,  William  Guthrie,  John 
Walker,  John  Steel,  John  Stevenson,  Alexander 
Thomson,  William  Love,  Robert  Davidson,  Anthony 
Burns,  Thomas  Dun'can,  John  Guthrie,  Thomas  Paxton, 
William  McCrea,  William  Speer,  John  Busel,  David 
Busel  and  John  Thomson.  The  following  were  chosen 
elders :  John  Renfrew,  William  Guthrie,  John  Thomson 
and  William  Speer.  At  a  meeting  held  April  20, 
1796,  a  petition  was  received  from  the  societies  west 
of  the  Allegheny  mountains  desiring  a  part  of  Mr. 
McKinney 's  time.  For  one-half  his  time  the  Conoco- 
cheague  people  agreed  to  pay  Mr.  McKinney  at  the 
rate  of  £12^.  annually.  They  did  not  give  up  the 
hope  of  securing  Mr.  McKinney,  and  continued  their 
petitions  each  year,  until  he  settled  permanently  in 
Duanesburgh  and  Galway,  New  York,  in  1797.  When 
Thomas  Donnelly,  of  South  Carolina,  began  to  preach 
in  1799,  he  delivered  about  his  first  sermon  at  the 
Red  tent  near  Carlisle,  and  was  greatly  lacking  in 
confidence.      He    kept    his    eye   constantly  upon    his  little 


Bible,  scarcely  looking  his  audience  in  the  face  at  all. 
An  old  lady  who  heard  him  that  day,  on  being  asked 
after  the  sermon  what  she  thought  of  the  young 
preacher,  she  replied,  "He  did  pretty  weel  ;  but  he 
read  ower  muckle."  The  congregation  was  formally 
■organized  by  a  Commission  of  the  Reformed  Presby- 
tery in  1802,  by  the  election  of  John  Thomson,  William 
Guthrie,  John  Renfrew  and  James  Bell,  ruling  elders. 
The  first  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper  was  dispensed 
April  17,  1803,  by  Revs.  William  Gibson,  Thomas 
Donnelly,  John  Black  and  Alexander  McLeod.  It  was 
not  until  August  12,  18 16,  that  they  enjoyed  the 
stated  labors  of  a  pastor,  and,  at  that  time,. the  Rev. 
Robert  Lusk  was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge.  His 
time  Avas  thus  divided  :  "  One-fourth  time  at  Newville 
and  Walnut  Bottom  ;  one-fourth  at  Shippensburgh  ; 
one-fourth  in  Green  township  ;  one-fourth  at  Lurgen 
and  Waynesboro,  days  for  other  places  to  be  taken 
out  of  the  whole  as  occasion  may  serve."  At  this 
time  the  elders  were  John  Thomson,  John  Renfrew, 
John  Steel  and  John  Scouller.  About  this  time  a  log 
church  was  erected  at  Greenwood,  and  in  18 18,  the 
Roxbury  society  was  added  to  Shippensburgh.  The 
Synod  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  met  here 
in  1 8 19.  In  1821,  several  aggravated  cases  of  occasional 
hearing  came  up  before  the  session  for  adjudication, 
and  two  ladies  were  severely  admonished  for  attending 
a  Methodist  camp-meeting  at  Shippensburgh  on  a 
week  day.  The  ministry  of  Mr.  Lusk  was  neither  a 
happy  nor  a  prosperous  one,  and,  on  account  of  certain 
monetary    difficulties    he    was  released    from    the    charge, 


October  15,  1823.  The  people  then  invited  the  Rev_ 
Samuel  W.  Crawford  to  supply  them.  On  January 
26,  1824,  the  Rev.. John  Gibson,  of  Baltimore,  moderated 
in  a  call  which  was  unanimous  for  Mr.  Crawford. 
The  following  were  the  signers  of  the  call:  John 
Renfrew,  John  Thomson,  John  Steel,  Jeremiah  Burns, 
John  Brown,  Samuel  Renfrew,  John  Renfrew,  Jr., 
Alexander  Thomson,  Hannah  Thomson,  Mary  GilL 
Ann  Morrison,  Ann  McCloy,  Nancy  Renfrew,  Sarah 
Steel,  Martha  McCloy,  Rebecca  Steel,  Elizabeth  Ritchie. 
Ann  Thomson,  Nelly  Ann  Steel,  Samuel  Hays,  William 
Stevenson  and  Samuel  Thomson.  The  salary  promised 
was  $300  in  regular  half-yearly  payments.  Mr.  Craw- 
ford accepted  the  call  and  was  duly  installed  pastor 
August  26,  1824.  His  time  was  thus  divided:  one- 
third  time  in  Waynesboro  ;  one-third  at  John  Renfrew's  ; 
one-third  at  John  Thomson's,  and  one  day  at  James^ 
Kennedy's  near  Green  Castle.  In  1825,  the  present 
stone  church  at  Scotland  was  erected.  Mr.  Crawford 
resigned  the  charge  in  May,  1831.  During  the  con- 
troversy and  division  of  the  Church  in  1833,  but  a 
few  members  left  the  Church.  For  eleven  years  they 
remained  without  a  pastor,  notwithstanding  repeated 
efforts  were  made  to  obtain  one.  In  1840,  the  present 
brick  church  in  the  town  of  Fayetteville  was  erected,, 
and  the  preaching  services  were  principally  held  here 
and  at  Scotland.  In  the  winter  of  1842,  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Hanna,  recently  from  Scotland,  was  installed 
pastor.  His  labors  were  well  received  but  interfered 
with  by  ill  health,  and  he  resigned  the  charge  in  the 
fall    of    1844.       In    the    fall    of     1845,     the     Rev.    Joshua 


Kennedy  was  ordained  and  installed  pastor.  He  revived 
the  cause  in  Cumberland  County  and  the  congregation 
flourished  under  his  ministrations.  The  elders  at  that 
time  were  James  Kennedy,  John  Renfrew  and  Samuel 
Thomson.  In  addition  to  his  pastoral  work,  Mr. 
Kennedy  opened  a  school  for  both  sexes  in  Fayette- 
ville  in  the  spring  of  1852,  called  the  "  Fayetteville 
Academy  and  Seminary."  At  the  close  of  the  first 
year,  the  female  department  was  suspended  for  a  time 
until  a  large  and  commodious  building  was  erected  on 
the  same  ground  by  a  company  of  stockholders.  The 
school  possessed  a  corps  of  efificient  teachers  and  was 
conducted  successfully  until  i860,  when  Mr.  Kenned)- 
resigned  the  school  and  congregation  and  went  as  a 
missionary  to  Florida.  The  school  was  discontinued 
during  the  war,  the  building  was  sold  and  is  now 
used  for  a  private  dwelling.*  Since  i860,  the  Conoco- 
cheague  congregation  has  never  enjoyed  the  labors  of 
a  settled  pastor.  For  twenty-eight  years  they  have 
been  a  vacancy,  but  have  enjoyed  almost  constant 
supplies.  At  different  times  the  congregation  has- 
suffered  in  the  reduction  of  its  members  by  emigration. 
The  old  people  have  passed  away  by  death,  and, 
without  a  pastor,  the  young  and  baptized  members 
have  not  remained  in  the  Church.  Centering  at  the 
Fayetteville  church,  with  occasional  preaching  at  Shady 
Grove  and  Scotland,  there  are  about  thirty  members 
in  full  communion.  The  elders  are  John  Kennedy  and 
Robert  McCoy.  Some  of  the  members  live  a  great 
distance  from  the  church,  but  at  the  communion 
*  History  of  Franklin  County,  Pennsylvaaia. 


season  each  summer  they  all  gather  around  the  Lord's 
table  and  renew  their  vows  of  loyalty  to  Jesus  after 
the    customs     of    their    fathers. 

Fulton  County.  There  was  a  society  at  Licking 
•Creek  and  Cove,  in  this  County,  near  the  Franklin 
County  line  and  about  ten  miles  west  of  Mercers- 
burgh,  as  early  as  1748.  It  was  sometimes  called 
Timber  Ridge.  The  Wilson  family  were  the  principal 
members,  who  afterwards  migrated  to  Western  Penn- 
sylvania. The  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  first  visited  this 
society,  November  [9,  1751,  preached  at  the  house  of 
James  Wilson,  and  baptized  Hannah,  daughter  of  James 
McMihan ;  Martha  and  James,  children  of  Joseph 
Martin  ;  George,  son  of  Jo.seph  Cochran  ;  Eliza,  daughter 
of  John  Wilson ;  and  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  James 
Wilson.  James  and  George  Wilson  were  ordained 
ruling  elders  April  8,  1753,  and  John  (lochrane  was 
added  November  i  r,  1770.  Among  the  members  in 
this  vicinity  previous  to  1774,  were  James,  John, 
Joseph  and  George  W^ilson,  Robert  McCullough,  Joseph 
Martin,  James  Irwin,  James  McMihan,  Robert  and 
Adam  McConnell,  John  and  Joseph  Cochrane,  Joseph 
McMeehan  and  James  McClelland.  On  account  of  emi- 
gration this  society  was  discontinued  and  the  few 
remaining  members  worshipped  with  the  societies  of 
Franklin  County.  The  Rev.  Joshua  Kennedy,  D.  D., 
of  Green  Castle,  has,  through  his  father-in-law,  Mr. 
James  Bell,  some  of  the  original  tokens  used  by  Rev. 
John  Cuthbertson  and  the  societies  in  1752.  They 
were  made  of  lead,  about  a  half  an  inch  square,  with 
raised    letters    on  both    sides.     On    the  one  side    are  the 


letters  "R.  P.,"  and  011  the  other,  "  L.  S.,  1752." 
Mr.  Kennedy  also  possesses  the  book-case  used  by 
the  Rev.  James  McKinney.  The  fertile  Valley  of 
Cumberland  once  occupied  by  numerous  and  thrifty 
Covenanter  societies,  at  the  present  time  contains  but 
the  two  branches  of  one  small  congregation  worship- 
ping at  Fayetteville  and  Shady  Grove.  While  the 
Thomson  and  Renfrew  famiHes  were  for  over  one  hundred 
years  connected  with  the  Church  in  this  region,  it  is 
sad  to.  relate  that  not  one  by  the  name  of  Thomson 
is  now  in  connection  with  the  Church  there.  The 
West  has  presented  strong  inducements  to  many  and 
while  the  cause  is  diminishing  in  the  Cumberland 
Valley,  the  Head  of  the  Church  is  stretching  forth 
the  curtains  of  her  habitations  in  the  boundless 
country  beyond  the  Mississippi  even  to  the  foot  of 
the    Rocky  Mountains. 


Ballibay.  In  the  early  part  of  the  present 
century  a  few  Covenanters  settled  along  the  Sus- 
quehanna and  Wyalusing  rivers,  in  Bradford  County, 
and  not  far  from  the  New  York  line.  They  were 
occasionally  visited  by  a  passing  minister,  but 
were  not  organized  into  a  congregation  until  the 
winter  of  1832,  when,  according  to  the  appointment 
of  the  Southern  Presbytery  of  the  Eastern  Subordinate 
Synod,  the  Rev.  David  Scott  organized  them  into 
the  Wyalusing  congregation  by  the  ordination  of 
William  Gamble  and  William  Morrow,  ruling  elders. 
In    1833,    Mr.    Gamble    and    some  of   the    members  went 



into  the  New  School  body  and  the  congregation  was 
disorganized.  Mr.  Morrow  and  the  remnant  continued 
faithful  to  the  principles  of  the  Church.  For  some 
time  they  enjoyed  the  labors  of  Mr.  Francis  Gailey, 
licentiate.  They  appreciated  his  labors,  and,  in  1838, 
when  he  withdrew  from  the  Church  and  proclaimed 
himself  the  only  faithful  representative  of  the  Cove- 
nanter Church,  he  readily  won  their  confidence  and 
they  all  followed  him.  Under  his  ministry  they  adhered 
to  Reformation  principles,  read  their  Bibles  and  the 
old  authors,  but  were  lead  to  believe  that  all  Churches 
had  ceased  to  be  Churches  of  by  apostacy. 
In  1859.  having  previously  failed  to  obtain 
ordination  from  any  branch  of  the  Christian  Church, 
Mr.  Gailey  wickedly  assumed  ministerial  functions  and 
rebaptized  all  his  followers.  This  opened  their  eyes, 
and,  finding  that  the  Covenanter  Church  had  been 
basely  misrepresented,  they  abandoned  him  and  sought 
a  return  to  the  Church  of  their  fathers.  Being  far 
distant  from  any  congregation  they  were  not  cared 
for  until  some  had  died  and  others  had  connected 
with  other  denominations.  A  Commission  of  the  New 
York  Presbytery,  met  at  Ballibay,  September  30, 
1868,  and  received  eight  persons  into  Church  priv- 
ileges, among  whom  was  Robert  Morrow,  the  only 
surviving  member  of  the  original  organization.  The 
society  was  organized  into  the  Ballibay  congregation, 
August  28.  1875.  b}'  the  ordination  of  Dr.  F.  G. 
Morrow  and  Richard  Graham,  elders,  and  John  Branyen 
and  Newton  J.  Morrow,  deacons.  There  were  .seven 
members     in     good     and     regular     standing,     and     twelve 


persons  were  received  b)'  profession  of  their  faith.  A 
liberal  subscription  was  raised  for  preaching  and  a 
request  granted  for  the  moderation  of  a  call.  In  1877, 
they  called  Mr.  Robert  McKinney.  licentiate,  who 
died  before  any  action  was  taken.  B)-  emigration, 
death  and  defection  the  congregation  was  reduced,  and 
disorganized,    June,     1886. 

Clarksi!UR(;h.  About  the  year  1820,  Richard 
Wasson  and  Andrew  Stormont.  emigrants  from  Ire- 
land, settled  near  Kelly's  station  in  this  County.-' 
They  waited  on  the  ministrations  of  the  Rev. 
John  Cannon,  of  Greensburgh,  and  requested  him 
to  come  over  and  preach  in  this  vicinity,  which  he 
did  on  week  days.  Before  any  church  was  built, 
Mr.  '  Cannon  usually  preached  in  the  barn  of  John 
Coleman  or  in  the  orchard  of  James  Gra)-.  About 
1825,  an  organization  was  effected  in  connection  with 
New  Alexandria  and  Greensburgh,  called  Black  Legs, 
but  afterwards  changed  to  Clarksburgh.  The  first 
elders  were  Moses  Thomson  and  Robert  Henry.  The 
first  church  was  erected  in  1831.  Among  the  early 
members  of  the  Church  at  Clarksburgh  are :  Robert, 
John  and  Mrs.  Margaret  Henry,  Moses  Thomson, 
David,  Robert  and  Alexander  Henderson,  John,  Robert 
and  William  Coleman.  James  Gray,  Thomas,  James 
and  Ann  Gailey.  Andrew,  Samuel  and  Jane  McCreery, 
Daniel  Euwer,  Samuel  Gilmore.  Nancy  White,  John 
McCurdy,  John  Morrison,  Thomas  Gemmil,  James 
McKelvy,   Mrs.  Martha  Smith,  Nathan    Douthett,  Samuel 

*  History  of  Indiana  County,  Pennsylvania. 


and  Mrs.  Frances  Barr,  John  and  Mrs.  Kirkpatrick 
and  Mrs.  Kimball.  The  Rev.  John  Cannon  continued 
to  preach  here  until  his  death  in  1836.  For  seven 
years  the  congregation  was  a  vacancy  occasionally 
supplied,  when,  in  1843,  in  connection  with  Greens- 
burgh,  they  enjoyed  the  pastoral  labors  of  the  Rev. 
Samuel  O.  Wylie,  until  the  fall  of  1844.  In  1847, 
the  Rev.  Robert  B.  Cannon  was  installed,  and  he  was 
released  in  the  spring  of  1854.  The  following  year 
New  Alexandria  was  added  to  the  charge,  and,  in 
the  spring  of  1856,  the  Rev.  A.  M.  Milligan  became  the 
pastor  for  one-fourth  of  his  time.  He  was  released 
in  the  spring  of  1866.  Clarksburgh  received  a  separate 
organization,  October  8,  1867,  and  the  following 
autumn  they  obtained  the  Rev.  James  A.  Black  as 
the  pastor.  He  revived  the  work  by  the  organization 
of  a  Sabbath  School  and  a  Missionary  Society.  In 
1 87 1,  the  old  church  was  removed,  and  a  handsome 
frame  structure  was  erected  near  the  old  site.  Mr. 
Black  demitted  the  charge  in  the  spring  of  1882, 
since  which  time  the  Rev.  John  J.  McClurkin  has 
been    stated    supply. 

Bear  Run  and  Mahoning.  These  societies  are  in 
the  northren  part  of  the  County  and  were  formerly 
connected  with  the  Salem  and  Rehoboth  congregations, 
and  were  organized  into  a  separate  congregation  in 
the  fall  of  1870.  It  continued  to  be  supplied  by 
Presbytery  until  the  fall  of  1874,  when  the  Rev.  John 
F.  Crozier  became  the  pastor,  and  is  in  charge. 
Among    the     old      members     here     were      David      White, 


Alexander  White,  John  McElwain,  James  Graham, 
James  Stewart,  James  Sharpe,  Samuel  Gilmore. 
Rehoboth  and  Salem.  For  many  years  previous 
to  an  organization,  Covenanters  scattered  into  small 
groups  all  over  this  and  the  adjoining  Counties 
of  Armstrong  and  Clarion.  In  the  fall  of  1847, 
six  of  these  societies  were  organized  into  a  congre 
gation  and  it  was  called  "  Rehoboth,"  because  they 
had  plenty  of  room  and  they  trusted  that  the 
Lord  would  make  them  fruitful  in  the  land.  In  the 
spring  of  1852,  they  succeeded  in  getting  the  Rev. 
Robert  J.  Dodds  for  the  pastor.  His  labors  were  very 
extensive,  as  his  people  were  distributed  over  an  area 
of  about  forty-five  miles  in  length  by  thirty  in  breadth, 
and  many  of  them  lived  in  distant  parts  of  four 
Counties.  Mr.  Dodds  continued  to  labor  here  until 
the  spring  of  1856,  when  he  was  chosen  by  Synod 
as  a  missionary  to  Syria,  In  the  spring  of  1859,  the 
Rev.  Thomas  M.  Elder  became  the  pastor.  The  field 
was  too  great  and  his  health  would  not  permit  of  so- 
much  travelling.  The  Presbytery  then  agreed  to  divide 
the  congregation,  which  they  did  in  the  fall  of  i860. 
Three  of  the  societies  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
County  retained  the  name  of  Rehoboth,  and  three  m 
the  western  part  assumed  the  name  of  Salem.  Mr.. 
Elder  continued  in  charge  of  the  Rehoboth  branch,, 
and,  in  the  winter  of  1862,  the  Rev.  Armour  J. 
McFarland  became  the  pastor  of  the  Salem  congrega- 
tion. Houses  of  worship  were  erected  in  nearly  all 
the    branches     and     the     pastors     distributed     their    time 


among  them.  Mr.  Elder  re.signed  his  congregation  in 
the  spring  of  1866,  and  the  cause  languished.  In  1874, 
it  was  associated  with  the  congregation  of  Bear  Run 
and  Mahoning,  in  Indiana  County,  and  has  since  enjoyed 
the  faithful  labors  of  the  Rev.  John  F.  Crozier.  The 
Salem  congregation  grew  rapidly  under  the  care  of  Mr. 
McFarland,  there  being  two  principal  places  of  preach- 
ing— the  Bethel  branch  near  Baxter  station,  and 
Belleview  in  the  village  of  Stanton.  Mr.  McFarland 
was  released  from  the  Salem  congregation  in  the  spring 
of  1882.  For  five  years  they  were  vacant,  but  enjoyed  constant  preaching.  In  the  summer  of  1887, 
the  Rev.  Harry  W.  Temple  was  ordained  and  installed 
the  pastor.  The  names  of  McFarland,  Hill,  Campbell, 
Millen,  Reed,  Becket,  Hanna,  Sterritt,  Dill,  McKee, 
Sharpe,  McGif^n,  Stewart,  Martin,  Temple,  Wallace, 
White,  Graham,  Mclsaac,  Fry,  and  others,  have  been 
connected  with  the  eldership  and  the  best  interests  of 
the    cause    in    Jefferson    County. 


New  Ale.\AN1)RIA.  The  first  Covenanter  to  settle  in 
this  vicinity  was  Samuel  I'atterson,  who  emigrated  to 
this  region  in  the  closing  years  of  the  past  century.* 
In  1800,  the  Rev.  John  Black  was  settled  in  the  vicinity 
of  Pittsburgh  and  occasionally  preached  at  Greensburgh. 
To  wait  upon  his  ministrations  Samuel  Patterson  rode 
ten  miles,  and  soon  afterward"  Mr.  Black  preached  twice 
a  year  in  Mr.  Patterson's  house  near  New  Alexandria. 
In  the  course  of  time  small  societies  of  Covenanters 
sprang    up    in    all    parts  of    the    County    and    became  the 

*A'.  P.  d-  C,  1871,  p.  363;   1872,  p.  60. 


nucleus  of  the  present  New  Alexandria  congregation. 
A  congregation  was  organized  at  Greensburgh,  by  the 
Rev.  John  Black,  about  18 13,  and  Robert  Brown,  w^ho 
did  more  for  the  cause  in  that  vicinity  than  any  other 
man,  was  ordained  a  ruling  elder.  He  was  a  liberal 
supporter  of  the  cause  and  his  home  furnished  hospitable 
entertainment  for  all  the  ministers  and  the  members 
from  a  distance.  Rev.  John  Cannon  became  the  first 
pastor  in  the  fall  of  18 16,  and  he  continued  in  this 
relation  until  his  death  in  1836.  New  Alexandria 
became  a  regular  preaching  station  in  18 19,  when  the 
Associate  Reformed  congregation  was  a  vacancy.  A 
subscription  paper  was  gotten  up  for  ten  days'  preaching 
and  Mr.  Cannon  gave  them  that  much  time  from  his 
labors  in  Greensburgh.  In  1822,  a  few  families  from 
the  Associate  Reformed  and  Presbyterian  Churches  joined 
the  Covenanters,  and  the  congregation  of  New  Alexandria 
was  organized.  The  Greensburgh  church  was  built  in 
1823,  and  Rev.  Alexander  McLeod,  of  New  York,  preached 
the  first  sermon  in  it.  After  the  death  of  Mr.  Cannon 
in  1836,  the  Rev.  James  R.  Willson  was  called  to  the 
pastorate,  but  declined.  In  the  fall  of  1839,  the  Rev, 
James  Milligan,  of  Vermont,  was  installed  pastor.  In 
1 84 1,  Greensburgh  joined  with  Clarksburgh  and  secured 
the  labors  of  the  Revs.  S.  O.  Wylie  and  R.  B.  Cannon 
until  1854.  Mr.  Milligan  continued  his  labors  in  the 
flourishing  congregation  of  New  Alexandria  until  the 
year  1848,  and,  the  same  fall,  his  son,  the  Rev.  A.  M, 
Milligan,  succeeded  him.  The  latter  was  translated  to 
Philadelphia  in  1853,  and  for  three  years  New  Alexandria, 
and  for  two  years  Greensburgh,  were  vacancies.     In  1855, 


they  were  re-united  under  one  charge  and  recalled  the 
Rev.  A.  M.  Milligan.  He  accepted,  and  was  installed 
pastor  May  6,  1856.  In  the  spring  of  1866,  Mr.  MiUigan 
was  released  from  the  charge.  The  following  year 
Clarksburgh  received  a  separate  organization,  and  New 
Alexandria  and  Greensburgh  were  regarded  as  one 
charge.  Rev.  Thomas  A.  Sproull  was  installed  pastor 
in  June,  1868,  and  was  removed  by  death,  April  8,  1878, 
The  Rev.  James  L.  Pinkerton  was  installed  pastor  in 
May,  1 88 1,  and,  after  two  years  of  labor,  was  compelled 
to  resign  the  charge  on  account  of  bodily  affliction. 
The  Rev.  John  W.  F.  Carlisle  was  ordained  and  installed,. 
June  20,  1884,  and  released  January  26,  1888.  An 
occasional  day  is  given  to  Greensburgh,  but  the  great 
majority  of  the  members  are  in  the  vicinity  of  New 
Alexandria.  This  congregation  has  always  possessed 
good  houses  of  worship.  The  first  building  occupied 
was  a  log  church  built  about  18 10,  and  was  used  by  all 
denominations  as  a  union  church.  In  1835,  the  congre- 
gation erected  a  substantial  brick  church,  which,  in  1870, 
gave  place  to  the  present  well-appointed  building.  The 
old  gravej-ard  contains  the  dust  of  many  a  worthy 
Covenanter  who  devoted  his  life  to  the  cause  of*  Christ 
in  this  community.  Long  will  be  remembered  the  names 
of  Johnston,  Brown,  Elder,  Stewart,  Du  Shane,  Henry, 
McClure,  Dornon,  Beattie,  Nevin,  Gemmil,  Lowry,  Steele, 
Hice,  Temple,  Purvis.  Shaw,  Allen,  Simpson,  Patterson, 
Thompson,   Miller.   Cannon    and   Gra}-. 

Brookland.  Under  this  heading  will  be  included  all 
the  societies  which  have  been  known  b\-  different  names, 
and  located  in   the  north-western  portion  of  Westmoreland 


County  and  along  the  Allegheny  River.  This  is  an  old 
settlement  of  Covenanters.*  The  pioneer  of  this  region 
was  Robert  Sproull,  the  father  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Sproull  of 
Allegheny.  About  1796,  he  emigrated  from  Franklin 
County  and  settled  in  this  vicinity  within  one  mile  of 
the  Allegheny  River.  Here  for  twenty  years  he  main- 
tained the  principles  of  the  Church  alone.  In  18 17,  he 
was  joined  by  David  Houston,  who  married  Mrs.  Scott^ 
and  these  families  organized  a  praying  society.  In  1820, 
Thomas  Sproull,  nephew  of  Robert  Sproull  and  father  of 
Revs.  T.  C.  and  W.  J.  Sproull,  acceded  to  the  society. 
About  the  same  time,  John  Dodds,  father  of  the  Rev. 
Josiah  Dodds,  from  the  Secession  Church  of  Ireland,  and, 
in  1821,  John  Bole,  also  from  Ireland,  strengthened  the 
society  by  their  membership.  Revs.  John  Black  and 
John  Cannon  supplied  them  occasionally  and  they  were 
organized  into  a  congregation  in  1822.  Rev.  Jonathan 
Gill  was  the  first  pastor,  installed  October  23,  1823. 
The  society  grew  rapidly,  and,  in  1830,  they  were  joined 
by  the  families  of  Robert  Armstrong,  Joseph  McKee, 
James  Bole,  Archibald  Dodds  and  Joseph  McElroy  from 
Ireland.  During  the  unpleasant  controversy  and  subse- 
quent division  of  the  Church  in  1833,  the  congregation 
was  sorely  tried  and  some  of  the  members  went  with 
Mr.  Gill  into  the  New  School  body.  The  congregation 
as  a  whole  stood  by  the  old  flag  and  maintained  the 
principles  of  the  Church.  At  this  time  the  elders  were 
Ebenezer  Gill,  Joseph  Cowan,  Samuel  Milligan,  Thomas 
Dunn  and  Joseph  McElroy.  Joseph  McElroy  was  the 
delegate  to  the  Synod  of  1833,  and  walked  the  whole 
*/i.  P.  &=  C,  1886,  p.  50. 

286  HISTORY    0¥   THE    REFORMED 

way  to  Philadelphia  to  attend  that*  notable  session.  Rev. 
Hugh  Walkinshaw  was  installed  in  April,  1835.  The 
-congregation  then  was  made  up  of  man)^  branches,  and, 
at  the  division  of  the  extensive  charge  in  1841,  both 
branches  were  anxious  to  obtain  the  pastor,  but  he 
remained  with  those  on  the  east  side  of  the  Allegheny 
until  his  death,  April  19,  1843.  During  his  ministry  the 
ruling  elders  were  James  Dougherty,  John  Rowan, 
Thompson  Graham  and  Robert  Euwer.  Rev.  Oliver 
Wylie  was  installed  June  24,  1846.  He  did  not  possess 
a  robust  constitution,  and  was  released  in  the  fall  of  1851. 
During  his  pastorate  the  ruling  elders  chosen  were 
Joseph  Dodds  and  Samuel  Henning.  In  June,  1854,  the 
Rev.  Robert  Reed  was  installed  pastor.  The  extensive- 
-ness  of  the  field  had  been  somewhat  curtailed  by  the 
organization  of  new  congregations,  and,  beside  the 
Brookland  charge  he  ministered  to  the  branches  of 
Manchester  and  North  Washington.  In  the  Manchester 
branch  were  the  Rowans,  Hunters,  Andersons  and 
Nelsons.  Another  society  was  composed  of  the  Cope- 
lands,  Boyds,  Reeds  and  Millers.  The  old  log  church 
was  soon  abandoned  and  a  handsome  brick  edifice  was 
erected.  The  elders  during  Mr.  Reed's  pastorate  were 
David  Armstrong,  William  Copeland,  R.  C.  McKee, 
John  Reed,  Alexander  Miller,  John  McKee,  David 
McElroy,  Samuel  McCrum  and  A.  Dodds.  In  1870,  the 
<:ongregation  was  reduced  nearly  one  hundred  members 
by  the  organization  of  the  Manchester  and  Parnassus 
congregation.  The  Manchester  branch  is  five  miles  east 
of  Parnassus.  Mr.  Reed  continued  in  charge  of  the 
Brookland  congregation,  and   Middletown  in  Butler  County 


was  attached  to  his  charge.  The  Key.  Josiah  M.  Johnston 
was  installed  pastor  of  the  newly  organized  congregation 
at  Parnassus  in  June,  1871.  He  was  a  popular  preacher, 
but  in  less  than  two  years  he  resigned  the  charge  and 
left  the  communion  of  the  Church.  In  June,  1874,  the 
present  pastor,  the  Rev.  James  C.  McFeeters,  was  installed 
in  charge.  Rev.  Robert  Reed  resigned  the  Brookland 
congregation  in  the  spring  of  1882,  and,  after  receiving 
supplies  for  four  years,  the  charge  was  united  to 
Parnassus  under  Mr.  McFeeters,  November,  1886,  and 
the  Middletown  branch  was  given  a  separate  existence. 
The  elders  are  A.  B.  and  S.  B.  Copeland,  R.  A.  Arm- 
strong, Robert  Dodds,  John  Reed,  John  Hunter  and 
Alexander  Miller.  Brookland  has  furnished  the  Church 
no  less  than  eleven  ministers,  twenty  ruling  elders  and 
several   missionaries. 


Middletown.  This  small  society  is  situated  about 
twelve  miles  northeast  of  the  town  of  Butler.  It  was 
organized  about  1825,  and  was  under  the  pastoral  care 
of  the  Rev.  Thomas  C.  Guthrie.  After  1833,  it  was 
under  the  care  of  the  Slippery  Rock  congregation  and 
ministered  unto  b}^  Revs.  James  Blackwood,  Thomas 
Hanna  and  J.  C.  Smith.  It  was  known  as  the  Sunbury 
branch  and  subsequently  as  North  Washington.  In 
1869,  it  was  annexed  to  the  Brookland  congregation 
and  under  the  care  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Reed.  He 
demitted  the  charge  in  the  spring  of  1882.  and  for 
four  years  the)^  only  received  an  occasional  day  of 
preaching  and  the  dispensation  of  the  sacrament  once 
a  year.      In   November,    1886,   they  were  given   a  separate 


organization.  The  church  is  a  comfortable  frame  one 
situated  in  the  village  of  Middletown.*  Among  the  old 
families  of  this  society  were  the  Dunns,  Doughertys, 
Euwers,  Barbers,  Gills  and  Osbornes.  In  later  years 
the  leading  spirit  was  John  Osborne,  whose  house  was 
always  open  for  the  entertainment  of  the  friends  of  the 
cause.  The  elders  are  Robert  McCracken  and  Peter 
C.  Young.  Henry  Blair,  Thomas  Banks  and  Mrs. 
Osborne  are  also  among  the  loyal  members  of  this 

Pine  Creek  and  Union.  This  congregation  lies- 
principally  in  Butler  County  and  about  thirty  miles 
northeast  of  Pittsburgh.  All  the  societies  lying  along 
the  Allegheny  and  its  tributaries  were  a  part  of  the 
charge  of  the  Rev^  John  Black  as  early  as  iSoo.f  In 
1807,  the  Rev.  Matthew  Williams  was  installed  pastor 
of  these  branches  northeast  of  Pittsburgh.  They  were 
eight  in  number  and  scattered  over  several  Counties. 
He  was  almost  constantly  in  the  saddle,  reaching  places- 
of  preaching  in  the  then  thinly  settled  courtry,  part  of 
which  was  an  almost  unbroken  forest.  In  181 5,  the 
congregation  was  divided,  and  Mr.  Williams  now  con- 
fined his  labors  more  particularly  to  Pine  Creek,  Union 
and  Deer  Creek.  He  removed  his  family  to  Pine 
Creek  and  continued  in  this  field  until  shortly  before 
his  death.  The  ministry  of  Mr.  Williams  was  remarkably 
successful  in  the  gathering  of  a  large  congregation,  and 
they  were  bound  together  by  the  closest  ties.  Often 
as  many  as  three  hundred  gathered  around  the  com- 
munion   table    and    those    were    the     seasons     of     festive 

*R.   P.   &  C,    1883,   p.   20.       f  Covenanter,  Vol.   3,   p.   278. 


joy.  Mr.  Williams  had  an  able  session  composed  of 
James  Magee,  John  Glasgow,  William  Wright,  Samuel 
Sterrett,  Joseph  Douthett,  James  Miller,  Robert  Ander- 
son and  David  Dickey.  The  original  house  of  worship 
was  very  primitive  in  its  style  of  architecture  and 
simple  in  construction.  It  was  a  log  house  with  a 
clap-board  roof  fastened  down  by  cross-beams  and  had 
very  small  windows.  They  usually  had  no  fire,  and 
one  day  when  it  was  very  cold  and  a  heavy  snow 
upon  the  ground,  no  one  grumbled,  but  Andrew  Barr 
remarked  at  the  close  of  a  long  service,  "  We  were 
not  troubled  with  mosquitoes  to-day."*  In  1826,  the 
Rev.  Thomas  C.  Guthrie  became  the  pastor.  In  1833, 
he  and  about  one-half  of  the  congregation  became 
identified  with  the  New  School  body.  The  faithful 
remnant  were  now  left  without  a  pastor,  but  for  two 
years  were  supplied  by  Presbytery.  In  1835,  the  Rev, 
Hugh  Walkinshaw  was  installed  pastor,  and,  at  the 
division  of  the  congregation  in  1841,  he  chose  the 
Brookland  branch,  and  Pine  Creek  was  again  a 
vacancy.  In  June,  1843,  the  Rev.  John  Galbraith,  who 
now  remains  at  North  Union,  was  installed  the  pastor. 
There  were  two  places  of  preaching  and  both  became 
large  societies.  The  elders  were  John  and  Robert  Dodds, 
Thompson  Graham  and  James  Campbell.  In  1870,  the 
societies  each  received  a  separate  organization  and  Mr. 
Galbraith  remained  pastor  of  the  North  Union  branch. 
The  Pine  Creek  and  Union  branch  remained  a  vacancy 
for  six  years.  In  May,  1876,  the  Rev.  Alexander 
Kilpatrick,    the    present    pastor,    was    installed    in  charge. 

*Rev.  J.   B.  Williams  in  Banner,   1877,  p.  224. 


Among  the  old  families  in  this  region  were  those  of 
the  Magees,  Douthetts,  Glasgow's,  Millers,  Andersons, 
Creswells,  Arbuthnots,  Campbells,  Wrights,  Crowes, 
Forsythes,  McKinneys,  SprouUs,  Dodds,  Deans,  Cunning- 
hams, Gillelands,  Sterretts,  and  others.  It  is  said  that 
Mrs.  Penninah  Glasgow  and  Margaret  Cunningham  were 
very  useful  in  .social  meetings  and  in  giving  the 
children  instruction  in  the  doctrines  of  salvation.  The 
people  lived  in  Arcadian  simplicity  and  were  noted  for 
their    piety    and    integrity. 

VEX.\N(;0    COUNTY. 

On.  CriY.  Not  a  few  Covenanters  were  attracted 
to  this  city  and  region  during  the  oil  excitement,  and 
sufificient  members  being  gathered  together  they  were 
organized  into  a  congregation  in  the  summer  of  1865. 
They  then  erected  a  house  of  worship  and  asked  for 
the  moderation  of  a  call.  Rev.  David  McFall  was 
installed  pastor  in  May,  1871,  and  remained  two  years. 
For  ten  years  it  was  a  vacancy,  during  which  time 
it  was  greatl)'  reduced  in  numbers.  The)'  manifested 
an  enterprizing  spirit,  however,  and  made  out  several' 
calls.  Uniting  with  Oil  Creek  they  succeeded  in  get- 
ting a  pastor  in  June,  1884,  when  the  Rev.  J.  A. 
F.  Bovard  settled  among  them  for  part  of  his  time. 
The  v^enerable  elder  William  Magee  has  been  the  lead- 
ing spirit,  and  among  other  representative  men  might 
be  mentioned  John  Quinn,  Joseph  G.  Garrett,  William 
Thompson,  Robert  J.  Brown  and  John  Love. 

Oil    Creek.     This      small      congregation     is     situated 
seven    miles     north    of    Titusville    and     twenty-fiive    miles 


from  Oil  City.  The  four  societies  of  Perry,  Oil  Creek,, 
Conneautville  and  Sugar  Lake  applied  and  received  an 
organization,  February  14,  i860,  and  it  was  called 
Oil  Creek,  as  this  society  was  the  largest  and  most 
central.  In  later  years  Conneautville  received  a  separate 
existence  as  a  mission  station,  and  is  now  defunct. 
Perry  and  Sugar  Lake  were  ultimately  abandoned,  and 
the  preaching  was  held  at  Oil  Creek,  where  a  small 
frame  church  was  erected.  The  Rev.  Daniel  Reid  w^as 
installed  pastor  in  December,  1861,  and  was  removed 
by  death  in  March,  1875.  I'or  "i"^  years  the  con- 
gregation was  occasionally  supplied,  and,  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1884,  uniting  with  Oil  City,  secured  a  part  of 
the  time  of  the  Rev.  J.  A.  F.  Bovard.  Among  the 
elders  and  members  Avere  R.  J.  Brown,  Hugh  .  McDill,. 
Jacob  Boggs.  Henry  Wright,  Marcus  Stewart,  William 
Steele,  James  Moody,  Robert  P.  Randall,  Thomas 
Pollock    and    George    Dunlap. 

Adamsville.  This  was  for  many  )'ears  a  mission 
station,  under  the  care  of  the  Slippery  Rock  congrega- 
tion, and  subsequently  under  that  of  Springfield.  It 
was  organized  into  a  distinct  congregation  in  Novem- 
ber, 1873.  By  the  death  of  elder  Thomas  McFeeters 
the  congregation  was  disorganized  in  October,  1874, 
and  the  members  were  re-certified  to  the  Springfield 
congregation.  They  have  a  house  of  \\'orship  and  are 
regarded  as  a  mission  station.  William  Blair,  William 
Steel  and  Thomas  Hays  were  old  members. 

Springfield.     This    was     long    one    of    the    numerous 
branches     of     the     Slippery     Rock     congregation.*      As 

*Rev.  J.  C.  Smith  in  R.  P.  &^  C,  1885,  pp.  147,  172. 


■early  as  1 82  5,  those  living  in  this  vicinity  were 
•organized  into  a  society,  and,  in  1828,  became  the 
Mercer  branch  of  the  Shenango  and  Neshannock  con- 
gregation. In  1832,  the  Rev.  A.  W.  Black  became 
the  pastor,  who,  in  1833,  with  many  of  the  people, 
went  into  the  New  School  body.  In  1834,  the  remnant 
were  attached  to  the  Slippery  Rock  congregation  under 
the  pastorate  of  the  Rev.  James  Blackwood.  The  elders  at 
this  time  were  Samuel  and  William  Rodgers,  Robert 
Allen,  Sr.,  and  Robert  Allen,  Jr.  In  1838,  they  were 
included  in  the  Little  Beaver  congregation  and  enjoyed 
the  labors  of  the  successive  pastors  of  that  field. 
Springfield,  Sandy  and  Greenville  were  organized  into 
a  separate  congregation  in  the  summer  of  1852.  The 
first  pastor  was  the  Rev.  John  J.  McClurkin,  installed 
.September,  1854,  and  remained  until  (3ctober,  1873. 
In  June,  1877,  the  Rev.  James  R.  Wylie  became  the 
pastor,  and  resigned  April  10,  1888.  Among  the  elders 
may  be  named  William  and  Samuel  Rodgers,  Thomas 
Barr,  William  Cochran,  William  Hunter,  Robert  and 
■Cochran  Allen.  James,  S.  R.  and  A.  C.  McClelland, 
J.  R.    McElroy   and  J.  C.    Montgomery. 

Cfxtekvii.le.  This  congregation  is  situated  in  the 
north-west  corner  of  Mercer  County  and  in  early  times 
was  the  Ryefield  branch  of  the  Slippery  Rock  con- 
gregation. Previous  to  1833,  it  was  a  branch  of  the 
Shenango  and  Mercer  congregation  under  the  pastoral 
care  of  the  Rev.  A.  W.  Black.  In  1834,  the  Rev. 
James  Blackwood  became  the  pastor.  The  old  church 
stood  in  a  rye  field  about  two  miles  from  the  present 
two    of    Centerville,    and    was    often    call    the    "  Granary." 


The  elders  at  this  time  were  Joseph  Kennedy,  Thomas 
Blair  and  J.  Campbell.  In  1852,  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Hanna  became  the  pastor  and  continued  in  this  relation 
for  nine  years.  In  1863,  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Smith  became 
the  pastor,  with  other  branches.  In  1867,  Centerville 
and  Sunbury  (now  Middletown)  were  made  mission 
stations.  In  1869,  Middletown  was  attached  to  Brook- 
land,  and  Centerville  continued  a  mission  station  until 
1 87 1,  when  it  was  attached  to  the  New  Castle  con- 
gregation. The  Rev.  S.  J.  Crowe  became  the  pastor 
in  May,  1872.  Centerville  was  organized  into  a  distinct 
congregation,  September,  1879,  and  Mr.  Crowe  con- 
tinued pastor  until  his  resignation  in  April,  1881,  at 
which  time  the  congregation  was  attached  to  that  of 
Springfield.  Rev.  James  R.  Wylie  was  installed  pastor 
in  July,  1882,  and  resigned  in  November,  1887.  The  elders 
are  Robert  McKnight,  William  McKee,  William  Jack 
and  Hiram  Snyder.  The  Kennedys,  Blairs,  Fishers, 
and    other    old    families,    abounded    in    hospitality. 


Shenango.  The  first  pioneer  in  Shenango  was  Samuel 
Rodgers  who  settled  here  in  1798.*  He  was  soon 
followed  by  Hugh  Cathcart,  Thomas  and  Samuel  Hays, 
Thomas  Smith  and  William  Campbell.  They  formed  a 
praying  society  and  the  Rev.  John  Black  occasionally 
visited  them,  Samuel  Hays  was  the  ruling  elder.  The 
societies  subsequently  organized  at  Mercer  and  Neshan- 
nock  were  associated  with  this,  and  enjoyed  the  labors 
of    Revs.    Robert  Gibson  and  George  Scott.     These  were 

■*Wm.  Cochran  in  R.  P.  c-  C,  1885,  p.   176. 


organized  into  a  separate  congregation,  and  the  Re\ . 
Andrew  W.  Black  was  installed  the  pastor,  Januar)- 
i8,  1832.  In  1833,  the  pastor  and  the  majority  of 
the  congregation  became  identified  with  the  New 
School  bod}-  and  held  the  church  property.  Those  who 
remained  true  to  the  distinctive  principles  of  the 
Church  were  the  families  of  Samuel  Rodgers,  Samuel 
Cochran,  Reed  and  William  Porter,  Charles  Love  and 
George  Logan— in  all  about  twenty  members.  In  1834, 
they  were  associated  with  the  Greenville  branch  of  the 
Slippery  Rock  congregation  and  enjoyed  the  labors  of 
the  Rev.  James  Blackwood.  In  1838,  they  were  attached 
to  the  Little  Beaver  congregation  and  subsequently 
under  the  pastoral  care  of  Revs.  Joseph  W.  Morton 
and  Samuel  Sterrett.  In  1852,  they  were  attached  to 
the  Springfield  congregation  and  under  the  pastoral 
care  of  Revs.  J.  J.  McClurkin  and  J.  R.  Wylie.  At 
Greenville  there  are  about  forty  members.  In  1865, 
the  old  church  building  was  sold  and  they  worshipped 
at  Adamsville.  Among  the  old  members  were  William 
and  Robert  Rodgers,  William  Porter,  William  Cochran, 
Thomas  McFeeters,  Elizabeth  Mathers,  Nancy  Love, 
Jane   Porter    and    Jane    McElhaney. 

Slippery  Rock.  This  congregation  is  situated 
principall}-  in  Crawford  County,  and  has  been  known 
at  different  times  by  different  names.*  The  branches 
peculiar  to  this,  and  not  to  other  congregations,  were 
Camp  Run,  Harlansburgh  and  Portersville.  The  first 
preaching  at  Harlansburgh  was  held  in  the  bar  room 
of    the    hotel,     and     afterwards    in     the     Baptist     church, 

*Rev.  J.  C.  Smith  in  A'.  /'.  d-  C,  1885,  pp.  147,  172. 


until  James  Martin  was  sprinkled,  and  then  the  breth- 
ren told  them  to  hunt  other  quarters.  All  these 
branches  were  under  the  pastoral  care  of  the  Rev. 
John  Black  until  18 14,  when  they  were  included  under 
the  Little  Beaver  congregation.  Rev.  Robert  Gibson 
became  the  pastor  in  18 19,  and  was  released  in  1830. 
In  1 83 1,  Rev.  George  Scott  became  the  pastor,  and, 
in  1833,  he  and  some  of  the  members  went  into  the 
New  School  body.  In  the  spring  of  1834,  the  Rev. 
James  Blackwood  became  the  pastor.  The  elders  within 
the  bounds  of  the  present  congregation  were  James 
Wright  and  Samuel  Sterrett  of  Camp  Run  ;  Thomas 
Willson  and  Thomas  Speer  of  Harlansburgh.  About 
1836,  Harlansburgh  dropped  its  name  and  was  known 
as  Slippery  Rock  and  Hautenbaugh.  In  1838,  churches 
were  built  in  these  places,  but  the  one  in  Hauten- 
baugh was  never  finished  and  was  abandoned.  Mr. 
Blackwood  died  in  1851.  During  his  pastorate  William 
Wright,  Matthew  Stewart,  John  Love  and  James 
Anderson  were  ordained  elders.  In  1852,  the  Rew 
Thomas  Hanna  became  the  pastor  and  remained  in 
charge  nine  years.  The  Camp  Run  branch  was 
abandoned,  and  here  dwelt  the  Methenys,  Sterretts, 
Wrights  and  McElwains.  In  the  spring  of  1863,  the 
present  pastor,  the  Rev.  J.  Calvin  Smith  was  installed. 
At  this  time  the  branches  were  Slippery  Rock,  Porters- 
ville,  Hautenbaugh  and  Lackawannock.  The  elders 
were  Thomas  and  Robert  Speer,  David  Pattison, 
A.  F.  Kennedy,  Thomas  Young,  Robert  Wylie,  Robert 
McCasIin,  J.  B.  McElwain,  George  Magee,  George 
Kennedy   and    Dr.  J.   M.   Balph.      In    1871,    Hautenbaugh 


and  Lackawannock  were  included  in  the  New  Castle 
congregation,  and  Slippery  Rock  and  Portersville  now 
compose  the  organization.  In  1833,  Thomas  Willson 
was  the  delegate  to  Synod  in  Philadelphia  ,  and  he 
walked  all  the  way  to  attend  that  notable  session. 
Such  men  as  Thomas  Willson,  George  Magee,  Dr. 
Cowden,  Thomas  Speer,  William  Boyd,  and  others, 
were  conductors  on  the  Underground  Railway  and 
fearless  advocates  of  the  cause  of  the  oppressed  slave. 
New  Castle.  A  society  of  Covenanters  was  organ- 
ized in  the  vicinity  of  this  city  as  early  as  1825, 
and  was  under  the  pastoral  care  of  Revs.  Robert 
Gibson  and  George  Scott.  In  1833,  some  of  the 
members  went  into  the  New  School  body.  In  1834, 
the  Rev.  James  Blackwood  became  the  pastor  of  the 
congregation  of  which  this  was  a  branch,  and  David 
Pattison  was  the  elder.  In  1852,  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Hanna  became  the  pastor,  and  during  his  ministry 
George  Boggs  and  Robert  Speer  were  added  to  the 
eldership.  In  1863,  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Smith  began  to  preach 
a  part  of  his  time  in  this  field  and  continued  in  this 
relation  for  seven  years.  The  congregation  was 
regularly  organized,  January  9,  1871.  The  elders 
installed  at  this  time  were  Robert  Speer,  David  and 
D.  C.  Pattison.  Rev.  S.  J.  Crowe  was  the  first  pastor 
installed  in  May,  1872,  and  built  up  a  flourishing 
congregation.  He  demitted  the  charge  in  April,  1881. 
The  Rev.  J.  Milligan  Wylie  was  installed  in  June, 
1883,  and  released  in  December,  1887.  Rev.  W. 
R.  Laird  was  installed  pastor  in  May,  1888.  The  first 
church     building      was      erected      during      Mr.*     Hanna's 


pastorate  and  was  then  situated  in  the  suburban  town 
of  Reynoldsville.  It  is  a  comfortable  frame  building  and 
now  within  the  limits  of  the  stirring  city  of  New 
Castle.  Other  elders  are  William  Boyd,  Robert 
McKnight,  P.  A.  Mayne  and  Dr.  T.  J.  Blackwood. 

Little  Beaver.  This  once  widely  scattered  congre- 
gation is  now  concentrated,  and  worships  in  a  comfort- 
able church  building  in  the  town  of  New  Galilee.  As  early 
as  1804,  a  few  families  were  residing  within  the  limits 
of  this  County,  and  in  1805,  they  were  joined  by 
James  Cook  from  Canonsburgh.  The  society  continued 
to  grow  and  was  occasionally  visited  by  Rev.  John 
Black.  It  was  organized  into  a  regular  congregation 
in  1 8 14,  and  for  five  years  enjoyed  supplies.  The 
first  pastor  was  the  eloquent  Robert  Gibson,  installed 
in  September,  1819,  and  for  eleven  years  he  continued 
to  draw  large  audiences  wherever  he  preached,  and 
built  up  a  flourishing  congregation.  He  resigned  the 
extensive  field  in  October,  1830,  on  account  of 
impaired  health.  The  next  pastor  was  the  Rev.  George 
Scott,  installed  in  April,  1831.  At  the  division  of 
the  Church  in  1833,  lie,  and  many  of  the  congrega- 
•  tion,  went  into  the  New  School  body,  but  the 
remnant  retained  the  church  property.  This,  however,, 
so  reduced  their  members  that  they  were  attached  to. 
the  Slippery  Rock  congregation.*  The  elders  who. 
stood  fast  to  the  principles  of  the  Church  were  James; 
Cook,  John  and  James  Young,  and  James  McAnlis.. 
The    Rev.    James    Blackwood    was    installed    the    pastor; 

*Rev.  J.  C.  Smith  in  R.  P.  6^  C,  1885,  p.  147. 


with  other  branches,  in  May,  1834,  and  during  his 
pastorate  Robert  Gray  and  Robert  Gilmore  were  added 
to  the  session.  In  October,  1838,  Little  Beaver  and 
the  adjacent  societies  in  Ohio,  were  organized  into  a 
separate  congregation.  The  Rev.  Joseph  W.  Morton 
was  installed  the  first  pastor  in  November,  1845,  a"<^ 
was  released  in  June,  1847,  ^vhen  he  was  chosen  as 
a  missionary  to  Haj^ti.  Rev.  Samuel  Sterrett  was 
installed  pastor  in  June,  1848,  and  remained  in  charge 
until  May,  i860,  when  Little  Beaver  became  a  distinct 
congregation  and  he  retained  the  branches  in  Ohio. 
For  four  years  they  received  supplies.  Rev.  Nathan 
M.  Johnston  was  installed  in  April,  1864.  He  remained 
in  charge  twenty-two  years,  during  which  time  the 
congregation  grew  extensively  and  a  new  church 
building  was  erected  in  the  town  of  New  Galilee, 
Mr.  Johnston  resigned  the  charge  in  June,  1886, 
and  Rev.  James  R.  Wylie  was  installed  pastor  in  May,  1888. 
Among  the  families  long  connected  with  the  Church 
in  this  vicinity  are  those  of  Cook,  McAnlis,  Porter, 
^.Calderwood,  Young,  Gray,  Gibson,  Gilmore,  Duff, 
^Carson,  Qua,  Campbell,  McGeorge,  Dodds,  Boggs,  Patter- 
•son,    Acheson    and    Sharp. 

Beaver  Falls.  The  first  Covenanter  preaching  in 
the  city  of  Beaver  Falls  was  given  by  the  Rev.  N, 
M.  Johnston  in  the  winter  of  1869,  when  only  one 
member  of  the  Church  lived  there.  This,  and  the 
station  of  Rochester,  received  an  occasional  day,  and,  for 
some  time  previous  to  the  organization,  Beaver-  Falls 
enjoyed  services  regularly  once  a  month.  The  con- 
gregation    was     organized     November      10,     1874,     with 


twent)'-four  members,  at  which  time  Robert  Paisley, 
John  Cook  and  J.  D.  McAnlis  were  chosen  ruling 
elders.  Rev.  Robert  J.  George,  the  present  pastor, 
was  installed  in  June,  1875.  The  same  year  they 
purchased  a  frame  building,  which  has  since  been 
replaced  by  the  present  comfortable  and  beautiful 
edifice.  Mission  and  pastoral  work  have  rendered  this  a 
most  flourishing  congregation  and  a  center  of  influence 
in  the  Church.  Since  the  organization,  W.  R.  Sterrett, 
R.  A.  and  R.  J.  Bole,  and  William  Pearce  have  been 
added   to    the    eldership. 


Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny.  The  vicinity  of  these 
two  cities  was  very  early  settled  by  an  element  strongly  im- 
bued with  Presbyterianism,  and  a  few  Covenanters  removed 
into  this  region  from  beyond  the  sea  and  the  Allegheny 
mountains.  The  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  speaks  of  being 
in  Pittsburgh  in  the  fall  of  1779,  but  mentions  no 
names.  Previous  to  1797,  the  most  of  the  Covenanters 
resided  at  the  "forks  of  the  Yough."  In  the  fall  of 
1799,  and  shortly  after  his  licensure,  the  Rev.  John 
Black  was  assigned  to  labor  among  the  societies  west 
of  the  Allegheny  mountains  and  in  the  vicinity  of 
these  cities.  When  Mr.  Black  first  came  to  this  part 
of  the  country  as  a  preacher,  he  settled  on  a  farm 
about  twelve  miles  east  of  Pittsburgh,  in  what  was 
known  as  the  Thompson  Run  society.  On  the  corner 
of  this  farm  a  log  church  was  built  and  a  graveyard 
surrounded  it.  He  afterwards  removed  to  the  city  of 
Pittsburgh,  and  the  property  was  held  by  Synod.  A 
congregation   centering    around    Pittsburgh  was  organized 


under  the  general  name  of  "Ohio,"  and  Rev.  John  Black 
was  installed  the  pastor,  December  i8,  1800."  The 
services  at  the  ordination  were  held  in  the  old  Court 
House  on  Market  street  west  of  the  Diamond,  Pitts- 
burgh, and  were  conducted  by  Revs.  James  McKinney 
and  Samuel  B.  Wylie,  For  two  or  three  years  the 
congregation  worshipped  in  the  old  Court  House  and 
also  in  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church  at  the  corner 
of  Sixth  and  Smithfield  streets.  In  1803,  the  famous 
Oak  Alley  church  was  built,  which  stands  near  Liberty 
street  and  not  far  from  the  present  Union  Depot, 
Here  the  congregation  harmoniously  worshipped  for 
thirty  years.  Among  the  first  corps  of  elders  were 
John  Hodge,  William  Gormley,  John  Armstrong,  John 
Aikin,  John  Cowan,  James  McVickars  and  Thomas. 
Smith.  In  after  years  there  were  added  to  the  session 
Alexander  Harvey  and  Samuel  Henry.  At  the  division 
of  the  Church  in  August,  1833,  Dr.  Black,  and  the 
great  majority  of  the  members,  departed  from  the 
distinctive  principles  of  the  Church  and  went  into  the 
New  School  body.  They  also  retained  the  church 
property.  In  fact  there  were  only  about  thirteen 
members  who  adhered  to  the  principles,  and  they  were 
of  the  poor  and  less  influential  of  the  former  con- 
gregation. From  these  few  and  poor,  but  true,  witnesses 
of  the  Reformation,  four  large  and  wealthy  congrega- 
tions have  sprung,  while  the  New  School  brethren  are 
about     extinct     in     Pittsburgh.       The     congregation    was 

*Rev.  J.  W.  Sproull  in  R.  P.  &-  C,  1884,  p.  173.  Memoir  of  Dr.  A. 
McLeod,  p.  51.  Presbyterian  Historical  Aliiianac,  Vol.  2,  p.  182  ;  Vol.  5,  p. 
404.     Dr.  Sproull's  Sketches. 


re-organized  September  9,  1833,  with  thirteen  members. 
On  the  first  Sabbath  of  December,  1833,  the  first 
communion  was  conducted  by  Revs.  John  Cannon, 
James  Blackwood  and  Thomas  Sproull,  and  the  services 
were  held  in  the  Associate  Reformed  Church  in 
Allegheny.  One  hundred  and  twenty  communicants 
sat  down  at  the  table  of  the  Lord,  and  they  were 
collected  from  the  societies  in  the  vicinity.  Samuel 
Henry  and  Alexander  Harvey  were  the  only  elders 
who  adhered  to  the  principles,  and  they  were  continued 
in  office  in  the  new  organization.  Rev.  Thomas  Sproull 
was  installed  the  pastor,  May  12,  1834.  Being  without 
a  church  building,  for  two  years  they  worshipped  in 
other  churches  and  halls,  and,  after  a  good  deal  of 
discussion  about  a  location,  they  finally  agreed  to  erect 
a  church  at  the  corner  of  Lacock  and  Sandusky 
streets  in  Allegheny,  which  they  did  in  1836.  Andrew 
Gormley  insisted  that  they  should  erect  the  church  in 
Pittsburgh,  because  if  they  did  not  they  would  lose 
the  Oak  Alley  property  which  rightfully  belonged  tO' 
them.  When  the  case  came  into  the  civil  courts  and 
was  tried  in  1855,  Andrew  Gormley  was  found  to  be 
correct,  and  the  rightful  owners  lost  the  property  by 
a  change  of  name  and  location.  There  is  something 
in_  a  name.  William  Haslett,  John  Campbell,  Hugh 
Harvey  and  William  Adams  were  added  to  the  session,. 
October  i,  1836.  For  thirty  years  the  congregation 
continued  to  worship  in  the  old  church  in  Allegheny, 
during  which  time  James  Carson,  Robert  Adams, 
Robert  McKrtight,  H.  A.  Johnston,  David  Gregg,  George 
Boggs,  Thomas    Newell,    Daniel    Euwer,    Henry    Stewart, 

302  HIsrORV    OF    THE    REFORMED 

Isaac  McKenry,  W.  C.  Bovard,  John  Boggs  and  William 
Wills  were  added  to  the  eldership.  In  October,  1865, 
fifty-eight  members  were  certified  to  form  the  Pitts- 
burgh congregation,  and  Robert  Glasgow,  Alexander 
and  Robert  Adams  were  chosen  ruling  elders.  Rev. 
A.  M.  Milligan  became  the  first  pastor  of  the  newly 
organized  Pittsburgh  congregation  in  May,  1866.  They 
worshipped  for  a  short  time  in  the  City  Hall,  and  for 
four  years  in  the  Fourth  Ward  School  House  on  Penn 
street.  In  1870,  the  present  commodious  church  build- 
ing on  Eighth  street,  below  Penn,  was  erected.  In 
1866,  Dr.  S.  A.  Sterrett  and  John  A.  McKee,  and  in 
1 87 1,  Daniel  Euwer  and  Robert  McKnight  were  added 
to  the  session.  Subsequently  Samuel  McNaugher  and 
Samuel  M.  Orr  were  chosen  elders.  P^or  nineteen 
years  Dr.  Milligan  preached  with  great  power  and 
success  in  Pittsburgh.  His  health  failed  in  1884,  and 
he  died  of  an  incurable  disease  in  May,  1885.  In 
October,  1887,  Rev.  David  McAllister  was  installed 
pastor.  The  congregation  sustains  a  mission  in 
Allegheny,  a  school  for  Chinese  and  mutes,  and  has 
a  flourishing  Sabbath  School.  This  is  one  of  the 
largest,  wealthiest  and  most  influential  congregations  in 
the  Church.  Among  other  influential  members  aside 
from  the  eldership  are  James  R.  McKee,  John  ,  R. 
Gregg,  James  S.  Arthurs,  John  Tibby,  Matthew  Tibby, 
John  D.  Carson,  Dr.  William  Hamilton,  Daniel  Chestnut, 
James  McAteer,  John  Hice,  Samuel  Sloane,  William  M. 
Dauerty,  James  Martin,  John  Hanna,  John  Ross,  Robert 
•Carson,  Robert  Gray.  After  the  organization  of  the 
Pittsburgh    congregation    in     1865,     the     Allegheny    con- 


gregation  continued  to  worship  in  the  old  church  at 
the  corner  of  Lacock  and  Sandusky  streets,  and  had 
about  three  hundred  and  fifty  members.  In  December, 
1868,  they  removed  to  the  present  large  church 
building  at  the  corner  of  Sandusky  and  Diamond 
streets.  Dr.  Sproull  resigned  the  charge  in  October, 
1868.  For  two  years  the  congregation  was  vacant, 
and  in  the  meantime  a  division  occurred,  resulting  in 
the  organization  of  the  Central  Allegheny  congregation, 
October  24,  1870.  The  Rev.  David  B.  Willson  was 
installed  pastor  of  the  Allegheny  congregation  in 
November,  1870,  and  they  continued  to  worship  in  the 
new  church.  Rev.  John  W.  Sproull  was  installed 
pastor  of  the  Central  Allegheny  congregation  in  April, 
1 87 1,  and  they  worshipped  in  the  chapel  of  the  United 
Presbyterian  Seminary  until  the  occupation  of  the 
present  church  on  Sandusky  street  below  Ohio.  Among 
the  elders  in  this  congregation  are  David  Gregg,  Robert 
Gibson,  John  and  Robert  Aikin,  William  Anderson, 
Hugh  McKee,  Matthew  Steele,  John  Logan,  Henry 
Stewart,  William  Haslett  and  Theophilus  Sproull.  Rev. 
D.  B.  Willson  resigned  the  Allegheny  congregation  in 
October,  1875.  Rev.  J.  R.  W.  Sloane  was  installed 
pastor  in  June,  1877,  and  continued  in  this  relation,  in 
addition  to  his  Seminary  work,  until  his  health  failed, 
and  he  was  released  in  May,  1884.  The  Rev.  J.  R. 
J.  Milligan,  the  present  pastor,  was  ordained  and 
installed  in  October,  1885.  Among  the  elders  and 
members  in  this  congregation  were  John  and  James 
l^og^gs,  James  B.  McKee,  Daniel  Euwer,  John  T. 
Morton,    James    Best,    William    Martin,    John   C.    McKee, 


Martin  Prenter,  Robert  Morton,  Clark  Morton,  "Isaac 
Taylor,  David  A.  Grier,  James  McFall,  Donald  M.. 
Sloane,  John  Allen,  James  Patterson,  Prof.  McAnlis, 
James  Knox,  William  Boggs.  The  Central  congrega- 
tion is  conducting  a  mission  school  at  Spring  Garden, 
in  the  north-eastern  part  of  Allegheny.  In  November,. 
1887,  a  congregation  was  organized  in  the  East  End, 
Pittsburgh,  and  a  flourishing  Sabbath  School  is  being 
conducted.  Among  the  ofificers  in  this  new  congrega- 
tion are  John  C.  Calderwood,  Alexander  M.  Denholm, 
William  Blair,  J.  Calvin  Ewing,  Samuel  Denholm  and 
Thomas  C.  Johnston.  In  the  congregations  of  Allegheny 
and  Pittsburgh  there  are  about  eight  hundred  members, 
closely  attached  to  the  principles  of  the  Church,, 
abundant  in  labors  and  liberal  supporters  of  the  gospel. 
There  is  a  strong  and  healthy  element  of  Covenan- 
terism  around  Pittsburgh,  which  gives  tone  to  the 
cause  and  influence  to  the  Church  in  that  vicinity.. 
WiLKINSBURGH.  Mainly  through  the  instrumentality 
of  Hugh  Boyd  and  James  Kelly,  a  house  of  worship  was 
erected  in  this  village  in  1845,  ^'"id  a  congregation 
organized  in  the  summer  of  1848.  They  had  formerly 
belonged  to  the  Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny  congregation,, 
and  now  included  the  preaching  station  of  Deer  Creek. 
The  R^v.  Thomas  Hanna  was  stated  supply  for  some 
time,  and  they  also  enjoyed  the  labors  of  the  young 
men  of  the  Church.  The  Rev.  Joseph  Hunter  was 
installed  pastor  in  April,  1852,  and  continued  in  this 
relation  thirty  years.  The  Rev.  W.  W.  Carithers  was 
installed  pastor  in  June,  1883,  and  is  in  charge.  The 
congregation     has    erected    a     neat    parsonage     and     soon 


will  build  a  new  church  edificq.  Among  the  elders  and 
prominent  members  in  Wilkinsburgh  have  been  James 
Kelly,  Hugh  and  John  Boyd,  Robert  Bovard,  Samuel 
Henning,  Samuel  Henry,  W.  J.  Dougherty,  Dr.  Wads- 
worth,  David  Osborn,  Hugh  Dean,  William  Wills, 
William  Blair,  Thomas  Newell,  Robert  Barr,  Thomas 
Black,  A.  C.  Coulter,  William  Wylie,  W.  M.  Pierce, 
James  Barron,   J.  D.  McCune,  Isaac  Kitchen,    and  others. 

McKeesport.  For  many  years  this  was  a  branch  of 
the  Monongahela  congregation,  and  enjoyed  the  labors 
respectively  of  Revs.  John  Crozier,  J.  W.  Sproull,  T.  C. 
Sproull  and  W.  J.  Coleman.  It  was  organized  into  a 
separate  congregation  in  April,  1882,  and  for  three  years 
was  supplied  by  Presbytery.  Rev.  Joseph  H.  Wylie  was 
the  first  pastor,  installed  in  June,  1885,  and  released  in 
June,  1887.  The  congregation  for  many  years  worshipped 
in  a  school-house,  and  a  few  years  ago  secured  a  good 
church  building  in  an  eligible  location.  Among  the 
members  are  S.  O.  Lowry,  John  McConnell,  James 
Gemmil,  Thomas  Adams,  J.  G.  McElroy,  Knox  C.  Hill, 
Joseph  Steele,  William  McCarthy,  Joseph  L.  Stewart, 
David  H.  Sarver,  James  Bell,  John  Jenkins,  William 
Littlejohn,    William  McCaw,  G.  W.  Warren. 

Monongahela.  This  congregation  occupies  a  promi- 
nent place  in  the  history  of  the  Church,  and  in  early 
times  was  distributed  over  a  large  area  of  country  lying 
along  the  Monongahela  and  Youghiogheny  rivers,  some 
twenty  miles  south-east  of  the  city  of  Pittsburgh.  The 
central  point  was  the  "'  forks  of  the  Yough,"  as  the  space 
between  these  two  rivers,  and  for  a  considerable  distance 
.above  their  confluence,  was  denominated.     Other  branches 


were  Jefferson,  ten  miles  north-east;  Redstone,  thirt)' 
miles  south-east;  and  Miller's  Run  in  Washington  County. 
Under  "  Monongahela "  will  be  considered  the  history  of 
Covenanterism  principally  in  Elizabeth  Township,  Alle- 
gheny County."  Perhaps  the  earliest  settlement  was  in 
1769,  when  James  Willson,  and  his  son  Zaccheus,  left  the 
Cove  Mountain  east  of  the  Alleghenies,  and  settled  in 
this  vicinity.  The  following  year,  accompanied  by  Robert 
McConneil,  Mr.  Willson  removed  to  the  "forks  of  the 
Yough."  Soon  after  this  they  were  joined  by  the 
families  of  Robert  and  Matthew  Jamison,  Andrew 
McMeans  and  Matthew  Mitchell,  and  a  praying  society 
was  formed.  The  Rev.  John  Cuthbertson  made  his  first 
and  only  tour  to  this  region  in  the  autumn  of  1779. 
On  the  evening  of  September  17,  1779,  he  arrived  at 
the  house  of  Mr.  Simpson,  at  the  "forks  of  the  Yough," 
and  on  the  next  day  rode  to  the  homes  of  Colonel  Cook 
and  Zaccheus  Willson.  On  the  Sabbath  he  preached  in 
a  tent  on  the  farm  of  Zaccheus  Willson,  and  baptized 
Mary,  daughter  of  Robert  Jamison.  On  Monday  he  rode 
five  miles  down  the  Yough  to  Joseph  Caldwell's  and 
Joseph  Morton's,  and  on  September  21,  he  preached  and 
baptized  Thomas  and  Elizabeth,  children  of  Charles 
Boal.  He  also  visited  James  Finney  and  David  Robinson. 
On  the  next  Sabbath,  September  26,  1779,  he  preached 
at  the  house  of  John  Drennen,  and  baptized  Susan, 
daughter  of  Josiah  Willson;  James,  son  of  Aaron  Willson; 
Hannah,  daughter  of  Joseph  Laughead;  David  and  Martha, 
children  of  John  Drennen;  and  Susannah,  daughter  of 
James  Patterson.  On  Monday  he  visited  the  homes  of 
'* Covenanter,  Vol.  2,  p.  152.     Cuthbertson's  Diary. 


Matthew  Mitchell  and  John  Reed,  on  the  Monongahela, 
and  then  passed  over  into  Washington  County.  He 
returned  to  the  house  of  John  Reed  on  October  3,  and 
preached  near  by  and  baptized  John,  son  of  John  Reed. 
He  then  went  back  to  Washington  County  with  John 
Reed.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  appears  to  have  returned  the 
second  time  to  the  "forks  of  the  Yough,"  preaching  to  and 
catechizing  fifty  persons.  He  also  baptized  William,  son 
of  Matthew  Mitchell;  Janet,  daughter  of  Ebenezer 
Mitchell;  Isabel,  daughter  of  John  Mitchell.  He  then 
went  again  to  Miller's  Run.  On  Sabbath,  October  17, 
he  passed  this  way  on  his  road  home  and  preached,  and 
baptized  Martha,  daughter  of  James  Finney;  Hannah, 
Sarah  and  William,  children  of  John  Robinson.  He  then 
returned  to  Eastern  Pennsylvania  and  never  visited  this 
region  again.  It  would  appear  from  Mr.  Cuthbertson's 
diary  that  the  principal  Covenanter  families  in  this 
vicinity  in  1779,  were  those  of  James  Simpson,  Zaccheus, 
James,  Josiah  and  Aaron  Willson,  Joseph  Laughead, 
Joseph  Caldwell,  John  Drennen,  Thomas  Morton,  James 
Patterson,  Robert  and  Matthew  Jamison,  Andrew  Mc- 
Means,  Matthew,  John  and  Ebenezer  Mitchell,  James 
Finney.  John  Reed,  Charles  Boal,  David  and  John 
Robinson.  At  the  union  of  1782,  the  whole  society, 
with  the  exception  of  the  single  family  of  James  Finney, 
went  •  into  the  Associate  Reformed  Church.  Soon  Mr. 
Finney  was  joined  by  the  families  of  John  Laughead 
and  Mrs.  Parkhill  from  over  the  mountains.  For  ten 
years  they  lived  without  public  preaching  and  maintained 
the  principles  of  the  Church.  In  1792,  they  were  cheered 
by   a  visit  from  the   Rev.   William   King,  who  had  recently 


emigrated  to  South  Carolina.  In  1794,  the  Rev.  James 
McKinney  vi.sited  them,  and  aroused  such  an  interest  by 
his  eloquence,  that  as  many  as  three  thousand  persons 
gathered  to  hear  him  from  all  parts  of  the  country.  In 
the  autumn  of  1799,  the  Rev.  John  Black,  then  a  licen- 
tiate, was  sent  to  the  region  beyond  the  Alleghenies. 
He  was  ordained  in  December,  1800,  as  pastor  of  all 
the  societies  in  the  vicinity  of  Pittsburgh,  and  gave  part 
of  his  time  to  Monongahela.  John  Drennen  and  Zaccheus 
Willson  returned  to  the  Covenanter  Church,  and  the 
society  was  now  joined  by  Samuel  Wylie,  Benjamin 
Brown,  William  Madill,  and  others.  The  services  were 
usually  held  at  the  house  of  James  Finney,  on  the  bank 
of  the  Monongahela.  In  1801,  the  society  was  regularly 
organized,  and  James  Finney  and  Zaccheus  Willson  were 
chosen  ruling  elders.  The  first  communion  was  held  in 
1802,  and  was  conducted  by  John  Black  and  Samuel  B. 
Wylie.  The  services  were  held  in  a  grove  near  the 
"forks  of  the  Yough."  and  a  large  number  of  commu- 
nicants from  all  the  western  Counties  a.ssembled  at  the 
feast.  Another  communion  was  held  by  the  same 
ministers  on  the  farm  of  Samuel  Scott,  about  eight  miles 
south  of  Pittsburgh,  and  here  the  Rev.  Samuel  B.  Wylie 
preached  his  celebrated  sermons,  "The  Two  Sons  of  Oil" 
and  "  Covenanting."*  Soon  the  congregation  so  rapidly 
increased,  that,  in  1806,  Dr.  Black  divided  his  extensive 
charge  and  continued  to  supply  people.  The 
session  was  then  increased  by  the  election  of  Samuel 
Wylie,  John  Anderson  and  William  Gormley,  ruling  elders. 
In    the  Redstone    settlement    were    the    Parkhills;    and   at 

*Dr.   Sproull's  Sketches. 


the  "  Sanhedrim,"  or  Mifflin  society,  were  the  families 
of  WilHam  McElree,  James  Tennent  and  David  Love. 
The  first  pastor  of  Monongahela  and  Canonsburgh  was 
the  Rev.  William  Gibson,  who  was  installed  in  the  fall 
•of  181 7.  He  remained  in  this  relation  for  nine  years. 
In  the  fall  of  1827,  the  Rev.  Gordon  T.  Ewing  was 
installed  pastor.  His  health  was  very  poor  and  he 
resigned  in  May,  1830,  and  returned  to  Ireland.  During 
the  controversy  and  division  of  the  Church  in  1833, 
they  were  left  without  a  pastor,  but  they  were  so  well 
grounded  in  the  principles  of  the  Church,  that  very  few, 
if  any,  left  the  communion.  The  Rev.  John  Crozier 
was  installed  pastor  in  May,  1834,  and  remained  in 
this  relation  for  thirty-one  years,  and  until  his  release 
in  April,  1865.  Rev.  John  W.  Sproull  was  installed  in 
April,  1866,  and  released  in  April,  1871.  Rev.  T.  C. 
Sproull  was  the  pastor  from  October,  1871,  until  May, 
1876.  Rev.  W.  J.  Coleman  was  installed  in  June,  1879, 
and  released  in  July,  1881.  Rev.  John  M.  Wylie  was 
installed  in  April,  1883,  and  released  in  April,  1884. 
Rev.  Robert  Reed  was  stated  supply  for  some  time. 
By  emigration  and  death,  the  cause  which  one  hundred 
years  ago  was  so  flourishing,  is  now  languishing  at  the 
"  forks  of  the  Yough."  Among  the  old  families  and 
■elders  of  this  historic  congregation  might  be  named 
Zaccheus  and  John  Z.  Willson,  Samuel  Wylie,  James, 
William  and  Robert  Finney,  Thomas  Reynolds,  Walter 
McCrea,  Samuel  Rodgers,  William,  James  and  David 
Parkhill,  James  Patterson,  John  Huston,  John  Elliot,  Sr., 
John  Elliott,  Jr.,  John  and  William  McConnell,  R.  C. 
McKee    and    John    S.    Patterson. 


Miller's  Run.  Previous  to  the  year  1842,  this 
congregation  was  a  part  of  Monongahela,  and  was 
settled  about  the  same  time.  The  Rev.  John  Cuthbert- 
son  visited  "Shirtee"  (Chartiers)  in  September,  1779, 
and  found  the  families  of  Alexander  McConnell,  James 
Scott,  George  Marcus  and  Samuel  Willson  in  this 
vicinity.  He  preached  at  the  house  of  John  McGlaughlin 
and  baptized  James,  son  of  James  McGlaughlin  ;  Francis 
and  John,  sons  of  Matthew  McConnell ;  Sarah  and 
Mary,  daughters  of  Robert  Walker.  On  September  4. 
1779,  accompanied  by  John  Reed,  Mr.  Cuthbertson 
rode  to  his  "Plantation"  which  he  had  previously 
bought.  This  farm  was  situated  near  West  Middleton,  and 
was  occupied  by  his  son  John,  who  was  a  physician, 
and  his  only  daughter  lived  with  him.  It  was  known 
as  the  Cuthbertson  farm,  and  the  daughter  lived  there 
until  her  death  in  1835.  After  a  visit  again  to  the 
"forks  of  the  Yough,"  Mr.  Cuthbertson  preached  at 
the  house  of  Samuel  Willson  and  baptized  Elizabeth,, 
daughter  of  Samuel  Willson  ;  John  and  Margaret,, 
children  of  Samuel  Scott.  From  this  diary  it  is  prob- 
able to  reckon  that  the  principal  families  in  Washing- 
ton County,  in  1779,  were  those  of  Alexander  and 
Matthew  McConnell,  James  and  Samuel  Scott,  George 
Marcus,  Samuel  Willson,  John  and  James  McGlaughlin, 
William  Patterson  and  Robert  Walker.  In  1782,  all 
these  went  into  the  Associate  Reformed  Church  and 
were  the  nucleus  of  the  present  United  Presbyterian 
congregations  in  that  vicinity.  In  1794.  the  Rev. 
James    McKinney    visited    this    region    and    found    a    few 


families  of  Covenanters  who  had  recently  moved  in, 
and  organized  them  into  a  society.  In  1799,  and  for 
many  years  thereafter,  the  Rev.  John  Black  preached 
in  this  settlement.  The  congregation  took  the  name 
of  Canonsburgh  in  1806,  and  was  a  part  of  Dr.  Black's 
charge,  but  he  soon  confined  his  labors  to  Pittsburgh. 
In  1808,  a  log  •  church  was  erected  in  the  village  of 
Canonsburgh,  which  had  now  become  famous  as  the 
seat  of  Jefferson  College,  and  a  lot  for  a  burial  ground 
surrounded  the  old  church.*  In  1809,  the  Rev.  David 
Graham  began  to  supply  them.  He  was  a  most 
eloquent  preacher,  and,  in  18 10,  they  gave  him  a 
unanimous  call  to  become  their  pastor,  which  he 
accepted.  Before  his  installation,  however,  some  charges 
were  brought  against  him,  and,  in  181 1,  he  was  deposed. 
He  joined  the  Associate  Reformed  Church  for  a  while, 
and  many  of  the  Covenanters  followed  him  into  that 
body,  plainly  declaring  that  they  were  more  attached 
to  the  man  than  they  were  to  their  principles.  They 
mostly  returned  to  the  faith  of  their  fathers.  Among 
the  early  families  were  those  of  John  Slater  and 
Robert  George,  who  have  numerous  descendants  in  the 
Church  of  that  County.  Uniting  with  Monongahela, 
Canonsburgh  succeeded  in  obtaining  the  Rev.  William 
Gibson  as  pastor  in  October,  18 17,  who  was  released 
in  May,  1826.  In  October,  1827,  the  Rev.  Gordon  T. 
Ewing  became  the  pastor.  He  was  a  popular  preacher 
and  had  a  prosperous  following.  At  his  suggestion 
the  old  log  church  in  Canonsburgh  was  torn  down 
with    the    design  of    building  a  new  church.     His   health 

*  History  of  Washington  County,  Pennsylvania. 


failing,  he  resigned  the  charge  in  May,  1830,  and 
upon  the  foundation  laid  for  the  church  a  dwelling 
was  afterwards  erected.  It  stood  on  the  west  side  of 
Main  street  and  a  few  graves  may  yet  be  seen  at 
the  west  end  of  the  lot.*  In  May,  1834,  the  Rev. 
John  Crozier  became  the  pastor.  In  1835,  the  church 
site  was  changed  from  Canonsburgh  to  the  present 
location  five  miles  north,  and  a  neat  brick  church  was 
erected.  The  congregation  now  became  known  as 
Miller's  Run,  because  the  first  preaching  in  this 
locality  was  conducted  at  the  house  of  Mr.  George  near 
this  stream.  In  October,  1842,  Mr.  Crozier  was  released 
from  this  branch  of  his  extensive  charge.  In  May, 
1843,  the  Rev.  William  Slater  was  ordained  and 
installed  the  pastor,  and  continued  uninterrupted  in 
this  relation  for  forty-four  years,  and  until  his  resigna- 
tion in  April,  1887.  In  1870,  the  old  brick  church 
was  removed,  and  the  present  commodious  frame 
structure  was  built  on  the  site.  Miller's  Run  is  a 
strong  congregation.  They  have  been  thoroughly 
indoctrinated  in  the  truths  of  the  Bible  and  the 
principles  of  the  Covenanter  Church.  Among  the  old 
families,  and  who  have  descenda'nts  now  in  connection 
with  the  Church,  are  those  by  the  names  of  George, 
Slater,  Scott,  Roney,  Orr,  Wallace,  Hunter,  Ramsey, 
Maxwell,  Toner,  Houston,  Thompson,  Robb,  McBurney, 
Walker,    Conner,    Burnside,    McFarland,    and    others. 


Middle    Wheeling.       This      small      congregation    is 
located     in     the     "Pan-handle,"    east     of     the     city     of 
*  History  of  Washington  County,  Pennsylvania. 


Wheeling,  and  not  far  from  the  Pennsylvania  line. 
The  settlement  was  made  about  1825,  and,  as  a  part 
of  the  Canonsburgh  and  Miller's  Run  congregation, 
this  neighborhood  was  occasionally  visited  by  the  Revs. 
Gordon  T.  Ewing  from  1827  until  1830;  by  John 
Crozier  from  1834  until  1842;  and  by  William  Slater 
from  1843  until  April,  i860,  when  it  was  organized  as 
a  distinct  congregation.  The  Rev.  Armour  McFarland 
was  installed  for  a  part  of  his  time  in  April,  1866, 
and  demitted  this  branch  in  April,  1873.  The  Rev. 
Samuel  R.  McClurkin,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed 
in  September,  1876.  They  possess  a  neat  and  comfort- 
able house  of  worship  recently  erected.  Among  the 
eldership  and  members  of  this  congregation  have  been 
John  Roney,  Alexander,  James,'  Creighton  C.  and  T. 
J.  Orr,  Samuel  McCoy,  John  Cochran    and  James  Roney. 

YOUNGSTOWN.  This  congregation  has  been  known 
at  different  times  by  different  names ;  first  as  Austin- 
town,  then  Poland  and  North  Jackson,  and  finally  as 
Youngstown.  The  congregation  is  situated  principally 
in  Columbiana  and  Mahoning  Counties,  Ohio,  and  along 
the  Pennsylvania  line.  Austintown  was  a  branch  of 
the  Little  Beaver  congregation  as  early  as  18 14,, 
and  enjoyed  the  labors  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Gibsom 
from  1 8 19  to  1830,  and  those  of  the  Rev.  George 
Scott  from  1831  until  1833,  when  he,  and  a  part  of 
the  congregation,  went  into  the  New  School  body. 
In     1834,     the     congregation    was    attached    to     Slippery 

314  -      HISTORY   OF   THE    REFORMED 

Rock  under  the  pastoral  care  of  the  Rev.  James 
Blackwood.  The  elders  at  this  time  were  William 
Guthrie  and  John  Ewing.  In  1838,  Austintown  and 
Little  Beaver  formed  a  separate  congregation,  and  the 
first  pastor  was  the  Rev.  Joseph  W.  Morton  from 
1845  until  1847.  In  1848,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Sterrett 
became  the  pastor  of  the  united  charge.  Austintown 
became  a  separate  congregation  in  May,  i860,  and 
Mr.  Sterrett  continued  in  charge  until  his  release  in 
October,  1867.  Rev.  Robert  J.  George  was  the  next 
pastor  installed  in  May,  1870,  and  released  in  April, 
1875.  Rev.  T.  C.  Sproull  was  installed  in  July,  1876, 
and  released  in  July,  1879.  For  six  years  they  enjoyed 
occasional  supplies  in  Poland  and  North  Jackson,  but 
were  so  reduced  in  nnmbers  by  emigration  that  they 
£ould  not  support  a  pastor.  In  October,  1885,  they 
were  re-organized  as  the  Youngstown  congregation  and 
the  principal  place  of  preaching  is  in  this  city.  They 
Tiave  secured  a  hall,  and  Rev.  H.  W.  Reed  was 
installed  pastor  in  May,  1888.  Among  the  elders 
and  leading  members  in  this  congregation  have  been 
William  and  John  Guthrie,  John  and  Gibson  Ewing, 
George  Hamilton,  J.  B.  Jordan,  J.  E.  Gault,  W.  S. 
Kernohan,  W.  R.  Sterrett,  William  McConnell,  and 

Greenfield.  This  congregation  was  situated  in 
Harrison  County,  and  included  the  adjacent  societies  of 
Londonderry,  McMahon's  Creek,  Salt  Fork  and  Steu- 
benville.  Covenanters  settled  in  this  region  as  early 
as  1806,  mostly  emigrants  from  Western  Pennsylvania. 
The     congregation     was     not     regularly     organized     until 


about  1822.  The  first  pastor  was  the  Rev.  William 
Sloane,  installed  in  November,  1829,  and  released  in 
October,  1838.  Rev.  James  Love  was  installed  in  June, 
1839,  and  released  in  May,  1847.  The  congregation 
soon  diminished,  and,  in  1849,  was  dropped  from  the 
roll  and  soon  became  extinct.  Nathan  Johnston,  James 
McKinney,  Thomas  McFetridge,  Joseph  Boyd,  James 
Kirk,  William  Pollock,  James  W.  Thomson,  Matthew 
Wilkin,  George  Orr,  James  Herron,  James  Darrah, 
John  Adams  and  Thomas  Patton  were  among  the 
leading    members. 

Londonderry  and  North  Salem.  Early  in  the 
present  century  a  few  families  of  Covenanters  settled 
in  Guernsey  County  and  were  occasionally  visited  by 
a  passing  minister.  The  congregation  was  organized 
about  1822,  and  included  many  branches  with  those 
farther  east  in  Harrison  County.  Rev.  William  Sloane 
became  the  first  pastor  in  November,  1829,  and  remained 
in  this  relation  nine  years.  In  June,  1839,  the  Rev. 
James  Love  succeeded  him  in  the  pastorate,  and 
remained  in  this  branch  until  October,  1864.  Rev, 
James  A.  Thompson  was  installed  in  October,  1866, 
and  released  in  September,  1875.  In  April,  1879,  the 
North  Salem  branch  received  a  separate  organization, 
and,  in  1880,  the  Rev.  James  R.  Latimer  became  the 
pastor  of  the  united  charges.  He  resigned  in  May, 
1882,  since  which  time  they  have  not  had  a  settled 
pastor.  Among  the  old  and  prominent  families  here 
are  those  by  the  names  of  Hutcheson,  Galbraith, 
Kernohan,    Walkinshaw,  Law,   Martin,  Cairns,    Thompson, 


Forsythe,  Glasgow,  Love,  Reed,   McKee,  Logan,  Walker^ 
Blackwood,    Moffett,    and    others. 

Brownsville,  This  small  congregation  was  located 
in  Monroe  County,  and  was  supplied  many  years  pre- 
vious to  its  organization  in  1854.  Previous  to  that 
date,  and  until  his  death  in  October,  1856,  the  Rev. 
Oliver  Wylie  was  stated  supply.  In  August,  1859,. 
the  Rev,  James  A.  Thompson  became  the  pastor  and 
was  released  in  June,  1865,  For  ten  years  they  were 
occasionally  supplied  by  Rev,  Armour  McFarland,. 
and  others.  In  September,  1876,  the  Rev,  Samuel 
R,  McClurkin  was  installed  for  part  of  his  time,  but 
was  released  in  the  following  year,  and  occasionally 
supplied  it.  The  cause  is  now  about  extinct.  John 
Barber,  Henry  Boyd,  John  McKaige,  Robert  AUen^ 
John  Adams,  James  Waltenbaugh,  Joseph  Eakman  and 
William   J.  Anderson  were    among  the  leading  members. 

New  Concord.  This  flourishing  congregation  is 
situated  in  the  eastern  part  of  Muskingum  County^ 
and,  until  1871,  was  known  as  Salt  Creek,  The  first 
Covenanter  known  to  settle  in  this  vicinity  was 
Matthew  Mitchell,  who  came  with  his  family  from  the 
"forks  of  the  Yough,"  in  Pennsylvania,  in  1804.*  In 
1 8 10,  John  Jamison  came  from  the  same  region,  and 
in  18 1 2,  William  Robinson  and  Neal  McNaughton 
emigrated  from  Conococheague  and  settled  on  Salt 
Creek,  twelve  miles  south  of  New  Concord.  In  18 14, 
Samuel  McCutcheon  emigrated  from  Ireland  and  settled 
about  six  miles  below  New  Concord.  These  families 
constituted    a    praying    society    and    unfurled    the    banner 

*Dr.  H.  P.  McClurkin  in  Banner,  1876,  p.  169. 


of  the  Covenant.  They  were  occasionally  visited  by 
Revs.  John  Black  and  Matthew  Williams.  In  the  sum- 
mer of  1 8 14,  Rev.  Robert  Wallace,  who  is  the  father 
of  Covenanterism  in  Ohio,  began  missionary  work 
principally  at  Utica  and  Chillicothe.  In  181 5,  he 
providentially  met  Neal  McNaughton,  at  a  hotel  in^ 
Zanesville,  who  took  him  to  his  home  where  Mr.. 
Wallace  preached  the  following  Sabbath.  The  society 
continued  to  grow  under  his  occasional  ministrations 
until  the  organization  of  the  congregation  in  June,. 
1 82 1,  by  the  election  of  John  Auld  and  John  Jami- 
son ruling  elders.  The  communion  was  soon  after- 
wards dispensed  and  Mr.  Wallace  was  assisted  by  the 
Rev.  Charles  B.  McKee.  The  services  were  held  in 
the  woods  near  the  farm  of  Mr.  McCutcheon,  and  the- 
following  forty  members  communed  at  the  first  sacra- 
ment: John  and  Mary  Auld  ;  John  and  Margaret  Jamison  ; 
Mrs.  Black ;  Robert  and  Elizabeth  Brown ;  Matthew, 
Mary,  Rachel  and  Rebecca  Calhoun;  Betsy  Cunningham;. 
Eleanor  Forsythe ;  Alexander  and  Mrs.  George  ;. 
Matthew,  Sr.,  Matthew,  Jr.,  and  Mrs.  Mitchell;  Samuel,. 
Isabel,  Sr.,  Isabel,  Jr.,  James  and  Anna  McCutcheon  ; 
Neal  and  Mary  NcNaughton  ;  William  Robinson  ; 
Joseph,  Ann,  James  and  Jane  Sterrett ;  Thomas,  Mary, 
Sr.,  Mary,  Jr.,  William,  James  and  Archibald  Steven- 
son ;  David  and  Mary  Sim ;  Jacob  and  Anna  Wortman.- 
All  these  are  now  dead.  In  October,  1823,  Mr. 
Wallace  was  installed  pastor,  and  also  preached  at 
Jonathan's  Creek,  Muskingum,  Tomica  and  Will's  Creek. 
Mr.  Wallace  died  in  July,  1849.  In  October,  1850,  the 
Rev.    Hugh    P.    McClurkin    was     installed,  and    remained 


almost  nuinterruptedly  for  thirty-two  years,  and  until  his 
release  in  October,  1882.  The  Rev.  James  M.  Paris, 
the  present  pastor,  was  installed  in  July,  1884.  Among 
the  many  officers  who  have  served  in  this  congrega- 
tion are  John  Auld,  John  Jamison,  David  and  Benja- 
min Wallace,  David  Hawthorne,  Richard  and  Thomas 
McGee,  Archibald  and  William  Stevenson,  Walter 
McCrea,  David  Stormont,  William  and  Thomas  Wylie, 
John  Gibson,  William  Forsythe,  William  Speer,  William 
Elliot,  Thomas  Stewart.  John  Taylor,  James  McCartney, 
Samuel  Mitchell,  James  R.  Willson,  Hugh  Patterson  and 
John    C.    Robb. 

MusKlN(;uM  AND  ToMlCA.  This  was  long  a  part  of 
the  Salt  Creek  congregation  and  under  the  pastoral 
care  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Wallace.  It  received  a 
separate  organization  in  October,  1831.  The  first 
pastor  was  the  Rev.  John  Wallace,  installed  in  April, 
1833,  and  continued  in  this  relation  for  twenty-two 
years.  On  account  of  some  Church  troubles  he  resigned 
in  1855.  For  ten  years  they  were  a  vacancy,  and  the 
Rev.  Armour  McFarland  frequently  supplied  them.  In 
December.  1865,  the  Rev.  J.  C.  K.  Faris  was  installed 
pastor,  and  was  released  in  April,  1871.  For  six  years 
they  were  again  vacant  but  enjoyed  the  labors  of  Rev. 
Armour  McFarland  and  others.  Rev.  William  S. 
Fulton  was  installed  in  December,  1877,  aud  released 
in  April,  1883.  Rev.  John  M.  Wylie,  the  present 
pastor,  was  installed  in  January,  1885.  There  are  two 
branches  with  good  houses  of  worship,  and  the  cause  is 
in  a  healthy  condition.  Among  the  officers  have  been 
James   Sloat,    Robert    and    John    Irwin,    William    Dunlap, 


James  McQuigg,  William  and  James  McGlade,  William 
and  John  Robeson,  John  and  William  Wylie,  James 
Beattie,    James    and    John    Stitt,    and    R.     H.     Kilpatrick. 

Jonathan's  Creek.  This  congregation  is  situated 
along  the  Haysville  pike  and  about  eight  miles  south- 
west of  the  city  of  Zanesville.  The  first  family  settled 
in  this  vicinity  in  181 5.  A  society  was  formed  in 
1823,  and  was  attached  to  the  Salt  Creek  congrega- 
tion under  the  care  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Wallace.  For 
thirty  years  they  continued  to  be  visited  by  the  pastors 
in  the  vicinity.  The  branches  of  Rocky  Fork,  West 
Bedford  and  Irville  were  organized  into  a  congregation 
in  August,  1853,  witlr  twenty-three  members,  and  James 
Stitt,  James  Beall  and  Walter  B.  Finney  were  chosen 
ruling  elders.  The  name  then  was  the  Eden  and 
Irville  congregation,  and,  in  1855,  the  name  was 
changed,  by  the  transfer  of  preaching,  to  Jonathan's 
Creek.  Rev.  Armour  McFarland  became  the  pastor  in 
the  summer  of  1853,  and  continued  in  this  relation 
until  his  health  caused  his  release  in  April,  1876.  In 
1880,  the  Rev.  T.  C.  SprouU  became  stated  supply 
for  one  year.  The  Rev.  Robert  B.  Cannon,  D.  D., 
became  the  pastor  in  September,  1886,  and  is  now  in 
cKarge.  They  possess  a  very  neat  house  of  worship, 
near  the  town  of  Newtonville,  and  the  cause  has  revived 
under  the  present  pastorate.  Families  by  the  names 
of  McFarland,  George,  Thomson,  Kirkpatrick,  Ardrey, 
Wylie,  Johnston,  Gladstone,  Harvey,  and  others,  have 
long  held  up  the  "Banner  of  the  Covenant"  in  that 

Utica.     This    is    a    pleasantly    situated     town     in    the 


northren  part  of  Licking  County.  As  early  as  1805,. 
the  family  of  James  Dunlap  settled  along  the  Licking 
Creek  near  this  place.*  In  1809,  Robert  Kirkpatrick 
settled  in  the  same  communit}'  ;  and  in  18 10,  the 
families  of  Nathaniel  and  Peter  Kirkpatrick,  Joseph 
Fulton,  John  McNaughton,  Samuel  Kirkland,  Joseph  and 
John  Campbell,  Samuel  Dufifield  and  Joseph  Jameson 
settled  in  the  same  neighborhood,  and  a  praying 
society  was  formed.  '  They  were  regularly  organized 
into  a  congregation  in  October,  181 3,  by  the  ordina- 
tion of  James  Dunlap  and  Nathaniel  Kirkpatrick  ruHng 
elders,  with  thirty-five  members.  Rev,  Robert  Wallace 
was  the  first  pastor  installed  in  charge  in  November,. 
1 8 14,  and  preached  in  many  other  localities.  He  demit- 
ted  the  charge  in  the  summer  of  1822.  William  Mitchell 
was  added  to  the  session  in  1822.  The  congregation, 
was  vacant  for  fifteen  years,  during  which  time  they 
were  almost  constantly  supplied,  and  many  were  added 
to  the  membership.  They  had  no  house  of  worship,, 
and  held  the  services  in  a  tent  on  the  hill  east  of 
town,  near  the  residence  of  J.  M.  Kirkpatrick,  who- 
was  long  a  ruling  elder.  In  1830,  a  comfortable  house 
of  worship  was  erected.  During  this  period,  John 
McDaniel  and  Peter  Kirkpatrick  were  added  to  the 
session.  The  Rev.  Armour  McFarland  was  installed 
pastor  in  October,  1837,  and  released  in  May,  1853.. 
During  his  pastorate  one  hundred  persons  were  addedi 
to  the  Church,  and  John  Day,  Hugh  and  James  Hervey.. 
and  William  Adams  were  chosen  ruling  elders.  In 
November,  1856,  the  Rev.  John  C.  Boyd  became  pastor 
*  Extracted  from  sessional  records  by  Mr.  James  Watson. 


for  a  part  of  his  time;  and,  from  1867,  until  his 
release  in  October,  1882,  he  devoted  all  his  time  to 
Utica.  In  1857,  James  M.  Kirkpatrick  was  chosen  an 
■elder,  and  William  Stevenson,  Robert  McFarland  and 
Wait  Wright  elected  deacons.  In  i860,  William 
Dunlap,  Walter  B.  Finney  and  James  Beall  ;  and  in 
1865,  James  Watson,  were  added  to  the  session.  In 
1864,  the  congregation  erected  a  new  church  building. 
William  Hervey  and  Robinson  Johnston  were  subse- 
quently elected  elders.  After  the  resignation  of  Mr. 
Boyd  they  were  vacant  nearly  four  years.  The  Rev. 
W.  J.  Coleman  was  installed  in  charge,  April,  1886, 
and  resigned  in  November,  1887.  Among  the  prominent 
families  here  have  been  those  of  Dunlap,  Kirkpatrick, 
Kirkland,  Campbell,  Jameson,  Mitchell,  McDaniel,  Day, 
"Wright,  Hervey,  Adams,  Watson,  Beall,  Stevenson, 
McFarland,  Finney,  Deary,  Darrah,  Bovard,  Reynolds, 
McDermott,  Boyd,  Wallace,  Hass,  Dillon,  Johnston, 
and  others. 

Mansfield.  This  is  a  growing  city  and  a  railroad 
center,  situated  in  the  northren  and  central  part  of 
the  State.  In  the  spring  of  1877,  the  Rev.  Samuel 
A.  George,  then  a  licentiate,  was  appointed  by  the 
■Central  Board  of  Missions  to  labor  in  this  city,  and 
began  work  when  there  were  only  three  Covenanters 
in  the  city.  The  congregation  was  organized,  October 
II,  1878,  with  forty  members.  The  elders  have  been 
W.  P.  Clarke,  James  Railt,  William  Gregg,  Johnston 
McKee,  Michael  George,  S.  H.  Garrett  and  J.  B. 
Jordan.  Rev.  Samuel  A.  George  was  ordained  and 
installed  pastor,    November    20,    1878,    and    has    built  up 


a  good  congregation  of  faithful  and  energetic  people. 
In  1884,  they  erected  a  handsome  brick  church  edifice 
in  the  heart  of  the  city  and  upon  a  public  thorough- 

Sandusky.  This  congregation  was  situated  upon  the 
Little  Sandusky  river  in  Crawford  County,  and  not  far 
from  the  present  city  of  Crestline.  The  first  Cove- 
nanter who  settled  here  was  William  Jameson,  in  1832, 
having  emigrated  from  Western  Pennsylvania.  The 
Rev.  J.  B.  Johnston,  and  others,  occasionally  visited 
the  few  families  located  here  before  the  organization. - 
It  was  organized  in  October,  1843,  and  was  supplied- 
for  four  years.  The  Rev.  John  C.  Boyd  became  the- 
pastor  in  May,  1847,  ^^d  was  released  in  November, 
1867,  after  twenty  years  of  faithful  labor.  Not  securing 
another  pastor,  the  congregation  gradually  weakened 
until  its  disorganization  in  April,  1876.  Among  the 
leading  families  were  those  of  Jameson,  IVIarshall, 
Robeson,    Moore    and    Reynolds. 

Miami.  Under  this  heading  will  be  included  all  the 
Covenanters  in  Logan  County,  and  around  the  historic 
village  of  Northwood.  In  early  times  Cherokee  was  the 
post  town.  As  early  as  1828,  a  few  families  of  Cove- 
nanters settled  upon  the  head  waters  of  the  Miami  river, 
among  whom  were  Robert  Scott,  Samuel.  Matthew,  Jr., 
and  Matthew  Mitchell,  Sr.,  Abram  and  Isaac  Patterson, 
John  Young,  Joseph  and  Thomas  Fulton,  Mrs.  Hays  and 
Mrs.  Margaret  King.*  They  formed  a  praying  society, 
and  were  occasionally  visited  by  Revs.  Hugh  and  Gavin 
McMillan,   until  the    latter   minister    organized    them    into 

*  Items  from  Mrs.  James  Wylie,  Northwood,  Ohio. 


a  congregation  in  October,  1831,  by  the  election  of 
Abram  Patterson,  John  Young  and  Matthew  Mitchell,  Jr., 
ruling  elders.  In  June,  1834,  the  Rev.  John  B.  Johnston 
was  ordained  and  installed  pastor.  The  congregation 
was  rapidly  built  up,  and  they  erected  a  log  church  on 
the  Creek  near  the  present  West  Geneva  Cemetery.  In 
time  this  was  replaced  by  a  large  brick  church  in  which 
they  worshipped  for  many  years.  The  deacon  question 
caused  a  division  in  the  once  harmonious  flock,  and  the 
Second  Miami  congregation  was  organized  by  a  Commis- 
sion of  Synod,  in  August,  1851,  and  they  erected  a  frame 
church  building  in  the  village  of  Northwood.  In  July, 
1853,  the  Rev.  J.  C.  K.  Milligan  was  installed  co-pastor 
with  Mr.  Johnston  over  the  First  congregation,  and  they 
continued  to  teach  in  the  College.  Those  members' 
residing  in  the  vicinity  of  Rushsylvania  were  organized 
into  a  separate  congregation  in  November,  1853,  and 
soon  afterwards  erected  a  frame  building  for  church 
purposes.  The  Rev.  William  Milroy  was  installed  the 
first  and  only  pastor  of  the  Second  Miami  congregation 
in  October,  1854.  The  Rev.  J.  R.  W.  Sloane,  then 
President  of  Geneva  Hall,  was  installed  pastor  of  the 
Rushsylvania  congregation,  in  January,  1855,  and  thus 
the  three  congregations  enjoyed  the  labors  of  four 
eminent  ministers.  Dr.  Sloane  resigned  the  Rushsylvania 
congregation  in  May,  1856,  and  removed  to  New  York. 
In  1858,  the  First  Miami  congregation  lost  both  of  its 
pastors.  Mr.  Johnston  connected  with  the  United  Pres- 
byterian body,  and  Mr.  Milligan  resigned  and  removed  to- 
New  York.  In  November,  i860,  Rushsylvania  succeeded 
in    getting    the  Rev.    Preston    H.  Wylie    as    their    pastor,. 


and  in  November,  1861,  the  Rev.  John  L.  McCartney 
was  settled  over  the  First  Miami  congregation.  In  1866, 
the  First  Miami  congregation  removed  from  the  old 
brick  church  on  the  Creek,  and  erected  the  present  large 
frame  church  in  the  village  of  Northwood.  In  September, 
1875,  the  Rev.  J.  L.  McCartney  was  released  from  this 
pastoral  charge,  and  in  May,  1876,  Rev.  P.  H.  Wylie 
was  released  from  Rushsylvania.  In  October,  1876,  those 
members  residing  in  and  around  Bellefontaine  received 
a  separate  organization,  and  were  supplied  for  four  years. 
The  Rev.  William  Milroy,  pastor  of  the  Second  Miami 
congregation  and  Professor  of  Latin  in  Geneva  College, 
■died  in  November,  1876,  and  thus  the  four  congregations 
were  left  without  pastors.  In  April,  1877,  the  First  and 
Second  were  consolidated,  forming  the  United  Miami 
■congregation,  and  have  since  worshipped  in  the  commo- 
dious First  Church  building, .  and  those  members  residing 
in  Belle  Centre  were  granted  a  separate  organization. 
The  congregations  have  since  been  four  in  number,  with 
Northwood  (United  Miami)  as  the  center;  Rushsylvania, 
four  miles  east;  Bellefontaine,  eight  miles  south;  and 
Belle  Centre,  three  miles  north.  A  new  brick  church 
was  erected  in  Belle  Centre,  and  the  Bellefontaine  people 
purchased  a  church  building.  In  May,  1878,  the  Rev. 
H.  H.  George  became  the  pastor  of  the  Rushsylvania 
vcongregation,  and  the  Rev.  George  Kennedy  that  of 
United  Miami.  In  January,  1879,  the  Rev.  John  Lynd 
was  installed  at  Belle  Centre,  and  in  May,  1880,  Rev. 
Finley  M.  Foster  was  installed  at  Bellefontaine.  In 
May,  1880,  Dr.  George  was  released  from  Rushsylvania, 
.and  in  August,   1880,   the  Rev.  John  Lynd   was    installed 


as  his  successor,  with  Belle  Centre.  In  June,  1882,  the 
Rev.  George  Kennedy  was  released  from  the  United 
Miami  congregation,  and  for  four  years  the  people  made 
several  unsuccessful  efforts  to  obtain  a  pastor.  In  April, 
1885,  the  Rev.  John  Lynd  was  released  from  Belle 
Centre  and  Rushsylvania;  and  in  April,  1886,  the  Rev. 
Josiah  J.  Huston  was  installed  pastor  of  Belle  Centre, 
and,  in  July,  1886,  over  Rushsylvania,  which  are  his 
present  charges.  In  May,  1886,  the  Rev.  Ruther  Har- 
grave,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed  over  the  United 
Miami  congregation  at  Northwood.  In  August,  1887, 
the  Rev.  F.  M.  Foster  was  released  from  Bellefontaine. 
By  emigration  and  death,  Rushsylvania  and  Bellefontaine 
are  greatly  reduced  in  numbers,  and,  alone,  are  not  able 
to  support  pastors.  Among  the  old  families  and  members 
at  Northwood  were  Robert  and  Joseph  Scott,  Abram 
and  Isaac  Patterson,  Samuel  Hyndman,  Samuel  and 
Matthew  Mitchell,  James  Gray,  James  Wright,  George 
Hartin,  John  and  James  Trumbull,  Cornelius,  Samuel  and 
Russell  Jameson,  Moses  T.  Glasgow,  Stephen  Bayles, 
John  Crawford,  John  Young,  Robert  Patton,  Jonathan 
Ritchie,  William,  Samuel  P.  and  James  S.  Johnston, 
Robert  and  David  Boyd,  David  Milroy,  Robert  McClure, 
Matthew  Wilkin,  William  Rambo,  Thomas  Hosack, 
William  and  Matthew  Pollock,  James  Keers,  Robert 
Wylie,  Allan  Reid,  Hugh  Parks,  Drs.  Carter  and  Jenkin, 
Joseph  Murphy,  David  Clark,  George  Johnston,  James 
Steele,  Joseph  Clyde,  Hugh  Harvey,  Archibald  Lamont, 
John  Day,  John  and  James  Reid,  William  Reed,  James 
and  William  Dunlap,  T.  C.  Speer,  David  Alexander, 
William  C.    Johnston,  Thomas    Logan,  John   K.    Mitchell, 


Joseph  Forsythe,  Ebenezer  Milro}',  John  Campbell,  James 
Fulton,  John  Keys,  and  others.  Rjishsylvania :  John  and 
Matthew  Mitchell,  James  Qua,  Thomas  M.  Hutcheson, 
Henry  and  Michael  George,  James  Wylie,  Francis  Halli- 
day,  George  and  Renwick  Day,  John  McCullough,  Martin 
Johnston,  and  others.  Bellefontaine :  David  Boyd,  James 
Forsythe,  James  Guthrie,  William  Funk,  Samuel  and 
Archibald  Foster,  M.  T.  Glasgow,  David  Fulton,  John 
McClure,  W.  B.  Keys,  Renwick  Elliot,  and  others.  Belle 
Centre:  Cornelius  Jameson,  Dr.  M.  D.  Willson,  William 
McClure,  J.  B.  Temple,  A.  G.  Patterson,  J.  B.,  J.  W.,  and 
S.  M.  Torrence,  William  Johnston,  John  and  William 
Fulton,  Joseph  and  Alexander  McConnell,  William  and 
George  Crawford,  David  S.  McKinley,  Alexander  and 
Oliver  Liggett,  Abram  P.  Wylie,  Cornelius  J.  Ferguson, 
and  others.  Miami  congregation  is  closely  connected 
with  the  educational  history  of  the  Church,  for  in  her 
midst  Geneva  College  was  founded  and  fostered  for 
thirty-two  years;  Geneva  Female  Seminary  was  in  exis- 
tence thirty  years;  and  the  Theological  Seminary  remained 
here  for  several  years.  Many  ministers  and  private 
members  can  look  back  upon  "  Miami "  as  the  place 
•where  they  received  much  of  their  mental  and  spiritual 
instruction,  and  the  name  of  "  Northwood  "  will  be  a 
household  word  for  many  generations. 

Macedon.  This  small  congregation  is  situated  on 
the  low  rich  plains  at  the  head  waters  of  the  Wabash 
river,  in  Mercer  County,  in  the  central  western  part 
of  Ohio.  It  was  a  preaching  station  as  early  as  1846, 
when  Alexander  George  settled  in  this  region,  and 
continued    as    a    preaching   station    until    its    organization 


in  July,  1852.*  The  Rev.  William  F.  George  was  the 
first  pastor  installed  in  September,  1853.  About  1855, 
the  typhoid  fever  raged  with  such  fatality  that  many 
fell  under  its  power  and  others  moved  away.  Mr. 
George  was  released  from  the  charge  in  April,  1858. 
In  January,  1861,  they  secured  part  of  the  time  of 
the  Rev.  P.  H.  Wylie,  who,  in  May,  1876,  continued 
to  give  them  all  of  his  time.  Here  he  labored  faith- 
fully under  many  discouragements  until  his  release  in 
March,  1887.  The  congregation  is  much  reduced  and 
has  lost  its  organization.  Among  the  old  families  were 
those  of  George,  McGee,  Woodburn,  Fishbaugh,  Mc- 
Donald,   Gray,    McMillan,    Porterfield,    and    others. 

Cedarville.  This  congregation  is  situated  in  the 
northren  part  of  Green  County,  and  was  formerly 
known  by  the  two  branches  of  Xenia  and  Massie's 
Creek.  This  country  was  first  settled  by  Covenanters 
in  i8o4.t  That  year  the  family  of  David  Mitchell 
from  Kentucky,  and  that  of  James  Miller  from  Scotland, 
settled  along  Clarke's  Run  and  held  society  meetings 
for  some  time.  In  1808,  Mr.  James  Reid,  from  Ken- 
tucky, and  Mr.  William  Moreland  were  added  to  the 
society,  and  the  following  year  they  were  visited  by 
Revs.  Thomas  Donnelly  and  John  Kell.  They  were 
afterwards  visited  by  Rev.  John  Black,  who  constituted 
the  society  and  dispensed  the  sacrament  to  about  ten 
members.  The  next  few  years  brought  several  more 
families,  and  the  supplies  preached  in  the  barns  and 
log    houses.      In     18 12,     they     erected     the     first    church 

*  Banner,   1878,  p.  60. 

f  Sketch  by  Rev.  J.   F.   Morton,  D.  D.,  and  from  other  sources. 


building,  which  was  a  rude  log  structure  with  a  clap- 
board roof,  and  stood  on  the  farm  of  James  Miller 
some  seven  miles  from  Xenia.  The  Rev.  John  Kell 
preached  for  them  about  one-fourth  of  the  time  until 
1816.  In  May,  18 16,  the  Rev.  Jonathan  Gill  became 
the  pastor,  and  remained  in  this  relation  for  seven 
years.  In  1823,  the  Rev.  Gavin  McMillan,  of  Beech 
Woods,  gave  one-fourth  of  his  time  for  six  years.  In 
the  fall  of  1828,  the  Rev.  Hugh  McMillan,  of  South 
Carolina,  visited  them,  and,  receiving  a  call,  and 
bringing  a  part  of  his  congregation  with  him  from 
the  South,  settled  as  the  pastor  in  September,  1829. 
In  1824,  a  new  house  of  worship  was  erected  upon 
the  banks  of  Massie's  Creek,  two  miles  from  Cedarville. 
At  the  division  of  the  Church  in  1833,  there  were  one 
hundred  and  sixty-four  members,  one  hundred  and 
twenty-seven  of  whom  went  with  the  pastor  into  the 
New  School  body.  The  trouble  about  the  church 
property  was  settled  by  allowing  the  faithful  remnant 
to  occupy  it  every  fourth  Sabbath  and  during  the 
communion  seasons.  They  continued  to  receive  occa- 
sional supplies  until  the  disorganization  in  August, 
1 841.  They  resorted  to  the  prayer  meetings  and  held 
fast  to  their  principles.  They  were  re-organized  as  the 
Cedarville  congregation  in  June,  1850,  and  were  supplied 
for  eight  years  by  the  students  of  the  Northwood 
Seminary,  and  others.  Uniting  with  Cincinnati,  the 
Rev.  Henry  George  was  ordained  and  installed  pastor 
in  June,  1858,  and  was  released  from  this  charge  in 
August,  1866.  Rev.  Samuel  Sterrett  became  the  pastor 
in    May,    1868,    and   was    removed   by  death  in  October, 


1 87 1.  The  Rev.  Patterson  P.  Boyd  was  installed  in 
charge  in  May,  1872,  and  released  in  July,  1874.  For 
seven  years  they  were  a  vacancy  almost  constantly 
supplied.  The  Rev.  Thomas  C.  Sproull,  the  present 
pastor,  was  installed  in  June,  1881.  Among  the  old 
families  have  been  those  of  Reid,  Miller,  Mitchell, 
Moreland,  McMillan,  Hemphill,  Willson,  Grier,  George, 
McConnell,  Reynolds,  Watt,  Mclntire,  Williamson, 
Foster,   Erwin,    Sterrett,    and    others. 

Brush  Creek.  This  small  congregation  is  situated 
in  Adams  County  and  in  the  southern  part  of  Ohio. 
The  society  was  first  called  Chillicothe,  and  was  first 
visited  by  Rev.  John  Kell.  In  18 14,  the  Rev.  Robert 
Wallace  began  to  give  it  a  part  of  his  time  which 
he  continued  to  do  for  six  years.  The  Rev.  Charles 
B.  McKee  was  the  first  pastor,  installed  in  August, 
1 82 1,  and  released  in  the  fall  of  1822.  For  five  years 
they  struggled  for  an  existence.  In  April,  1827,  the 
Rev.  James  Blackwood  became  the  pastor  and  remained 
but  two  years.  In  June,  1831,  the  Rev.  David  Steele 
was  installed  the  pastor.  He  had  two  principal  places 
of  preaching  ;  one  being  at  Mill  Creek,  in  Kentucky, 
and  often  in  other  localities  on  both  sides  of  the 
Ohio.  In  September,  1840,  Mr.  Steele  and  some 
followers  went  into  the  "  Reformed  Presbytery,"  and 
Francis  Gailey,  who  also  claimed  to  be  the  only  true 
Covenanter,  made  some  disciples,  and  thus  the  con- 
gregation was  weakened.  The  Rev.  Robert  Hutchesoni 
was  installed  pastor  in  September,  1842,  but  by 
defection,  emigration  and  death  the  congregation  was 
so     reduced     that     he     demitted    the     charge     in     May, 


1856.  The  congregation  now  became  disorganized,  and, 
for  twenty-five  years,  continued  in  this  condition, 
although  a  few  Covenanters  resided  there.  It  was  re- 
organized in  November,  1881,  with  thirty-three  members, 
and  enjoyed  the  stated  labors  of  Revs.  R.  J.  Sharpe, 
William  McKinney,  R.  C.  Allen,  T.  C.  Sproull,  and 
others..  Among  the  old  families  here  were  those  by 
the  names  of  George,  Mclntire,  Glasgow,  Wright, 
Stevenson,  Bayles,  Milligan,  Burns,  Copeland,  Hemp- 
hill, McKinley,  Torrence,  Foster,  Ralston,  Montgomery, 
and  others. 

Beech  Woods.  The  original  of  this  congregation  was 
situated  in  the  western  part  of  Preble  County  and  along 
the  Indiana  line,  and  was  a  part  of  the  Garrison  charge. 
It  was  settled  early  in  the  present  century  by  emigrants 
from  South  Carolina.  It  was  supplied  by  ministers 
;passing  to  and  from  the  South  and  increased  rapidly  in 
numbers.  The  Rev.  John  Kell  took  charge  of  the  con- 
gregation in  April,  18 16,  and  remained  among  them  for 
three  years.  Samuel  Robinson,  whose  relatives  lived 
here,  supplied  them,  with  others.  In  May,  1823,  the 
Rev.  Gavin  McMillan  became  the  pastor,  and  the  congre- 
gation grew  rapidly  under  his  faithful  ministrations. 
During  the  division  of  August,  1833,  he  hesitated,  but 
finally  cast  in  his  lot  with  the  New  School  brethren  and 
remained  pastor  of  a  portion  of  his  former  flock.  The 
remnant  were  then  attached  to  the  Garrison  congregation 
in  Indiana  and  enjoyed  the  labors  of  its  pastor.  The 
Robinson  and  Ramsey  families,  with  their  connections, 
were  among  the  leading  members  at  Beech  Woods. 


Cincinnati.  The  commercial  importance  of  this 
rapidly  growing  city  attracted  Covenanters  from  the 
mother  country  and  from  the  South,  very  early  in  the 
present  century.  The  congregation  was  organized  in 
October,  18 16,  by  the  ordination  of  elders  John  McCor- 
mick  and  James  McLean,  father  of  Hon.  Washington 
and  John  R.  McLean,  of  the  Cincinnati  E7tguirej\*  In 
March,  181 8,  Archibald  Johnston  became  stated  supply, 
and  by  his  rare  powers  as  a  preacher  gathered  quite 
a  congregation.  He  died  the  same  fall.  Rev.  Samuel 
Robinson  then  took  -charge  of  the  congregation,  and 
was  deposed  for  intemperance  in  the  summer  of  1821. 
The  Rev.  Charles  B.  McKee  was  installed  pastor  in 
November,  1822.  He  was  an  acceptable  preacher  and 
taught  the  classics  in  Cincinnati  College.  The  young 
congregation,  which  had  worshipped  in  private  houses 
and  public  halls  for  many  years,  now  erected  a  brick 
church  on  George  street,  near  Race,  in  1827,  on  a 
plat  of  ground  donated  by  James  McLean.  In  1831, 
Mr.  McKee  was  released  from  the  -  charge  and  they 
were  supplied.  At  the  division  of  the  Church  in  1833, 
while  the  Rev.  James  W.  Stewart  was  preaching  for 
them,  the  whole  congregation,  with  a  few  exceptions, 
went  into  the  New  School  body  and  retained  the 
church  property.  Among  the  most  influential  members 
who  went  into  the  new  body  at  that  time  were  : 
John  McCormick,  James  McLean,  John  Hunt,  John 
FuUerton,  Joseph  Beggs,  William  Monford,  John  Hazlett, 
James     Sample,    James     Morton,    John     Edsworth,    John 

*  Reminiscences  by  Hon.  Washington  McLean,  Moses  T.  Glasgow,  and 
others.     Also  Banner,  1878,  p.  59. 


Walker,  James  Gray,  James  Mann  and  Dr.  Killough. 
Those  who  held  the  testimony  intact  were :  Hugh  Glas- 
gow, John  and  Mrs.  Gray,  William  Carson  and  Mrs. 
Mary  A.  Murphy.  'They  continued  to  hold  society 
meetings,  and  occasionally  enjoyed  a  day's  preaching,  for 
ten  years.  The  congregation  was  re-organized  with 
thirteen  members,  August  22,  1844,  by  the  election  of 
Moses  T.  Glasgow  and  John  Gray,  ruling  elders.  In 
1845,  the  Theological  Seminary  was  removed  to  this 
city  from  Allegheny,  and  for  four  years  they  enjoyed 
the  stated  labors  of  Dr.  James  R.  Willson  and  the 
students.  The  first  year  the  Seminary  was  conducted  in 
a  frame  church  on  Elm  street  belonging  to  the  Metho- 
dists, and  the  following  winter,  in  a  hall  at  the  corner 
of  Vine  and  Eleventh  streets,  where  the  congregation 
worshipped.  In  1847,  the  spirited  congregation  leased 
a  lot  on  Vine  street  above  Twelfth,  and  erected  a  frame 
church  upon  it,  with  stores  below.  Here  the  Seminary 
also  remained  until  1849.  They  made  out  many  calls,^ 
but  they  did  not  succeed  in  getting  a  pastor  for  several 
years.  In  1853,  James  Brown  and  Alexander  Bovard 
were  added  to  the  session.  Uniting  with  Cedarville 
they  succeeded  in  getting  the  Rev.  H.  H.  George  as  the 
pastor  in  June,  1858.  In  i860,  the  congregation  bought 
a  church  on  Clinton  street,  near  Central  Avenue,  and, 
after  remodeling  it,  they  continued  to  worship  in  this 
place.  In  August,  1866,  Mr.  George  began  to  give  all 
his  time  to  Cincinnati.  Being  called  to  the  Presidency 
of  Geneva  College,  Mr.  George  demitted  the  charge  in 
August,  1872.  The  Rev.  R.  M.  Sommerville  was  the 
stated    supply  for  a  year.     In  December,   1877,  the    Rev. 


James  M.  Foster  was  ordained  and  installed  pastor,  and 
continued  in  this  relation  until  April,  1886.  The  elders 
are  Andrew  Mclntire,  R.  F.  Glasgow  and  William  Dear- 
ness.  Among  the  names  of  old  families  may  be 
mentioned  those  of  Murphy,  Gray,  Glasgow,  Finley, 
Brown,  Bovard,  Lusk,  Mclntire,  Johnston,  Thompson, 
Martin,  Mitchell,  McCullough,  Crawford,  Dearness,  Adams, 
Edgar,  and  others. 


Cedar  Lake.  This  congregation  is  located  princi- 
pally in  Branch  County,  Michigan,  and  partly  in  Steuben 
country,  Indiana.  A  few  Covenanters  emigrated  to  this 
country  from  Ohio,  and  succeeded  in  getting  the  organi- 
zation of  a  congregation  in  April,  1841.  For  nine  years 
they  were  supplied  by  Presbytery  and  students  of 
Theology.  The  Rev.  John  French  was  installed  the 
pastor  in  September,  1850,  and  continued  in  this  relatior* 
for  thirty  years,  and  until  his  very  sudden  death  in 
October,  1880.  For  four  years  they  were  vacant,  and,, 
after  some  troubles  were  settled,  by  which  the  California 
Mission  Station  was  again  joined  to  the  congregation. 
The  Rev.  R.  C.  Wylie,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed 
in  charge  in  October,  1884.  The  Covenanters  of  Cedar 
Lake  are  intelligent  and  strongly  attached  to  the  old 
customs  of  the  Church.  Among  the  families  long^ 
connected  with  the  Church  are  those  by  the  names  of 
Jameson,  Chestnut,  Speer,  French,  Duguid,  Mitchell,. 
McNaughton,  Morrow,  Judson,   Stewart,  Logan,  Elsey. 

Detroit  and  Novi.  The  city  of  Detroit  contained 
a  few  Covenanters,  who,  in    connection  with    the  society 

334  HISTORY  OF  the  reformed 

of  Novi,  in  Oakland  County,  were  organized  into  a 
congregation  in  April,  1854.  The  Rev.  Boyd  Mc- 
Cullough  was  installed  pastor  in  September,  1855,  and 
remained  in  this  relation  for  sixteen  years,  and  until 
his  release  in  May,  1871.  At  this  time  the  congrega- 
tion had  become  so  reduced  by  emigration  that  it 
was  disorganized,  but  continued  as  a  mission  station 
under  the  care  of  Presbytery.  In  1876,  and  for  several 
years,  W.  M.  Shanks  was  stated  supply.  The  field  is 
now  practically  abandoned.  Hugh  Woodburn,  Walter 
Calhoun,  Andrew  L.  McCurdy,  Robert  Torrens,  William 
Wray,  Robert  Laird  and  George  McCarroll  were 
among    the    chief    supporters    and    elders. 

SOUTHFIELD.  This  is  the  oldest  and  strongest  con- 
gregation in  Michigan.  It  is  situated  near  the  town 
of  Birmingham,  in  Oakland  County,  and  some  seventeen 
miles  north-west  of  the  city  of  Detroit.  David  Stewart 
was  the  first  Covenanter  settling  here  in  1832,  who 
was  honored  of  God  as  the  chief  instrument  in  the 
organization  of  the  congregation  in  May,  1834,  and 
was  a  liberal  supporter  and  efficient  elder  until  his 
death.*  For  nine  years  the  congregation  was  supplied 
and  gradually  increased  in  members.  The  Rev.  James 
Neill  was  the  first  pastor,  installed  in  May,  1843,  and 
released  in  October,  1851.  The  Rev.  James  S.  T. 
Milligan  was  installed  pastor  in  November,  1853,  and 
remained  among  these  worthy  people  for  eighteen 
years.  The  Rev.  James  R.  Hill  was  installed  in  May, 
1872,  and  released  in  May,  1876.  In  June,  1878,  the 
Rev.     Joseph      McCracken,     the      present      pastor,     was 

*  Reformed  Presbyterian,  Vol.  i6,  p.  6i. 


installed  in  charge,  and  he  has  built  up  a  large  and 
flourishing  congregation  of  intelligent  and  well-to-do 
Covenanters.  Among  the  families  long  connected  with 
:the  Southfield  congregation  are  those  of  Stewart,  Black- 
wood, McClung,  Sloat,  Parks,  Bell,  Cannon,  Grier, 
Hemphill,  Woodburn,  McMullen,  Marshall,  McKinney, 
McLaughlin,  McCarroll,  Kirkpatrick,  McCurdy,  McDonald, 
Morrill,    and    others. 

Fairgrove.  This  is  a  comparatively  new  field  and 
was  cultivated  by  the  Central  Board  of  Missions  for 
several  years.  It  is  situated  in  Tuscola  County,  nearly 
.one  hundred  miles  north  of  Detroit  and  about  twenty 
miles  from  Saginaw  Bay.  It  was  organized  in  Decem- 
ber, 1878,  with  twenty-six  members.  The  Rev.  J, 
Ralston  Wylie  was  installed  pastor  in  November,  1879. 
The  congregation  rapidly  increased  and  a  substantial 
.church  building  was  erected  in  the  village  of  Fairgrove. 
Mr.  Wylie  was  released  from  the  charge  in  October, 
1887.  Among  the  elders  are  Thomas  Wylie,  John 
Kirk,    W.    L.    Robey    and    John     Morrow. 


Garrison,  This  small  congregation  of  people  was 
situated  in  Fayette  County,  and  was  a  part  of  the 
Beech  Woods  congregation  in  Ohio.  Emigrants  from 
the  South  settled  here  as  early  as  1805,  and  occa- 
sionally enjoyed  the  services  of  a  passing  minister. 
It  was  organized  in  1812,  and  the  Rev.  John  Kell 
became  the  pastor  in  April,  18 16,  and  remained  in 
.charge   over    three   years. ,  Samuel  Robinson,  and  others, 


were  supplies.  In  May,  1823,  the  Rev.  Gavin  Mc- 
Millan became  the  pastor,  and,  during  the  division  of 
1833,  he  and  many  of  the  people  became  identified 
with  the  New  School  body.  The  largest  part  of  the 
congregation  was  now  in  Indiana,  and  the  remnant 
at  Beech  Woods  was  added  to  Garrison.  For  many 
years  they  were  supplied  by  John  Holmes,  Nathaniel 
Allen,  and  others.  The  Rev.  Josiah  Dodds  was. 
installed  the  pastor  in  October,  1847,  and  continued 
in  charge  for  eighteen  years.  The  congregation  was 
greatly  reduced  by  emigration,  and  the  Beech  Woods 
branch  was  given  up.  In  May,  1871,  the  Rev.  Thomas 
P.  Robb  was  ordained  and  installed  pastor,  and  remained 
in  charge  three  years.  Six  years  again  they  struggled 
for  an  existence,  and  in  August,  1880,  the  Rev.  John 
J.  McClurkin  was  installed  in  charge.  He  remained 
four  years,  and  the  congregation  lost  its  organization 
in  September,  1884,  by  the  death  of  elders  and  the 
removal  of  members.  Among  the  old  Covenanter  families 
at  Garrison  were  those  of  Milligan,  Stevenson,  Gamble, 
Dill,  Huston,  Russell,  McMillan,  Culbertson,  Alexander, 
Craig,    Cook. 

Indianapolis.  Immediately  after  the  war  of  the 
rebellion  a  few  Covenanters  gathered "  into  this  city, 
and  the  Central  Board  of  Missions  began  to  cultivate 
it  as  a  mission  field.  In  the  spring  of  1866,  the  Rev. 
John  Crozier  took  charge  of  the  mission,  built  a  com- 
fortable house  of  worship  in  a  desirable  part  of  the 
city,  and  preached  to  appreciative  audiences,  among 
which  were  members  of  the  Legislature.  The  con- 
gregation   was     organized    May    10,     1867,    with    twenty- 


four  members,  and  Mr,  Crozier  continued  in  charge. 
The  good  cause  so  auspiciously  begun  gradually- 
declined,  the  congregation  was  disorganized  in  May, 
1870,  and  the  church  property  was  sold  by  the  Illinois 
Presbytery  at  a  small  sacrifice.*  Dr.  J.  T.  Boyd, 
B.  F.  Breedon  and  David  Fulton  were  among  the 
leading    members. 

Walnut  Ridge.  This  small  congregation  was 
situated  seven  miles  from  Salem,  the  capital  of 
Washington  County,  and  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
State.  It  was  settled  by  emigrants  from  Tennessee 
and  South  Carolina  about  1820.  It  was  organized  in 
May,  1822,  and  was  supplied  occasionally  by  Revs. 
John  Kell,  Samuel  Wylie,  and  others.  The  Rev.  Robert 
Lusk  became  the  pastor  in  October,  1824,  and  ^the 
following  year  he  was  suspended  on  charges  regarding 
monetary  matters  with  his  neighbors.  Here  he  lived 
in  comparative  obscurity  for  ten  years,  when  he 
desired  to  have  his  case  investigated,  and  the  local 
fama  clamosa  against  his  character  averted. t  This 
was  done  by  a  Commission  of  Synod,  and  he  acknowl- 
edged he  was  sorry  for  being  the  occasion  of  so  much 
trouble  in  the  Church,  and,  after  receiving  an  admoni- 
tion, was  restored  by  Synod  in  May,  1835,  and  con- 
tinued to  preach  in  his  old  charge  for  five  years. 
In  September,  1840,  Mr.  Lusk  went  with  David  Steele, 
and  formed  the  "Reformed  Presbytery,"  taking  some 
members  with  him.  In  June,  1843,  the  Rev.  John 
J.    McClurkin    was    installed     for   part    of    his    time,     and 

*A'.  P.  6^  C,  1872,  p.  82.  f  Reminiscences  by  Dr.  David  Steele,  Sr., 
and  Minutes  of  Synod,  1834,  1836. 


remained  in  this  relation  until  April,  185 1.  For  ten 
years  it  was  occasionally  supplied  and  lost  its  organiza- 
tion in  May,  1862,  and  was  regarded  as  a  mission 
station  for  several  years.  The  cause  was  soon  extinct, 
as  the  members  had  either  emigrated  or  died.  Among 
the  old  families  here  were  those  of  Carithers,  Reid, 
Marks    and    McElravey. 

Princeton.  This  is  the  county  seat  of  Gibson 
County  and  situated  in  the  south-western  corner  of 
Indiana,  not  far  from  the  confluence  of  the  White- 
and  Wabash  rivers.  The  first  Covenanters  settling 
here  were  Samuel  Hogue  from  Blount  County,  Tenn- 
essee, and  Robert  Archer,  from  Chester  District,  South 
Carolina,  in  1805.-^  In  1809,  Mr.  Hogue,  having 
returned  to  Tennessee  on  business,  met  the  Rev.  John 
Kell,  who,  according  to  promise,  visited  the  families 
of  Princeton  in  18 10,  and  constituted  a  praying  society. 
He  continued  to  visit  the  scattered  families  from  house 
to  house  in  the  then  wilderness,  and  held  the  first 
communion  at  the  house  of  Robert  Archer,  in  October,. 
18 1 3,  at  which  time  the  congregation  was  organized 
by  the  ordination  of  Samuel  Hogue  .  and  Thomas 
Archer,  ruling  elders.  There  were  about  twenty-five 
communicants.  The  congregation  continued  to  grow 
by  local  accessions  and  emigration,  and,  in  18 14,, 
Robert  Stormont  and  James  W.  Hogue  were  added 
to  the  session.  The  services  were  usually  held  in  a 
log  church  owned  by  the  Baptists  and  situated  about 
one  mile  north-west  of  the  town  of  Princeton.  In 
18 17,    James    Lessly     and     Robert     Milburn    were    added 

*  Presbyterian  Historical  Almanac,  Vol.  5,  p.  382. 


to  the  eldership.  The  Rev.  John  Kell  was  installed 
the  first  pastor  in  June,  1820.  William  Crowe,  having 
removed  from  Kentucky,  was  now  recognized  as  a 
member  of  session.  They  erected  the  first  church 
building  in  Princeton  in  the  fall  of  1820.  It  was  a 
small  frame  structure  and  was  occupied  for  sixteen 
years.  At  the  division  of  the  Church  in  1833,  Mr. 
Kell  and  the  great  majority  of  the  congregation  went 
into  the  New  School  body,  and  they  retained  the 
church  property.  Robert  Stormont  was  the  only  elder 
that  stood  fast  to  the  principles  of  the  Church, 
The  small  but  faithful  remnant  clung  together,  re- 
organized in  July,  1836,  and  received  supplies.  In 
1840,  they  called  the  Rev.  Samuel  McKinney  to 
become  the  pastor ;  he  accepted  the  call,  but,  before 
'his  installation,  he  removed  to  the  South.  Uniting  with 
Walnut  Ridge  they  received  a  part  of  the  time  of  Rev. 
John  J.  McClurkin  in  June,  1843,  who  continued  in 
this  relation  for  seven  years.  The  Rev.  John  Stott 
was  installed  pastor  of  Princeton  in  October,  1851,. 
and  was  suspended  from  the  ministry  in  June,  1868, 
when  some  of  the  members  left,  and  the  congregatioa 
became  disorganized.  It  was  re-organized  in  April, 
1869,  with  twenty  members,  and  James  Little  was 
ordained  a  ruling  elder.  The  members  adhering  to 
Mr,  Stott  were  suspended  from  the  privileges  of  the 
Church.*  The  Rev.  Daniel  C.  Martin  was  installed  in 
November,  1872,  and  released  in  April,  1888.  Among 
the  old  families  here  are  those  by  the  names  of 
Stormont,  Little,  Lockhart,  Archer,  Watt,  Hogue, 
*F.  P.  d-  C,  1869,  p.  186. 


Peoples,     Crowe,     Davis,     Orr,     Foster,     Dickson,     Faris, 
Mooney,    Carithers,    and    others. 

Bloomington.  This  city  is  the  capital  of  Monroe 
County  and  the  seat  of  the  University  of  Indiana. 
The  Covenanters  left  the  sunny  South  in  the  early 
part  of  the  present  century  on  account  of  the  prevalence 
of  slavery,  and  found  abode  principally  in  Indiana  and 
Illinois.  This  settlement  was  made  in  March,  1820,  by 
John  and  Thomas  Moore,  from  South  Carolina.  The 
society  increased  by  emigration  from  the  South,  and 
was  organized  in  October,  1821.  At  this  time  there 
were  only  eight  members,  and  John  Moore  and  Isaac 
Faris  were  chosen  elders.*  In  1823,  they  lost  the 
organization  by  the  death  of  John  Moore  and  the  removal 
of  Isaac  Faris.  They  were  re-organized  in  1825,  by  the 
ordination  of  Thomas  Moore  and  James  Blair,  ruling 
elders.  The  Rev.  James  Faris  became  the  first  pastor 
in  November,  1827.  At  this  time  there  were  twenty 
members..  In  1830,  David  Smith  and  D.  B.  Woodburn, 
of  South  Carolina,  were  added  to  the  session.  The 
congregation  now  grew  rapidly  by  accessions  from  the 
South,  and  others  who  were  attracted  to  Bloomington 
by  her  educational  advantages.  At  the  division  of  the 
Church  in  1833,  there  were  about  one  hundred  and 
twenty  members,  and  they  were  divided  into  two  nearly 
equal  parts,  the  one  becoming  identified  with  the  New 
School  body,  and  the  other  standing  fast  to  Covenanter 
principles.  The  pastor,  and  elders  David  Smith  and 
Thomas  Moore,  remained  true  to  the  old  flag.  The 
congregation     continued     its     work     with     about     sixty 

*Rev.  D.  J.  Shaw  in  Banner,  1879,  p.  238. 


members,  and,  in  1835,  Thomas  Smith,  Robert  Ewing  and 
John  Gamble  were  added  to  the  session.  The  congre- 
gation had  never  possessed  a  house  of  worship,  and, 
in  1836,  erected  a  brick  building  two  miles  east  of 
Bloomington.  In  1838,  James  Paris  was  added  to  the 
session.  In  1847,  they  suffered  the  loss  of  their  church 
building  by  fire,  and  a  better  structure  was  speedily 
erected.  The  pastor,  the  Rev.  James  Paris,  departed 
this  life  in  May,  1855.  The  Rev.  David  J.  Sha\v,  the 
present  pastor,  was  installed  in  May,  1856,  and  has 
labored  faithfully  and  successfully  in  this  field  for  thirty- 
two  years.  The  elders  added  to  the  session  have  been 
Charles  McCaughan,  John  Smith  and  David  Paris  in 
1862;  John  R.  Hemphill  in  1867;  James  B.  Paris,  David 
M.  Smith  and  Robert  Ervin  in  1873;  James  S.  and 
John  M.  Paris  in  1879.  In  1877,  they  removed  from 
the  country  and  built  a  handsome  brick  church  in  the 
city.  The  different  families  by  the  names  of  Paris  and 
Smith,  with  their  connections,  have  formed  a  large  part 
of  the    membership. 

Lake  Eliza.  This  was  a  small  congregation  situated 
in  Lake  County,  and  not  far  from  the  city  of  Chicago. 
It  was  settled  by  Covenanter  emigrants  from  the 
Eastern  States  in  1850.  The  society  was  organized 
into  a  congregation  in  September,  1852.  The  Rev. 
Preston  H.  Wylie  became  the  pastor  in  May,  1855, 
and  remained  in  this  relation  nearly  six  years.  In 
September,  1865,  the  Rev.  R,  M.  C.  Thompson  became 
the  pastor,  and  labored  under  mkny  difficulties  and 
discouragements  for  sixteen  years.  They  enjoyed  the 
visits  of  itinerants  for  several  years,  and  the  stated 


labors  of  Robert  Clyde  in  1884.  Gradually  diminishing 
by  emigration,  the  congregation  was  disorganized  in 
1886.  Here  lived  the  families  of  Young,-  McKnight, 
Kirkpatrick,  Bovard,  Russell,  McFarland,  Davidson, 
McLaren,   and    others. 


Early  in  the  present  century,  Southren  Illinois  became 
a  popular  settlement  for  Covenanters  who  left  the 
South  on  account  of  the  prevalence  of  human  slavery. 
They  settled  principally  in  Randolph  and  Washington 
Counties,  and  became  the  nucleii  of  the  present  con- 
gregations of  Old  Bethel,  Bethel,  Church  Hill  and 

Old  Bethel.  The  first  Covenanter  minister  to  visit 
this  region  was  the  Rev.  Samuel  Wylie  in  the  summer 
of  1 8 16.  In  the  summer  of  181 8,  he  was  ordained 
by  Synod  as  a  missionary  and  sent  to  this  locality. 
He  made  his  principal  preaching  station  at  the  "  Irish 
Settlement  "  a  few  miles  south-west  of  the  present 
town  of  Sparta,  and  among  a  few  members  of  the 
Associate  Reformed  Church.  The  first  Covenanter  con- 
gregation organized  was  in  June,  1 821,  with  thirty- 
five  members  and  the  promise  of  a  salary  of  about 
two  hundred  dollars  per  year.  The  elders  were  Samuel 
Little  and  William  Edgar,  who  had  the  year  previously 
emigrated  from  Tennessee.  The  Rev.  Samuel  Wylie 
was  at  that  time  installed  in  charge  and  the  congre- 
gation   was     called     "Eden,"     sometimes     "Bethel,"     and 

"^ Presbyter ian  Historical  Almanac,  Vol.  i,  p.  197.  Bamrer,  1875,  p.  156. 
R.  P.   &-  C,   1884,  p.  379. 


the  post  town  was  Kaskaskia  on  the  Mississippi  river. 
Soon  afterwards,  James  McClurkin,  from  the  Associate 
Reformed  Church,  and  James  Monford,  recently  from 
South  CaroHna,  were  added  to  the  session.  Emigration 
soon  augmented  their  numbers  and  Covenanters  flocked 
from  the  South  and  settled  around  the  orginal  society. 
In  1823,  a  comfortable  frame  church  building  was 
erected,  surrounded  by  a  spacious  graveyard.  Soon  the 
house  of  worship  became  too  small,  for  there  were 
nearly  three  hundred  and  fifty  communicants,  and 
arrangements  were  made  for  a  new  church.  Strife 
arose  in  settling  the  location,  and  during  the  erection 
of  the  building,  in  1832,  the  original  congregation 
was  divided,  and  those  at  Hill  Prairie  received  a 
separate  organization.  At  the  division  of  the  whole 
Church  in  1833,  these  congregations  were  again  divided, 
and  Mr.  Wylie  took  many  with  him  into  the  New 
School  body.  The  remnant  of  the  old  Bethel  con- 
gregation continued  to  hold  their  organization.  The 
Rev.  James  Wallace  became  the  pastor  in  August, 
1840,  and  continued  steadfast  to  his  post  for  twenty- 
seven  years,  when  he  was  released  in  May,  1867,  to 
labor  in  the  interests  of  the  National  Reform  Associa- 
tion. In  October,  1869,  the  Rev.  William  J.  Gillespie 
was  ordained  and  installed  pastor,  and  the  following- 
year  left  the  communion  of  the  Church.  For  four 
years  they  were  vacant  and  made  efforts  to  obtain  a 
pastor.  In  July,  1874,  the  Rev.  Patterson  P.  Boyd 
was  installed  in  charge,  and  was  released  in  December, 

Bethel.     In    1832,    the     Hill     Prairie    branch     of    the 


old  and  original  charge  assumed  this  name,  and  lost 
members  at  the  division  in  1833.  For  many  years 
they  received  supplies,  and,  in  August,  1840,  the  Rev. 
Hugh  Stevenson  was  installed  pastor.  He  was  a  faithful 
minister,  and,  after  six  years  of  labor,  departed  this 
life  in  May,  1846.  In  October,  1848,  Rev.  James 
Milligan  was  installed  in  charge  and  remained  seven 
years.  In  October,  1857,  the  Rev.  David  S.  Faris,  the 
present  pastor,  was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge. 
In  the  .spring  of  1875,  the  congregation  left  the  old 
church  at  Eden  where  their  fathers  worshipped  for 
over  a  half  a  century,  and  occupied  the  new  and 
present    church    building    in    the    town    of    Sparta. 

Church  Hill.  This  congregation  surrounds  the 
village  of  Coultersville,  and  was  organized  from  the 
Bethel  congregations  in  October,  1854.  The  first  pastor 
was  the  Rev,  William  F.  George  installed  in  March, 
i860,  and  released  in  May,  1871.  In  1873,  they  erected 
a  new  house  of  worship,  which  is  a  comfortable  one 
and  well  adapted  for  the  purpose.  The  Rev.  James 
M.  Faris  was  installed  pastor  in  June,  1873,  and 
remained  in  charge  eleven^  years.  The  Rev.  John  Teaz, 
the  present  pastor,  was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge 
in  July,  1885.  The  congregation  has  done  good  work 
among    the    colored   people    of    the    neighborhood. 

Elkhorn.  This  congregation  is  situated  a  little 
north-east  of  the  others,  near  Oakdale,  in  Washington 
County.  It  was  first  settled  in  1831,  by  the  families 
of  John  and  Archibald  Hood  and  James  McClurkin  from 
South  Carolina.  They  located  near  the  present  site  of 
the    church,  and    the    Rev.  Samuel  Wylie    supplied    them 


for  a  short  time.  Soon  they  were  joined  by  others, 
and  the  congregation  was  organized  in  July,  1834,  at 
the  house  of  Archibald  Hood,  with  nineteen  members. 
John  and  Thomas  McClurkin  and  John  Donnelly  were 
chosen  ruling  elders.  The  Rev.  Samuel  McKinney  was 
installed  pastor  in  April,  1835,  and  released  in  May, 
1840.  The  Rev.  William  Sloane  was  installed  his 
successor  in  September,  1840,  and  remained  in  charge 
nearly  eighteen  years.  In  July,  1859,  the  Rev.  Andrew 
C.  Todd  was  installed  and  he  remained  twelve  years, 
when  he,  and  a  colony  of  his  people,  emigrated  to 
Colorado.  The  Rev.  David  G.  Thompson,  the  present 
pastor,  was  installed  in  charge  in  October,  1872.  The 
congregation  is  large  and  has  been  active  in  all  Church 
work.  All  the  congregations  enjoy  tokens  of  the  Divine 
blessing,  because  of  their  faithfulness  to  Covenant 
obligations  and  Reformation  principles.  The  Old  Bethel, 
Bethel,  Church  Hill  and  Elkhorn  congregations  are  so 
closely  related  in  their  history  and  members,  that  the 
names  are  grouped  together  as  representative  families 
of  the  Covenanter  Church  in  Southern  Illinois.  Among 
these  are  Samuel  Little,  William  Edgar,  John,  Thomas 
and  James  McClurkin,  James  Monford,  Archibald  Hood, 
John  and  Thomas  Donnelly,  Thomas  G.  Armour,  John 
Hunter,  William  Kennedy,  Alexander  Moore,  John  G. 
and  Charles  R.  Miller,  William  and  John  Weir,  John 
M.  Sloane,  James  Coulter,  Joseph  Patton,  James  and' 
Hugh  Matthews,  Andrew  Todd,  John  Robinson,  A.  J. 
and  R.  S.  Edgar,  John  Steele,  W.  A.  Stevenson,  M.  K. 
Mawhinney,  David  H.  Coulter,  James  Beall,  James  and 
Thomas    Finley,   W.    B.   Whittaker,    John    Houston,    John 


and  J.  M.  Wylie,  W.  J.  S.  Cathcart,  Robert  H.  Sinclair, 
Daniel  Dickey,  Samuel  McCloy,  William  and  Samuel 
Woodside,  Robert  McAfee,  Robert  Ramsey,  Francis 
Torrens,  D.  F.  McClurkin,  A.  W.  Hunter,  J.  D.  Elder, 
John  E.  Willson,  L.  M.  Patterson,  R.  G.  McLean,  R.  K. 
Wisely,  J.  R.  Keady,  and    others. 

Staunton.  This  congregation  is  situated  around  the 
thriving  mining  town  of  Staunton,  in  the  south-eastern 
corner  of  Macoupin  County,  and  some  forty  miles  north- 
east of  the  city  of  St.  Louis.  A  few  Covenanters 
settled  here  a  few  years  previous  to  the  organization 
of  the  congregation  in  July,  1863.  The  Rev.  John 
Middleton  was  installed  the*  pastor  in  May,  1865,  and 
was  released  in  August,  1870.  The  Rev.  William  F. 
George  was  installed  in  charge  in  May,  1872,  and  after 
many  trials,  died  in  April,  1880.  For  seven  years  they 
were  without  a  pastor,  although  they  ^made  efforts  to 
-obtain  one,  and  received  almost  constant  supplies. 
Uniting  with  St.  Louis  they  secured  a  part  of  the  time 
-of  the  Rev.  Ellsworth  M.  Smith,  in  May,  1887,  who  is 
now  in  charge.  The  congregation  is  small,  but  they 
possess  a  comfortable  house  of  worship,  and  are  earnest 
in  their,  endeavors  to  maintain  the  Reformation  cause. 
Among  the  principal  elders  have  been  Daniel  and  W. 
H.  Williamson,  Silas  Smith,  W.  J.  Dripps,  William  and 
Hugh  Patterson.  A  few  members  have  lived  in  the 
city  of  Chicago,  and  other  localities,  but  no  societies 
were    ever  organized. 


Vernon.     The  first  Covenanters  settling  in  this  region, 
some     twenty-five     miles     south-west     of     the     city     of 


Milwaukee,  were  William  and  Mrs.  Ann  McLcod,  from 
Rochester,  New  York,  in  the  spring  of  1844.*  About 
the  same  time  John  McNeil  emigrated  from  York,  and 
they  enjoyed  the  preaching  of  Mr.  Nathaniel  Allen, 
licentiate,  who  conducted  services  in  a  log  school-house. 
In  the  spring  of  1845,  the  family  of  James  Wright, 
from  York,  and,  in  the  summer  of  1846,  that  of  James 
S.  Gumming,  from  Toronto,  Canada,  arrived.  In  June, 
1847,  a  society  was  constituted  by  elder  Daniel  Mc- 
Millan of  York,  which  met  regularly  at  the  house  of 
Mr.  Wright.  In  the  early  part  of  1848,  William 
Turner  arrived  with  his  family  from  Coldenham,  New 
York.  They  now  received  a  few  days  preaching  from 
Revs.  James  Love,  James  Wallace  and  W.  A.  Acheson, 
and  the  services  were  usually  conducted  in  "  Weir's 
barn."  The  congregation  was  organized  as  "Waukesha," 
October  18,  1848,  with  fourteen  members,  among  whom 
were  the  families  of  Wright,  Turner,  McNeil,  McLeod, 
McConncll,  McKinney  and  Gumming.  James  Wright, 
James  McGonnell  and  William  Turner  were  chosen 
elders.  In  1849,  the  congregation  was  taken  under  the 
care  of  the  Rochester  Presbytery,  for  in  those  days 
there  were  no  railroads,  and  New  York  was  nearest  by 
way  of  the  lakes.  In  June,  1850,  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Bowden  preached  and  dispensed  the  communion,  at 
which  time  fourteen  members  were  added  to  the  Church, 
and  the  Rev.  Robert  Johnson  preached  two  or  three 
months.  By  the  death  of  elder  James  Wright,  and  the 
removal  of  elder  James  McConnell,  the  congregation  was 
disorganized  November  18,  18 50.  The  present  church 
♦Sketch  by  Rev.  Isaiah  Paris,  in  H.  P.  d-  C,  1883,  p.  332. 


building  was  erected  in  the  town  of  Vernon  in  1853, 
and  the  congregation  was  re-organized  by  a  Commission 
of  the  Illinois  Presbytery  as  "Vernon,"  September  16^ 
1856.  William  L.  Wright  with  William  Turner  were 
the  elders.  The  Rev,  John  Middleton  was  called  ta 
the  pastorate,  but  declined.  The  Rev.  Robert  Johnson 
was  installed  the  first  pastor  in  November,  1859,  and 
remained  in  charge  until  December,  1867.  In  October,, 
1 87 1,  Ebenezer  Milroy  and  John  Gault  were  added  ta 
the  session.  After  several  unsuccessful  attempts  to  obtain 
a  pastor,  the  Rev.  Robert  B.  Cannon,  who  was  called 
the  second  time,  was  installed  September  13,  1872,  and 
remained  nearly  six  years.  In  September,  1873,  James 
Mann  was  added  to  the  session.  The  Rev.  Isaiah  Faris^ 
the  present  pastor,  was  installed  in  November,  1878. 
The  principal  families  have  already  been  mentioned. 
Waupaca.  This  city  and  vicinity  were  cultivated  as  a 
mission  station  by  the  Rev.  James  L.  Pinkerton,  in 
1876,  but  no  congregation  was  organized,  as  there  were 
but    a  few  families    of    Covenanters   in  that    locality. 

Elliota.  This  congregation  is  situated  in  Fillmore 
County,  on  the  Iowa  state  line,  and  about  forty  miles 
west  of  the  Mississippi  river.  It  was  settled  by  a  few 
Covenanters  as  early  as  1865,  and  was  under  the  North 
West  Mission.  In  May,  1867,  the  Rev.  James  S.  Buck 
was  sent  as  a  missionary  to  this  place,  and  labored 
amid  much  physical  weakness  for  several  years.  The 
congregation     was    organized    in     November,    1868,    with 


sixteen  members,  and  they  erected  a  comfortable  house 
of  worship.  Mr.  Buck  continued  in  charge  until  shortly 
before  his  death  in  October,  1870.  For  eight  years- 
they  were  supplied  by  the  Central  Board  of  Missions, 
and  Revs.  N.  R.  Johnston,  Robert  Hutcheson,  and  others, 
were  stated  supplies.  The  Rev.  John  W.  Dill  was 
installed  pastor  in  April,  1878,  and  remained  among 
them  three  years.  In  February,  1886,  the  Rev.  Robert 
Clyde,  the  present  pastor,  was  ordained  and  installed  in 
charge.  The  families  of  Rice,  McKinney,  Lemmon,  and 
others,  have  long   resided    there. 

Saint  Paul.  In  1855,  Mr.  James  Aiton,  of  Rochester,. 
New  York,  removed  to  this  city,  and  for  six  years 
endeavored  to  establish  a  congregation,  but  in  this  he 
was  not  successful.  At  different  times  it  was  visited 
by  a  Covenanter  minister,  and  some  families  resided 
there.  At  the  present  time  efforts  are  being  made  ta 
organize    a   society. 

Lake  Reno.  Along  the  shores  of  this  beautiful  lake,, 
five  miles  from  Glenwood,  Pope  County,  and  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty  miles  north-west  of  Saint  Paul,  is 
located  the  growing  congregation  of  Lake  Reno. 
Several  years  previous  to  its  organization.  Covenanters 
from  Illinois  and  Indiana  had  settled  here,  and  were 
organized  into  a  congregation  in  October,  1869,  with 
thirty-three  members.  Revs.  Daniel  C.  Faris  and 
Robert  Hutcheson  were  stated  supplies  for  some  time,, 
and  the  field  continued  under  the  care  of  the  Central 
Board  of  Missions  for  many  years.  The  Rev.  Edward 
G.  Elsey  was  installed  pastor  in  July,  1882,  and  is 
now    in   charge.     Among    the  families    here    are    those  of 


William  Hogan,  William  Matthews,  David  Campbell, 
J.  L.  Evving,  James  and  Thomas  Semple,  Joseph  M. 
Wylie,  Dr.  W.  C.  Allen,  Prof.  Z.  G.  Willson,  and 

Alexandria.  This  is  a  thriving  town  some  ten 
miles  north  of  Lake  Reno,  where  some  families  reside 
belonging  to  the  Lake  Reno  congregation,  and  is  now 
regarded    as   a    mission    station. 

Round  Prairie.  This  society  settled  upon  this 
prairie,  in  Todd  County,  about  thirty  miles  north-east 
of  Lake  Reno,  in  1865.  It  was  settled  by  emigrants 
from  Indiana  and  Illinois,  and  was  organized  into  a 
congregation  in  May,  1873,  with  eighteen  members. 
They  have  since  been  under  the  care  of  the  Central 
Board  of  Missions  and  never  enjoyed  the  labors  of  a 
settled  pastor.  The  families  of  Russell  and  Ewing 
have    long    been  connected  with   the  cause  in  that  place. 

Sharon.  The  first  Covenanters  settling  within  the 
limits  of  Iowa  were  the  family  of  Robert  McP^lhinney 
and  his  son-in-law,  John  Baird,  from  Philadelphia,  in 
May,  1840.*  They  journeyed  the  whole  distance  in 
wagons,  crossed  the  Mississippi  at  the  village  of  Bur- 
lington, and  pitched  their  tents  on  the  banks  of  Honey 
Creek  in  the  northren  part  of  Des  Moines  County. 
In  November,  1840,  they  were  re-inforced  by  the  arrival 
of  the  families  of  Samuel  McP^lhinney  and  Thomas 
Cummings,    and    soon    afterwards    the    Rev.    Samuel  Mc- 

*  Sketch  by  Rev.  T.  P.  Robb,  in  7?.  P.  &=  C,  1884,  p.   iii. 


Kinney,  of  Illinois,  preached  to  them  at  the  house  of 
John  Hamilton.  In  1844,  Robert  Brown,  Robert  and 
Aaron  Willson  joined  the  society,  which  was  then 
constituted.  They  were  now  supplied  with  preaching 
by  the  Revs.  William  Sloane,  James  Milligan,  James 
Wallace,  John  Holmes  and  Nathaniel  Allen,  from  time 
to  time.  The  society  soon  became  so  large  that  it 
was  divided,  and  the  first  Covenanter  congregation  in 
Iowa  was  organized  by  Revs.  William  Sloane  and  James 
Wallace,  at  the  house  of  Samuel  McElhinney,  September 
26,  1846,  with  seventeen  members,  and  it  was  then 
called  Linn  Grove  and  Cedar.  The  elders  chosen  were 
Thomas  Cox  and  Samuel  McElhinney.  The  first  pastor 
was  the  Rev.  James  M.  McDonald,  ordained  and 
installed  in  charge.  May  17,  1851.  In  1852,  a  church 
building  was  erected  on  the  present  site,  not  far  from 
the  village  of  Linton,  and  the  name  of  the  congrega- 
tion was  changed  to  Sharon.  The  increase  was  large, 
but  from  time  to  time  members  were  certified  to 
.constitute  other  congregations  or  removed  farther  West. 
By  declining  health.  Dr.  McDonald  was  compelled  to 
resign  the  pastorate  in  June,  1872,  and  died  a  few 
months  thereafter.  The  Rev.  Thomas  P.  Robb,  the 
present  pastor,  was  installed  in  July,  1874.  They 
occupy  a  commodious  church  building,  and,  in  many 
ways,  Sharon  is  one  of  the  best  country  congregations 
in  the  body.  Among  the  eldership  and  principal 
families  here  have  been  those  of  McElhinney,  Baird, 
Willson,  Glasgow,  Paris,  Sloss,  Reid,  Montgomery,  Hays, 
McConaghy,    Mclntire,    Huston,    Henderson,  Walkinshaw, 


Elliott,  Hensleigh,  Robb,  Carithers,  Cubit,  Cunningham,. 
Stevenson,    Marshall    and    Robinson. 

Kossuth.  This  congregation  was  also  situated  in 
Des  Moines  County,  and  was  formed  by  members 
from  Sharon,  September,  1865.  Rev.  Robert  Johnson 
was  installed  pastor  in  January,  1868,  and  was  released 
in  July,  1875.  By  the  death  of  elder  William  O. 
Lindsay,  the  congregation  was  disorganized  in  the 
winter  of  1876.  It  was  re-organized  in  October,  1877,. 
and  they  sold  their  '  church,  and  erected  another  in 
the  village  of  Mediapolis,  two  miles  distant.  Not 
receiving  another  pastor,  and  being  greatly  reduced  by 
emigration,  the  congregation  was  disorganized  in  April, 
1879,  and  the  remaining  members  were  certified  to- 
Linn    Grove. 

Linn  Grove.  This  was  formed  from  the  original 
Cedar  society  of  the  Sharon  congregation,  and  organized 
in  September,  1846,  and  now  situated  around  the  village 
of  Mediapolis  in  Des  Moines  County.*  Those  opposed 
to  the  ofifice  of  deacon  petitioned  and  were  granted 
the  organization  of  a  separate  congregation,  but  the 
Commission  of  Presbytery  appointed  for  this  work 
refused  to  do  so  because  a  deacon  could  not  be 
obtained  to  accept  the  office.  The  matter  was  then 
carried  up  to  Synod,  and  its  Commission  consisting  of 
Revs.  William  Slater  and  William  Milroy,  with  elder 
David  Boyd,  organized  the  Linn  Grove  congregation, 
without  deacons,  in  September,  1856.  There  were 
twenty-five  members,  and  Samuel  Hawthorne  and 
Daniel   Cook  were  chosen  ruling  elders.     The  first  pastor 

*  Sketch  by  Rev.  J.  W.  Dill,  in  R.  P.  &  C,  1884,  p.  437. 


was  the  Rev.  Charles  D.  Trumbull,  ordained  and 
installed  in  charge  in  January,  1864.  At  this  time 
they  erected  the  present  church  building.  Mr.  Trum- 
bull remained  in  charge  ten  years,  and  until  his  release 
in  April,  1874.  The  Rev.  Matthew  A.  Gault  was 
ordained  and  installed  pastor  in  May,  1875,  and 
released  in  October,  1877.  The  Rev.  John  W.  Dill 
was  installed  pastor  in  July,  1881,  and  was  released 
in  September,  1887.  The  elders  have  been  Samuel 
Hawthorne,  Daniel  Cook,  John  Logan,  Thomas  Mc- 
Connell,    Stephen    Bayles,    William    J.    McClemment    and 

A.  A.    McKee. 

Morning  Sun.  Around  this  thriving  town  a  con- 
gregation was  gathered,  and  formed  from  that  of 
:Sharon  in  July,  1873,  with  forty-six  members.  A 
•comfortable  frame  church  was  erected  in  Morning  Sun, 
and  they  have  enjoyed  a  good  degree  of  prosperity. 
The  Rev.  Charles  D.  Trumbull,  the  first  and  present 
pastor,  was  installed  in  April,  1874,  Among  the  elders 
here  have  been  Stephen  Bayles,  A.  W.  Cavin,  George 
Cunningham,    John     Mclntire     and     S.     E.     McElhinney. 

Rehoboth.  In  the  spring  of  1854,  a  colony  of 
•Covenanters  emigrated  from  Pennsylvania  and  settled 
near  the  present  town  of  Wyman,  in  Louisa  County, 
and  were  organized  as  the  Rehoboth  congregation  in 
•October,    1854.      In    December,    1854,    the    Rev.    Robert 

B.  Cannon,  from  whose  congregation  in  Pennsylvania 
most  of  the  members  had  emigrated,  was  installed 
the  pastor.  He  remained  in  charge  thirteen  years,  and 
gathered  quite  a  flourishing  congregation.  In  August, 
1874,    the    Rev.    Edward     G.     Elsey    was    ordained    and 


installed  in  charge,  and  remained  nearly  seven  years, 
and  until  his  release  in  April,  1881.  In  February, 
1886,  the  Rev.  James  A.  Black,  the  present  pastor^ 
was  installed.  They  possess  a  good  house  of  worship.. 
Of  the  eldership  have  been  A.  Charleton,  Jacob  W. 
Willson,  Joseph  Purvis,  William  McCrea,  John  Dougherty,. 
H.  F.  and  L.  M.  Samson,  William  Martin,  Thompson- 
Graham,    J.    B.    Dodds    and    Thomas    G.    Dunn. 

Washington.  The  congregation  now  collected  in 
Washington  was  organized  as  Washington  and  Amboy, 
in  November,  1863.  The  Rev.  Samuel  M.  Stevenson, 
who  had  missionated  in  this  field  for  several  years,  was 
installed  pastor  in  February,  1865,  and  remained  until 
October,  1871.  In  October,  1873,  the  Rev.  W.  Pollock- 
Johnston  was  installed  in  charge.  He  built  up  a  good 
congregation  and  conducted  a  flourishing  Academy.  He 
was  released  in  August,  1881.  In  December,  1882,  the 
Rev.  Thomas  A.  H.  Wylie,  the  present  pastor,  was 
ordained  and  installed  in  charge.  The  Amboy  branch 
was  dropped,  and  the  members  of  the  old  Ainsworth  con- 
gregation were  received  in  October,  1873.  Of  the  elders- 
here  are  mentioned  Hugh  Thompson,  David  Porter,  John 
Rowan,  J.  R.  Kirkpatrick,  W.  J.  Clyde,  J.  H.  Willson, 
R.  M.  Stevenson,  David  Love,  W.  S.  Wylie,  W.  B.  Hay 
and    H.  F.  Samson. 

Burlington.  At  different  times  the  city  of  Bur- 
lington offered  possibilities  for  becoming  a  center  of 
Covenanterism,  and,  in  1879,  was  regarded  as  a  mission 
station.  In  188 1,  the  Rev.  T.  A.  H.  Wylie  labored  here 
with  a  good  degree  of  success  under  the  Central  Board  of 


Missions.  The  members  there  are  in  connection  with 
the    Sharon    congregation. 

Davenport.  In  some  respects  the  city  of  Daven- 
port was  the  most  promising  point  in  the  State  of 
Iowa.  For  many  years  it  was  the  only  place  above 
St.  Louis  where  the  Mississippi  was  spanned  by  a 
bridge,  and,  being  situated  most  beautifully  at  the  foot 
of  the  Rock  Island  rapids,  in  a  healthy  location  and 
commanding  commercial  importance,  was  a  field  well 
worth  cultivating.  A  congregation  was  organized  in 
this  city  in  September,  1864,  principally  through  the 
efforts  of  John  B.  McElroy.  It  received  supplies  from 
Presbytery,  but,  by  the  removal  of  members,  it  became 
disorganized  in  May,  1869,  and  continued  to  occasionally 
receive    supplies    as  a  mission  station    until  May,   1883. 

HOPKINTON.  Covenanters  settled  in  Delaware  County, 
and  in  the  vicinity  of  this  village,  as  early  as  1850. 
In  the  fall  of  1855,  the  Rev.  William  L.  Roberts,  D.  D., 
removed  from  Sterling,  New  York,  and  took  charge  of 
this  promising  field.*  The  congregation  was  organized 
in  April,  1856,  and  was  called  "Maquoketa,"  after  the 
river  that  flows  past  the  village  of  Hopkinton,  and  was 
changed  to  the  present  name  in  1879.  Robert  Gilmore 
and  J.  B.  Whittaker  were  chosen  elders,  and  James 
Kilpatrick,  deacon.  Mr.  Roberts  continued  as  stated 
supply  until  May,  i860,  when  he  was  regularly  installed 
pastor.  In  December,  1864,  the  pastor  was  removed  by 
death.  In  April,  1867,  the  Rev.  David  H.  Coulter  was 
ordained  and  installed  pastor,  and  remained  in  charge 
until    October,    1874.     In    June,    1875,    the    Rev.    Robert 

*  Items  from  Mr.  James  Grier,  Sand  Spring,  Iowa. 


C.  Wylie  was  installed,  and  demitted  the  charge  in 
October,  1882,  to  labor  in  the  interests  of  National 
Reform.  In  September,  1886,  the  Rev.  Thomas  H. 
Acheson  was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge,  and  is 
the  present  efificient  pastor.  Of  the  principal  members 
have  been  James  Grier,  Robert  Gilmore,  Peter  Guthrie, 
James  Kilpatrick,  Andrew  Orr,  J.  B.  Whittaker,  William 
McGlade,  James  Douglas,  William  Morrison,  H.  M. 
Johnston,  Patterson  O.  Joseph,  R.  L.  Wallace,  William 

Grove  Hh.l.  Emigrants,  chiefly  from  southern  Ohio, 
settled  in  the  vicinity  of  Grove  Hill,  in  Bremer  County, 
in  1856,  and  continued  to  gather  until  the  congregation 
was  organized  in  October,  1861.  The  Rev.  Robert 
Hutcheson  continued  to  supply  them  until  his  installa- 
tion as  pastor  in  April,  1863.  He  resigned  the  charge 
in  May,  1867,  and  supplied  them  until  the  congregation 
was    disorganized    by  emigration    in    May,   1869. 

Hickory  Grove.  A  few  families  of  Covenanters 
from  Ohio  settled  in  Monroe  County,  and  not  far  from 
Albia,  in  1863.  They  were  followed  by  the  Rev.  James 
Love  in  1864,  and  he  ministered  to  them  until  the 
organization  as  Albia  in  October,  1865.  The  name 
was  changed  to  Hickory  Grove  in  May,  1872.  In 
April,  1866,  Mr.  Love  was  installed  pastor,  and  con- 
tinued in  this  relation  until  old  age  caused  his  release 
in  September,  1881.  In  September,  1882,  the  Rev. 
James  A.  Thompson,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed 
in  charge.  Of  the  elders  have  been  Joseph  Purvis 
and    James    Boyd. 

Walnut    City.     A    society    of    Covenanters  settled  in 


Appanoose  County,  and  near  this  city,  in  1865,  and 
were  organized  into  a  congregation  in  March,  1868. 
In  September,  1870,  the  Rev.  Isaiah  Faris  became  the 
first  and  only  pastor,  and  was  released  in  May,  1877. 
Not  obtaining  another  pastor,  many  emigrated,  and  the 
congregation  was  disorganized  in  April,  1884,  and  was 
regarded  as  a  mission  station.  James  W.  Dougherty, 
Matthew  Chestnut,  Samuel  Milligan  and  Joseph 
Stevenson     were    among   the    elders. 

Clarinda.  Emigrants  chiefly  from  Sharon  congrega- 
tion settled  in  the  far  west  Page  County,  as  the  nucleus 
of  the  present  Clarinda  congregation,  in  1852.  In 
those  days  there  were  no  railroads  in  this  country, 
and,  by  journeying  in  wagons  through  an  almost 
unsettled  country  they  found  a  resting  place  on  the 
rolhng  prairie  along  the  Nodaway  river.*  In  December, 
1855,  they  received  an  organization  when  there  were 
thirteen  families  and  thirty-three  members.  In  the  fall 
of  1856,  the  Rev.  Joseph  McCracken  found  his  way 
among  them  as  the  pastor-elect,  but,  by  the  badness 
of  the  roads  and  the  isolated  location,  the  Commis- 
sion did  not  install  him  until  July,  1857.  He  remained 
in  charge  less  than  two  years.  In  September,  1862, 
the  Rev.  David  McKee,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed 
in  charge.  Since  his  settlement  the  country  has  been 
wholly  transformed  by  the  building  of  numerous  rail- 
roads and  the  fine  cultivation  of  the  rich  prairies.  Of 
the  families  are  those  of  Willson,  Hutcheson,  Glasgow, 
Brown,     Gilmore,     Linn,     Caskey,     McDowell,       Tippin, 

*  Reformed  Presbyterian,  Vol.  20,  p.   128. 


Connerry,    Neill,     Aikin.     Whitehill,      McKee,    Pinkerton, 
McCalla,    McFarland. 

Long  Branxh.  A  little  south  of  Clarinda,  and  along 
the  Missouri  State  line,  is  situated  the  flourishing  con- 
gregation of  Long  Branch.  They  were  organized  in 
April,  1877,  and  for  two  years  enjoyed  the  stated 
labors  of  the  Rev.  Matthew  A.  Gault.  Mr.  Gault  was 
installed  the  pastor  in  October,  1880,  and  remained 
in  charge  two  years,  when  he  was  released  to  enter 
upon  the  work  of  National  Reform  in  the  West.  In 
October,  1887.  the  Rev.  B.  Melancthon  Sharp  was 
ordained  and  installed  pastor,  .  and  is  now  in  charge. 
Among  the  elders  here  are  J.  H.  Walkinshaw,  William 
McCrory  and  John  McElroy.  The  congregation  suffered 
the  loss  of  their  church  building  by  a  cyclone  a  few 
years  ago,  but  a  more  commodious  one  Avas  soon 
erected    in    the    town    of    Blanchard. 

Saint  Louis.  The  natural  location  of  the  city  of 
Saint  Louis  on  "the  father  of  waters,"  with  the  bound- 
less resources  of  the  agricultural  West,  with  its 
mineral,  manufacturing  and  commercial  advantages,  with 
transportation  by  water  and  rail,  at  once  commanded 
the  name  of  the  chief  city  in  the  Mississippi  Valley. 
A  few  Covenanters  had  gathered  in  this  emporium  of 
the  West  as  early  as  1840,  but  with  no  opportunity 
to  wait  upon  their  own  services.  The  congregation 
was  organized  in  the  old  Associate  Reformed  Church, 
April     2,    1846,     by     Rev.    James    Wallace,     with    elders 


James  Finley  and  John  Donnelly,  of  Illinois."'  Henr}- 
Dean  and  John  Moffit  were  chosen  ruling  elders. 
They  worshipped  principally  in  the  Associate  Reformed 
Church.  In  July,  1852,  the  Rev.  Andrew  C.  Todd 
was  ordained  and  installed  pastor,  and  at  that  time 
there  were  forty  members.  In  the  following  year, 
through  the  liberality  of  A.  G.  Gamble,  Esq.,  then 
Postmaster  of  Saint  Louis,  they  were  put  in  possession 
of  a  lot  of  ground,  now  at  the  corner  of  Gamble 
Avenue  and  Mercer  street,  where  they  erected  a  church 
building.  Mr.  Todd  resigned  the  charge  in  April, 
1857.  The  Rev.  Joseph  McCracken  was  installed 
pastor  in  October,  1859,  and  was  pastor  for  fifteen 
years,  when  he  was  translated  to  Geneva  College  in 
September,  1874.  In  September,  1877,  the  Rev.  James 
R.  Hill  was  installed  pastor,  and  released  in  April, 
1885.  Uniting  with  Staunton,  Illinois,  they  obtained 
a  part  of  the  time  of  the  Rev.  Ellsworth  M.  Smith,  who 
was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge  in  May,  1887. 
Among  the  principal  families  here  may  be  named  those 
of  Henry  Dean,  Dr.  John  McKinley,  John  Moffit,  George 
Thomas,  Thomas  Cox,  Silas  and  Robert  J.  Smith, 
Daniel  Williamson,  James  Kirk,  Samuel  W.  McClurkin, 
Thomas  Matthews,  John  Gass,  William  Patterson,  James 
Orr,  Henry  and  James  Martin,  Rev.  James  Wallace, 
John  Ingram,  William  C.  Bovard,  Zaccheus  G.  Willson, 
J.    P.    Montgomery. 

Sylvania.  a  few  Covenanters  settled  in  Dade 
County,  south-western  Missouri,  and  were  gathered  into 
a    society    chiefly  through   the    efforts  of  the  Rev.  James 

*  Covenanter,  Vol.  2,  p.  21. 


Wallace.  They  were  organized  into  a  congregation, 
August  10,  1 871,  with  forty-nine  members.  Fourteen 
of  these  were  received  from  the  Free  Presbyterian, 
United  Presbyterian,  Cumberland  Presbyterian,  Methodist 
and  Roman  Catholic  Churches.*  For  nearly  five  years 
they  were  supplied  by  Presbytery,  and,  in  1876,  the 
Rev.  Josiah  Dodds  labored  among  them  for  two  years. 
He  was  installed  pastor  in  May,  1878,  and  is  now  in 
charge.  W.  M.  Edgar,  William  Taylor,  R.  C.  McGee, 
Thomas  Crozier,  James  Coulter,  Philip  Eckard,  Hugh 
McCluey  and  Dr.  Robert  Dunlap  have  been  active  and 
representative    members. 

Cameron.  This  was  a  mission  station,  and  for  several 
years  supplied  by  the  Rev.  Robert  B.  Cannon.  No 
congregation    was    organized. 

Kansas  City.  A  few  Covenanters  are  now  living 
in  this  rapidly  growing  city,  and,  chiefly  through  the 
efforts  of  Mr.  David  Boyd,  arrangements  are  being 
made  for  the  organization  of  a  mission  of  which  Rev. 
J.    Milligan    Wylie    is    in    charge. 


The  congregations  in  the  great  West  have  been  so 
recently  organized,  and  the  membership  so  changeable, 
that  the  history  of  Covenanterism  in  this  vast  region 
is  not  ready  to  be  written.  With  few  exceptions, 
they  have  at  one  time  been  cultivated  by  the  Central 
Board  of  Missions,  and  some  of  them  are  now  receiving 
help    from    that    source.     Numerous    also    have    been    the 

*A'.  P.  d-  C,  1871,  p.  317. 


laborers  who  have  spent  a  few  months  in  different 
localities.  Societies  are  springing  up  all  over  the  West 
and  loudly  calling  for  help.  Home  Mission  work  is 
employing  laborers  whose  duty  it  is  to  gather  scattered 
families    into    societies    and    congregations. 

Olathe.  This  is  a  growing  town  and  destined 
soon  to  became  a  suburb  of  Kansas  City.  It  is  the 
capital  of  Johnston  County,  and  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  State.     The  congregation  was  organized  in   April, 

1865,  through  the  labors  of  the  Rev.  William  W.  Mc- 
Millan.    Mr.    McMillan    was    installed    pastor    in     March, 

1866,  and  labored  for  nearly  twenty  years  and  until 
his  release  in  October,  1885.  The  Rev.  Joseph  H. 
Wylie  was  installed  pastor  in  October,  1887.  Among 
the  families  here  are  those  of  Dr.  Bell,  Samuel  Dickey, 
J.  M.  Hutcheson,  Joseph  Thompson,  W.  S.  Mitchell, 
Thompson  and  Alexander  Moore,  John  Robinson, 
Walter  McCrea,  Samuel  and  Robert  Galbraith,  James 
M.  Renfrew,  John  Acheson,  James  Ritchie  and  James 

Pleasant  Ridge.  A  few  miles  from  Olathe,  in 
Johnston  County,  Pleasant  Ridge  is  located,  and  was 
originally  a  part  of  the  former  congregation.  It  received 
a  separate  organization  in  August,  1871.  The  Rev. 
Matthew  Wilkin  was  the  first  pastor,  installed  for  a. 
part  of  his  time,  in  May,  1874,  and  was  removed  by 
death  in  July,  1880.  In  October,  1881,  the  Rev.  R.. 
M.  C.  Thompson,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed.. 
Among  the  elders  have  been  J.  M.  Marvin,  John 
Sterritt,    T.    M.    and    James    Hutcheson. 

Winchester.     This     is    the     largest    congregation     of 


Covenanters  in  Kansas,  and  surrounds  the  growing 
town  of  Winchester,  the  capital  of  Jefferson  County, 
It  was  built  up  chiefly  through  the  labors  of  the  Rev. 
Josiah  Dodds,  and  was  organized  in  September,  1868. 
In  November,  1868,  Mr.  Dodds  became  the  pastor, 
and  remained  in  this  relation  eight  years.  In  August, 
1877,  the  present  pastor,  the  Rev.  David  H.  Coulter, 
was  installed  in  charge.  Among  the  members  here  are 
James  Thompson,  John  Moore,  David  Paris,  George 
Thomas,  W.  R.  Curry,  Hugh  Selders,  John  R.  Reynolds, 
Samuel  and  David  Dill,  William  McCrea,  David  Logan, 
James     R.    Mclntire,    James    White     and     John    Carson. 

North  Cedar.  North-west  of  Winchester,  and  in 
ihe  adjoining  County  of  Jackson,  is  the  flourishing  con- 
gregation of  North  Cedar.  It  was  cultivated  by  the 
Rev.  J.  S.  T.  Milligan  and  organized  in  October, 
1 87 1.  Since  October,  1872,  Mr.  Milligan  has  been  the 
pastor.  Of  the  elders  have  been  James  Keers,  J.  M. 
.Law,   J.    L.    Wright    and    William    Wylie. 

ESKRIDGE.  This  promising  congregation  is  located 
in  Wabaunsee  County,  south-west  of  the  city  of 
Topeka,  and  was  organized  in  April,  1884.  In  August, 
1886,  the  Rev.  Nathan  M.  Johnston  became  the 
pastor,    and    is    in    charge. 

Hebron.  There  are  two  congregations  in  Clay 
County,  and  near  Clay  Centre.  They  were  organized 
in  November,  1871,  as  Republican  City  and  Eagle 
Bend,  and  changed  to  Hebron  in  May,  1876.  The 
Rev.  J.  S.  T.  Milligan  supplied  it  for  several  years. 
The  Rev.  Samuel  M.  Stevenson  was  installed  pastor 
in     October,     1874,     and    released     in     April,     1876.     In 


November,  1876,  the  Rev.  Matthew  Wilkin  was  installed 
for  part  of  his  time,  and  was  removed  by  death  in 
July,  1880.  In  August,  1882,  the  Rev.  James  R. 
Latimer,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed  in  charge. 
J.  B.  Porter,  John  T.  Sanderson  and  A.  Copeland 
have    been    elders. 

Tabor.  The  other  congregation  in  Clay  County,  and 
near  Clay  Centre,  is  Tabor.  It  was  originally  a  part 
of  the  Republican  City  and  Eagle  Bend  congregation, 
and  received  a  separate  existence  in  October,  1873. 
Since  October,  1874,  the  Rev.  Samuel  M.  Stevenson  has 
been  the  pastor.  Of  the  elders  are  W.  B.  Whittaker, 
William   Rodgers    and    W.  B.   McElroy. 

Jewell.  On  the  northern  central  border  of  Kansas 
is  located  the  congregation  of  Jewell,  situated  in  the 
south-eastern  part  of  Jewell  County.  It  was  organized 
from  the  Rubens  and  Holmwood  congregation,  in  July, 
1885.  James  M.  Adams  and  S.  Y.  Hutcheson  are  corre- 

Holmwood.  This  is  situated  in  the  northern  part  of 
Jewell  County,  and  not  far  from  Mankato.  It  included 
Rubens,  and  was  organized  in  September,  1881.  J.  B, 
Alexander,  John  A.  Mclntire  and  George  M.  Tippin, 
are    elders. 

Sterling.  Near  the  center  of  the  State,  in  Rice 
County,  and  upon  the  Arkansas  river,  is  located  the 
congregation  of  Sterling.  It  was  organized  in  November, 
1877,  and  the  Rev.  John  M.  Armour  was  in  charge 
until  May,  1885.  The  Rev.  Preston  H.  Wylie  became 
the  pastor  in  April,  1887,  and  is  now  in  charge. 
Among     the     principal     families     are    those    of      W.    J. 


Connery,  James  Humphreys,  R.  H.  Matthews,  J.  M. 
Davis,  William  Lemon,  J.  Selfridge,  James  Frem,  William 
Davis    and    Nathaniel  Patton. 

Rochester.  Some  forty  miles  south  of  Sterling  is 
the  young  congregation  of  Rochester,  in  Kingman 
County.     It    was    organized  in  December,   1886. 

QuiNTER.  This  newly  organized  congregation  is 
situated  in  Gove  County,  and  in  the  western  part  of 
the    State.     It    was  organized    in  July,   1887. 

BURDETT.  Some  fifty  miles  west  of  Sterling,  and 
not  far  from  Larned,  Pawnee  County,  lies  the  congre- 
gation of  Burdett,  organized  in  July,  1887,  It  is 
supplied    by    the    Central  Board  of    Missions. 


Wahoo.  The  town  of  Wahoo  is  the  capital  of 
Saunders  County,  and  situated  some  forty  miles  directly 
west  of  the  city  of  Omaha.  The  other  society  of  the 
congregation  is  at  Fremont,  north-east  of  Wahoo,  in 
Dodge  County,  and  on  the  Platte  river.  They  were  long 
cultivated  by  the  Central  Board  of  Missions,  and 
organized  as  the  Wahoo  and  Fremont  congregation,  in 
December,  1871,  with  thirteen  members.  In  October, 
1877,  the  Rev.  James  A.  Thompson  became  the  pastor, 
and  was  released  in  May,  1880.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Hugh 
P.  McClurkin,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed  in 
February,  1884.  J.  M.  Lee,  Joseph  Manners  and  Frank 
L.  McClelland    are  among  the   leading  elders. 

Superior.  Situated  around  the  growing  town  of 
Superior,  in    Nuckolls    County,    on    the    Republican    river 


and  near  the  Kansas  line,  is  located  this  thriving 
congregation.  It  was  organized  in  September,  1881, 
and  the  Rev.  Robert  C.  Allen  became  the  pastor  in 
December,  1882,  and  was  released  in  October,  1884, 
The  congregation  lost  its  organization  in  May,  1885, 
but  was  re-organized  in  August,  1885.  The  Rev. 
Patterson  P.  Boyd    was  installed    pastor  in   March,    1888. 

Beulah.  This  congregation  is  situated  in  Webster 
County,  on  the  Republican  river,  some  fifteen  miles 
west  of  Superior.  It  was  organized  in  September,  1881. 
The  Rev.  William  S.  Fulton  has  been  pastor  for  a  part 
of  his  time    since    March,   1885. 

ECKLEY.  Some  miles  north  of  Beiilah,  in  Webster 
County,  lies  the  congregation  of  Eckley,  organized  in 
November,  1878,  with  seventeen  members.  The  Rev. 
William  S.  Fulton  has  been  the  pastor  for  part  of  his 
time  since  March,  1885.  David  and  D.  D.  Mearns,, 
Adam  Orr  and  William  H.  Middleton  are  among  the 
leading    members  and    officers. 


Evans.  A  colony  of  Covenanters,  chiefly  from- 
Southern  Illinois  and  lead  by  the  Rev.  Andrew  C. 
Todd,  settled  around  the  town  of  Evans,  in  Weld 
County,  in  the  northern  part  of  this  State,  in  the 
spring  of  1871.  The  situation  is  some  forty-five  miles 
north  of  the  city  of  Denver,  and  about  twenty-five 
miles  east  of  the  base  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and 
in  full  view  of  Long's  Peak  which  is  covered  with 
perpetual  snow.     The  congregation  received  an  organiza-  . 


tion  in  August,  1871,  and  Mr.  Todd  continued  to 
minister  to  them.  They  erected  a  neat  brick  church 
in  the  town  of  Evans.  Mr.  Todd  was  formally  installed 
pastor    in    August,    1874. 

La  Junta.  This  society  is  situated  in  Bent  County, 
in  south-eastern  Colorado.  This  is  a  new  field.  There 
live    the    families    of    J.    C.    Uodds    and    J.    M.    Hill. 

Denver.  A  few  families  of  Covenanters  are  living 
in    this    city,    but    no  organization  has  yet  been   effected. 

Sunnvdale.  This  society  of  Covenanters  is  situated 
near  the  villages  of  Sunnydale  and  Kent,  some  fifteen 
miles  from  the  city  of  Seattle,  on  Puget  Sound.  In 
1885,  two  families  from  Lake  Reno,  Minnesota,  settled 
in  this  locality  and  they  were  joined  by  elder  Dr. 
Ewing  from  Round  Prairie,  Minnesota,  two  years  later. 
In  October,  1887,  they  were  visited  by  the  Rev.  N. 
R.  Johnston,  of  California,  who  preached  to  them 
several  Sabbaths.  These  families  of  Covenanters  hold 
society  meetings,  conduct  a  prosperous  Sabbath  School, 
and  form  the  nucleus  of  a  congregation.  The  principal 
families  are  those  of  Dr.  W.  H.  PLwing,  D.  S.  Elsey 
and    S.    G.    Clark. 


Oakland.      Covenanters      have      reached     the     Golden 

•Gate.     In    1875,    the    Rev.  N.    R.    Johnston     and    family 

removed    to    this    city  and   opened    amission  among  the 

■Chinese.      A  few  scattered  families  of  Covenanters  reside 


in  different  parts  of  the  State.  In  August,  1879,  a 
mission  congregation  was  organized  in  Oakland,  by  a 
Commission  of  Synod  consisting  of  Rev.  N.  R.  Johnston, 
and  elders  S.  M.  McCloy  and  David  Mitchell,  of  Santa 
Anna.  Twenty-two  members  were  received,  ten  of 
whom  were  Chinese  converts,  and  John  Rice  and  Ju 
Sing  were  ordained  ruling  elders.  Mr,  Johnston  was 
placed  in  charge.  By  the  removal  of  elder  Rice  the 
congregation  was  disorganized  in  May,  1885,  and  Mr. 
Johnston  continues  to  preach  in  connection  with  the 

No  doubt  in  many  of  the  States  and  Territories  of 
the  great  West  there  are  numerous  scattered  families 
of  Covenanters,  but  so  far  as  is  known  to  collaters 
of  statistics,  all  the  organized  societies  have  been 

During  the  persecution  and  banishment  of  the  Cove- 
nanters from  Scotland  over  two  hundred  years  ago, 
many  of  them  settled  on  the  Eastern  Shore  of  Mary- 
land, in  parts  of  Virginia  and  South  Carolina,  but 
they  formed  no  separate  societies,  and  in  time  went 
into  the  different  Presbyterian  Churches  as  they  were 
formed  in  America.  During  the  rapid  flow  of  emigra- 
tion to  this  country  previous  to  1770,  the  Covenanters 
were  not  distinguished  by  historians  from  the  Scotch- 
Irish  Presbyterians,  and  the  early  history  of  these 
people,    as  a    distinct    class,    is    lost. 



Baltimore.  As  early  as  the  year  1797,  ^  f^^^'  families, 
of  Covenanters  resided  in  the  city  of  Baltimore.  At 
the  formation  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery,  in  the  spring 
of  1798,  the  Revs.  William  Gibson  and  James  McKinney 
were  directed  to  visit  the  people  in  this  city.  In  June,. 
1799,  the  Revs.  Samuel  B.  Wylie  and  Alexander  Mc- 
Leod,  at  that  time  licensed,  were  appointed  to  preach 
here,  which  they  did  as  often  as  convenient.  In  1802,. 
the  Rev.  Samuel  B.  Wylie  accepted  a  call  to  the  united 
congregations  of  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore,  and  was. 
installed  in  charge  in  November,  1803.*  Baltimore  had 
no  organization  and  was  in  a  feeble  condition.  Mr. 
Wylie  continued  to  preach  here  until  1806,  when  he 
demitted  this  branch  and  confined  his  labors  to  Phila- 
delphia. The  society  continued  to  increase  by  emigration, 
chiefly  from  Scotland,  and  they  continued  faithful  in 
the  society  meetings.  In  181 2,  they  bought  the  old 
Associate  Reformed  Church,  at  the  corner  of  Aisquith 
and  Fayette  streets,  and  enjoyed  regular  supplies.  The 
students  of  the  Philadelphia  Seminary  were  frequent  in 
their  visits,  and  gave  the  Baltimoreans  an  opportunity 
to  choose  a  pastor.  In  the  spring  of  1818,  they  invited 
the  Rev.  John  Gibson,  then  a  licentiate,  and  who  had 
preached  for  them  a  few  days,  to  return  to  Baltimore, 
urging  that  the  prospects  for  a  large  congregation 
were  very  flattering.  This  he  declined  to  do;  partly 
from  motives  of  delicacy,  and  partly  because  ordered 
elsewhere  by  the  direction  of    Presbytery.     A   unanimous 

*  From  the  Congregational  records  and  other  sources. 


^call  was  made  out  in  his  favor  in  April,  1818,  and 
accepted.  In  July,  18 18,  Mr.  Gibson  came  to  Baltimore 
and  began  his  labors,  but  unforeseen  circumstances 
delayed  his  ordination  five  months.  The  Baltimore 
congregation  was  regularly  organized  by  Revs.  Alexander 
McLeod,  Robert  Lusk  and  William  Gibson,  December 
15,  18 1 8,  with  forty  members,  and  Rev.  John  Gibson 
was  ordained  and  installed  pastor.  James  McCauseland, 
John  McLean  and  John  Anderson  were  ordained  ruling 
elders,  and  John  Mortimer  was  appointed  to  read  out 
the  lines,  and  sing  the  few  tunes  selected  by  the  Board 
of  Trustees.  Probably  the  first  Covenanters  in  Baltimore 
were  James  Fletcher,  James  McCauseland,  Robert 
Carothers  and  John  McLean  from  Scotland;  Mrs.  James 
Black,  John  Anderson  and  Samuel  Moody,  from  Ireland. 
In  1 8 19,  emigration  from  Europe  began  to  flow  in 
rapidly,  and  among  those  who  were  added  to  the 
Church  this  year  were  Samuel  Boyd,  Archibald  McGill, 
Alexander  McCracken,  John  Neilson  and  James  Wooden. 
The  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  supper  was,  for  the  first 
time,  administered  on  December  19,  18 19,  and  the  pastor 
was  assisted  by  Revs.  Alexander  McLeod  and  Robert 
Lusk.  In  1820,  John  Milroy,  William  and  Samuel 
Gumming,  and  Samuel  Russell,  from  Scotland;  and 
Patrick  May  and  Patrick  Boyd,  from  Ireland,  were 
among  those  added  to  the  congregation.  In  1821,  forty 
persons  were  added  to  the  Church,  among  whom  were 
the  families  of  David  Graham,  Dr.  J.  Harper,  John 
McElroy,  John  Wood,  Walter  Russell,  James  Kirkpatrick, 
John  McElwee,  Hugh  Connell,  Samuel  Henry,  James 
Logan,    Willoughby    Lewis,    Robert    Bates,    John     Little, 


Joshua  David,  John  Murphy  and  Arthur  Baxter.  In 
1822,  eighteen  were  added,  among  whom  were  James 
Crawford,  John  Campbell,  Hugh  McConnell,  John  Davis, 
James  Brown,  Samuel  Morrison  and  Alexander  Scott, 
Willoughby  Lewis  and  David  Graham  were  added  to 
the  session.  May  18,  1822.  In  1823,  thirty-five  more 
members  were  added  to  the  roll,  chiefly  from  Scotland. 
Of  these  emigrants  were  John  Waugh,  James  Mc- 
Collum,  Samuel  Boyd,  Edward  Spence,  Patrick  Dickey, 
George  Smith,  John  Boyd,  John  Fisher,  Jarnes  Char- 
tiers,  Alexander  Hamilton,  John  Hamel,  Daniel  Lough- 
ridge,  William  Stavely,  William  Waddell,  Moses  Roney, 
William  Johnston,  James  Dykes,  Edward  Hamilton, 
William  Pettigrew,  John  McQuown  and  John  Arnold. 
For  five  or  six  years  the  congregation  added  many 
members  to  its  communion,  and,  in  1830,  was  one 
of  the  largest  and  wealthiest  congregations  in  the 
body.  There  were  over  three  hundred  members. 
John  Mortimer,  Patrick  Dickey  and  James  Smith  were 
ordained  ruling  elders  in  April,  1828.  The  church 
now  became  too  small  to  accommodate  the  worshippers 
who  flocked  to  hear  the  eloquence  of  Mr.  Gibson. 
In  1829,  the  church  at  Aisquith  and  Fayette  streets 
was  sold,  and  the  congregation  bought  a  lar^e  and 
commodious  church  at  the  corner  of  Holliday  and 
Saratoga  streets.  Here  large  audiences  waited  upon 
the  services,  and  many  were  added  to  the  Church.  A 
laxness  in  discipline  followed  this  great  success,  and 
members  were  not  always  excluded  from  secret  societies 
and  the  privileges  of  citizens.  As  a  natural  conse- 
quence,   during    the     division    of     the     Church    in     1833,. 


Mr.  Gibson  and  nearly  the  whole  congregation,  left 
the  principles  of  the  Church,  and  went  into  the  Pres- 
byterian and  other  bodies.  The  faithful  remnant  were 
left  in  charge  of  the  church  property,  but  it  was 
too  large  for  them  to  use,  and  a  debt  was  upon  it. 
They  then  organized  themselves  into  a  society,  sold 
the  church  and  paid  off  the  debt,  and  the  same  year 
bought  a  little  mission  church  on  Gallow's  Hill,  with- 
out seats  and  a  brick  floor,  which  is  the  original  of 
the  present  church  building  on  Harford  Avenue  and 
Chase  street.  They  spent  a  considerable  sum  on 
repairs,  and  asked  for  supplies.  At  the  re-organization, 
November  lo,  1833,  there  were  about  forty  members, 
and  James  Hunter,  Samuel  Reid  and  Hugh  Crocket 
were  added  to  the  session.  During  this  year  Patrick 
Morrow,  John  Dickson,  David  Warwick,  Robert  Mc- 
Rosey,  William  Laughlin  and  John  McCrory  were 
among  those  added  to  the  Church.  Soon  they  were 
followed  by  James  Duncan,  Patrick  Hall,  Andrew 
Mabin  and  William  Robinson.  The  Rev.  William  L. 
Roberts  was  installed  pastor  in  January,  1835.  During 
this  year  Matthew  Cowan,  James  Dickson,  John  Henry, 
James  Jackson,  Samuel  Russell,  William  J.  Dickey, 
James  Ganston,  Gregory  Barrett,  James  Stewart  and 
John  Russell  were  added  to  the  membership.  John 
Ford  and  William  Wylie  were  elected  elders,  January 
23,  1837.  During  this  3'ear,  Mr.  Roberts  made  a 
protracted  Avar  upon  the  milk  dealers  who  delivered 
milk  upon  the  Sabbath  day.  As  many  influential 
members  were  engaged  in  this  business,  the  Church 
suffered    greatly    by    their    suspension,    and  the    abandon- 


ment    by    others.      Mr.    Roberts    resigned    the    charge    in 
October,    1837,    ^^^    James    Hunter,    Hugh    Crocket,    and 
others,  went   with    him    to  SterHng,  New  York.     Among 
those     who    supplied     during    the     next    few    years,    was 
Francis    Gailey,   whom    they    called.     Mr.  W.    J.     Dickey 
was    the    commissioner    to     the     Presbytery     meeting    in 
New    York    to    urge    the    call,   but    upon    the    way     with 
Mr.    Gailey    he    discovered   his    duplicity,     and     that     he 
■did    not    intend     to     accept     their     invitation.       The    call 
was    declined.     Mr.    Gailey    frequently    returned  to  Balti- 
more   and    preached,    and,    when    he    made  defection  and 
was    suspended    in    October,     1838,    he     took    the    great 
majority    of  the   members    with    him,   and    they    retained 
the    church    property.     The    congregation  was  again  dis- 
organized,   and    the    few    faithful    Covenanters     were    left 
without    a    house     of    worship.      They     resorted     to     the 
prayer    meetings,    which    were    held  from  house  to  house, 
and    generally    at    the    home    of    Mr.    William     Gumming 
in    the    eastern     suburb     of     the     city.       Preaching     was 
occasionally  enjoyed,    and    they    were    visited     by    Revs. 
David    Scott,    Thomas   Hanna    and     Charles    B.     McKee, 
The    case    of   the    right     of    the     property    entered    the 
civil    courts,    and    the    trial    was    postponed  from  time  to 
time.     In    1842,    the    congregation    was    re-organized  and 
the   Rev.    Charles   B.    McKee,    to    whom  all  honor  is  due 
for  the    existence   of   the  congregation,  was  made  stated 
supply    in    1844.     He    preached    and    taught    a    classical 
school,  and    in    this    way     the     cause     was     maintained. 
The    small   congregation  now  worshipped  in  Union  Hall, 
on    the   corner    of    Baltimore    and    Holliday    streets,    and 
subsequently    in    the     church     of     the     New     Jerusalem 


Society  at  the  corner  of  Baltimore  and  Exeter  streets. 
At  the  re-organization  of  the  congregation,  July  17, 
1842,  James  Wright  and  James  Dickson  were  chosen 
ruling  elders.  The  Rev.  Charles  B.  McKee  was  installed 
pastor  in  December,  1846,  and  the  congregation  began 
to  grow.  After  the  church  property  had  been  in  the 
courts  for  ten  years,  and  every  effort  had  been  made 
to  obtain  possession  of  the  church,  a  present  member 
of  the  congregation  entered  the  church  and  remained 
there  until  it  was  opened  by  the  authorities,  and  when 
he  was  found  in  the  building,  the  court  decided  that 
the  Covenanters  held  the  property  by  right  of  posses- 
sion. After  paying  a  part  of  the  costs,  the  congregation 
has  worshipped  in  their  own  house  unmolested  for 
forty  years.  The  Rev.  Charles  B.  McKee  left  the 
communion  of  the  Church  in  December,  1852,  and  the 
congregation  suffered  another  loss.  They  numbered 
about  sixty  members,  and  were  determined  to  make  an 
effort  to  obtain  another  pastor.  The  Rev.  John  Craw- 
ford was  ordained  and  installed  pastor  in  November, 
1853.  Henry  Smyth  and  Patrick  Morrow  were  added 
to  the  session  in  May,  1854.  Mr.  Crawford  died  in 
September,  1856,  much  lamented  by  the  congregation 
and  Church.  The  Rev.  William  W.  McMillan  was 
ordained  and  installed  in  charge  in  December,  1859. 
D.  James  Cumming  and  William  McLean  were 
ordained  elders  in  November,  i860.  Mr.  McMillan  had 
a  great  deal  to  contend  with,  as  times  were  financially 
hard  and  the  war  of  the  rebellion  was  in  progress. 
The  city  was  in  arms  and  many  of  the  members  had 
enlisted.     Mr:    McMillan    resigned    the    charge    in     May, 


1863,  and  for  various  reasons  the  congregation  was 
greatly  reduced.  In  August,  1864,  the  Rev.  W.  Pollock 
Johnston  was  installed  in  charge.  In  1868,  the  church 
was  wholly  remodeled  and  a  small  Sabbath  School 
room  was  put  under  the  church.  Matthew  H.  Wright 
and  D.  Oliver  Brown  were  ordained  elders  in  October, 
1 87 1.  Mr.  Johnston  resigned  the  charge  in  July,  1873. 
The  Rev.  John  Lynd  was  ordained  and.  installed  in 
charge  in  December,  1873,  and  resigned  in  November, 
1877.  In  October,  1878,  the  Rev.  Alfred  D.  Crowe 
was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge.  Captain  James 
M.  Shackelford  and  Joseph  M.  Smith  were  chosen 
ruling  elders  in  November,  1880,  and  in  October,  1881, 
James  S.  Mullen  and  George  A.  Maben  were  added 
to  the  session.  Mr.  Crowe  resigned  in  August,  1884, 
on  account  of  impaired  health,  and  died  a  few  months 
thereafter  in  Rochester,  New  York.  In  November, 
1885,  W.  Melancthon  Glasgow,  the  present  pastor, 
was  ordained  and  installed  in  charge.  Among  the 
members  not  already  mentioned  are  recorded  the 
names  of  George  Crocket,  John  Cummings,  John 
Coulter,  Alexander  Kinnear,  John  McGowan,  Robert 
Lamb,  John  Rodgers,  William  Ross,  John  McLean, 
Professors  James  R.,  Hugh,  and  Alexander  M.  Newell, 
Dr.  John  Dickson,  Alexander  Harbison,  John  McKinney, 
Fergus  and  James  Johnston,  William  Knox,  John  B. 
Crocket,  WilHam  W.  Russell,  H.  W.  Calderwood, 
Thomas  Moore,  William  Irwin,  John  Wright,  James 
Maben,  W.  C.  Purvis,  Thomas  McGowan,  James 
Mitchell,  Adam  Wallace,  W.  J.  Hughes,  Robert  Hunter, 
Robert     Hughes,     Captain     William     Hunt,     George    W. 


Marshall,  George  B.  and  George  M.  Cummings,  John 
H.  McGowan,  Joseph  Bowes,  J.  Renwick  Cummings, 
J.    T.    Plummer,    Walter    Nicholson,    John    F.    Bachen. 


SUFP^OLK.  A  few  families  from  Western  Pennsylvania 
removed  to  the  country  below  the  Chesapeake  Bay,  and 
near  the  town  of  Suffolk,  in  the  south-eastern  corner 
of  Virginia,  and  were  organized  as  a  mission  station  in 
November,  1876.  They  were  sustained  chiefly  by  the 
Philadelphia  Presbytery  ;  and  the  ministers  of  that  court, 
and  the  Rev.  James  L.  Pinkerton  supplied  them  for 
some  time.  The  mission  was  disorganized  in  May,  1881, 
by  the  removal  of  some  of  the  colony,  and  others  going 
into  the  United  Presbyterian  Church.  Among  the 
families  of  this  colony  were  those  of  John  Haslett, 
John    Galbraith,  Thompson    Gilleland  and  John    Steele. 


HePHZIBAH.  This  once  flourishing  congregation  was 
situated  along  the  Elk  river,  near  Fayetteville,  in 
Lincoln  County.  As  early  as  the  year  1807,  the  families 
of  Alexander  Morton,  John  Paul,  John  Murdoch,  and 
others,  from  South  Carolina,  located  in  this  vicinity,  and 
were  visited  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Donnelly.*  In  1809, 
and  in  18 10,  other  families  from  South  Carolina  joined 
them,  and  the  Rev.  John  Kell  preached  to  them.  The 
congregation    was    organized    June    12,    1812,    as  the  Elk 

*  Reformed  Preshytetian  Advocate,   I'&'ji,    p.    160. 


congregation,  by  Rev.  John  Reilly,  of  South  Carolina, 
and  elder  William  Edgar,  of  Duck  river,  with  eighteen 
members.  At  this  time  Samuel  Little  and  Alexander 
Morton  were  chosen  ruling  elders.  The  sacrament  of 
the  Lord's  supper  was  administered  in  the  open  woods, 
God's  first  temple,  beneath  the  shade  of  a  wide  spreading 
beech.  In  1815,  they  were  visited  by  Robert  Lusk, 
licentiate,  and,  in  1818,  they  called  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Wylie,  but  he  declined  on  account  of  the  prevalence  of 
slavery.  In  the  spring  of  1822,  Hugh  McMillan,  and 
in  the  fall  of  the  same  year,  Gavin  McMillan,  came 
and  preached  with  much  acceptance  to  the  people. 
Rev.  Gavin  McMillan  declined  a  call  tendered  him.  The 
Rev.  Robert  Lusk  dispensed  the  next  communion  in  a 
grove,  in  October,  1822,  at  which  time  James  Blair, 
John  Carithers  and  James  Morton  were  added  to  the 
session,  the  former  elders  having  removed  to  Illinois. 
In  1823,  they  erected  a  log  church.  In  1825,  the  Rev. 
Robert  McKee,  licentiate,  preached  six  months  and 
received  a  unanimous  call.  He  declined  on  account  of 
the  prevalence  of  slavery.  In  1826,  the  Rev.  James 
Faris  visited  them,  and  the  congregation  had  grown  to 
one  hundred  members.  In  1828,  Revs.  James  Faris  and 
Ebenezer  Cooper  dispensed  the  sacraments,  and  Thomas 
Morton,  Thomas  Blair,  Andrew  Carithers  and  William 
Wyatt  were  added  to  the  session.  Mr.  Cooper  was 
now  called  to  the  pastorate,  accepted,  returned  to 
the  Northern  Presbytery,  and  was  ordained  in  June, 
1828.  When  he  came  back  to  the  congregation  for 
settlement,  which  now  changed  its  name  from  Elk  to 
Hephzibah,  he    declined  being    installed  pastor,  giving  as 


reasons  the  prevalence  of  slavery  and  the  great  distance 
from  his  ministerial  brethren?  In  1832,  Mr.  Cooper,  and 
the  great  majority  of  the  congregation,  emigrated  to 
Fayette  County,  Indiana,  on  account  of  the  evils  of 
slavery.  In  1833,  the  society  became  identified  with 
the    New  School    body,  and    is  now   about    extinct. 

Duck  River.  A  few  families  from  South  Carolina 
settled  along  Duck  river,  in  Hickman  County,  south- 
west of  the  city  of  Nashville,  in  18 10,  but  afterwards 
removed    to  Illinois    and   Indiana. 

RODGERSVILLE.  A  small  colony  from  South  Carolina, 
and  emigrants  from  Ireland,  settled  along  the  Holston 
river,  Hawkins  County,  in  East  Tennessee,  in  the  early 
part  of  the  present  century.  Some  of  them  afterwards 
emigrated  to  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  and  other  free  States. 
Among  these  families  were  Patrick  Murphy,  Dr.  Archi- 
bald   and  Samuel  McKinney. 


Selma.  The  city  of  Selma  was  selected  by  the 
Central  Board  of  Missions  as  the  seat  of  the  Southern 
Mission  in  1874,  and  the  Rev.  Lewis  Johnston  was 
placed  in  charge.  The  Selma  congregation  was  organ- 
ized May  21,  1875,  with  twenty-five  members,  four  of 
whom  were  certified  from  the  Baptist  Church,  three 
from  the  Presbyterian,  one  from  the  Methodist,  and 
twelve  were  received  from  the  world.  Lewis  Johnston, 
Sr.,  and  George  M.  Elliot,  previously  ordained  for  the 
field,  and  Daniel  W.  Boxley  were  chosen  elders. 
This     was     the     first     Covenanter     congregation     of    the 


sable  race  ever  organized  in  America,  and  the  Rev. 
Lewis  Johnston  was  installed  pastor.  Mr.  Johnston 
was  suspended  in  November,  1876.  The  Rev.  George 
M.  Elliot,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed  in  Decem- 
ber, 1877.  John  Willdee  and  James  H.  Pickens  were 
elected  elders.  The  Revs.  Hugh  W.  Reed  and  J.  W. 
Dill  preached  at  Pleasant  Grove,  six  miles  from  Selma, 
where    there    is    conducted  a    flourishing    Sabbath  School. 


There  was  a  society  of  Covenanters  near  the  present 
town  of  Louisville,  in  eastern  Georgia,  as  early  as 
1780,  to  which  the  Rev.  William  Martin  frequently 
preached.  At  the  meeting  of  the  Committee  of  the 
Reformed  Presbytery  at  Rocky  Creek,  South  Carolina, 
in  February,  1801,  a  petition  was  received  from  this 
society  for  ministerial  assistance.  The  Committee 
•directed  the  Rev.  Thomas  Donnelly  to  visit  the  society, 
and  if  he  found  it  practicable  to  attach  it  to  the 
Rocky  Creek  congregation ;  and  if  not,  to  endeavor 
to  send  them  supplies.  There  is  no  record,  however, 
of  any  organization  in  Georgia,  although  groups  of 
families    lived    within    the    limits    of   this    State. 


Charlotte.  A  large  number  of  Covenanters  lived 
within  the  bounds  of  Mecklenberg  County,  and  were 
visited  by  Rev.  William  Martin  previous  to  1785. 
They    gradually     migrated    back    to  South    Carolina,  and 


other  States,  after  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  and  no 
organization  beyond  the  society  meeting  was  ever 

Statesville.  Still  farther  north  in  Iredell  County, 
and  near  the  present  village  of  Statesville,  was  a 
society  of  Covenanters  in  1780,  also  visited  by  the 
Rev.  William  Martin.  Indeed  all  through  the  southern 
and  eastern  parts  of  North  Carolina  there  were  a  few 
societies  occasionally  visited  by  the  ministers  in  the 
South,  but  were  never  formally  organized  into  congrega- 
tions or    had    a    settled    ministr)\ 


Chester  District.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  a  few  banished  Covenanters  settled  at 
Port  Royal  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Charleston,  but  on 
account  of  the  unhealthy  condition  of  the  country 
they  either  migrated  to  Chester  District  or  returned 
to  Scotland.  Soon  Chester  District  became  the  strong- 
hold of  Covenanterism  in  the  South.  In  1750,  soon 
after  the  removal  of  the  Rev.  Alexander  Craighead 
to  the  South,  a  few  members  of  the  "  Craighead 
Society"  at  Octorara,  Pennsylvania,  and  other  Cove- 
nanters from  Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  settled  in 
this  region.  Among  these  were  Hugh  and  John  Mc- 
Donald. They  settled  along  the  Rocky  Creek .  and 
were  the  pioneers  of  Chester.*  John  McDonald  and 
his  wife  were  both  killed  by  the  Cherokee  Indians  in 
1 76 1,     and    their     children     were     made     prisoners.       In 

*  Sketch  by  D.  G.  Stinson  per  R.  B.  Elder,  Guthriesville,  S.  C. 


1755,  emigrants  from  Ireland  began  to  settle  up  the 
country,  and  among  these  were  many  Covenanter 
families.  They  built  a  union  church  and  the  Rev. 
William  Richardson,  of  Waxhaws,  became  the  preacher. 
The  church  was  called  "Catholic,"  because  Presby- 
terians generally  worshipped  there,  and  this  general 
meeting  house  was  situated  on  the  Rocky  Mount 
road,  some  fifteen  miles  south-east  of  the  town  of 
Chester.  In  1770,  the  Covenanters  separated  from  the 
others  and  held  society  meetings.  They  then  wrote  to 
Ireland  for  a  preacher  and  made  every  effort  to  obtain 
a  minister.  In  accordance  with  their  wishes,  the  Rev. 
William  Martin,  of  Ballymoney,  Ireland,  came  with  a 
colony  of  his  people  in  1772,  and  settled  along  the 
Rocky  Creek.  No  imaginary  picture  has  been  drawn 
when  a  description  of  the  manners  and  customs  of  these 
patriotic  Covenanters  is  given  by  Mrs.  E.  F.  Ellet  in 
her  "Domestic  History  of  the  American  Revolution,"" 
and  written  by  Mr.  Daniel  G.  Stinson,  whose  father 
was  a  member  of  this  colony.  This  chapter  of  inter- 
esting   Covenanter    history    will    here    be   inserted : 

An  interesting  glimpse  into  the  life  and  character  of  the  Scotch- 
Irish  patriots  of  South  Carolina  at  the  period  of  the  Revolution  is 
afforded  in  the  history  of  Mrs.  Green,  daughter  of  Robert  Stephenson 
(or  Stinson,)  a  native  of  Scotland,  who  was  born  in  the  County 
Antrim,  Ireland,  in  1750.  The  family  was  reared  in  the  strictest 
tenents  of  the  Covenanter  faith,  in  the  vicinity  of  Ballymoney,  under 
the  pastoral  care  of  the  Rev.  William  Martin,  who,  in  1772,  emigrated 
to  America,  and  settled  on  the  Rocky  Creek,  South  Carolina.  Many 
of  the  congregation  quitted  their  country  with  him,  and  followed  their 
pastor  under  impulse  of  the  same  desire  of  the  "  freedom  to  worship 
God."  Among  these  emigrants  were  James,  William  and  Elizabeth 
Stinson,  and  their  brother-in-law,  William  Anderson,  who  married  Nancy 


Stinson  before  the  sailing  of  the  ship.  Her  wedded  life  thus  com- 
menced with  a  voluntary  renunciation  of  home  and  the  society  of 
early  friends,  to  seek  a  new  country  and  to  encounter  unforeseen 
privations  and  difficulties.  Bounty  lands  had  been  bestowed  by  the 
government  as  inducements  to  emigration,  and  those  who  received  such 
warrants,  upon  their  arrival  took  great  care  to  fix  their  location  as 
near  as  possible  to  a  central  point,  where  a  meeting  house  might  be 
built.  Their  spirit  was  that  of  the  ancient  patriarch,  who  first  built 
an  altar.  The  spot  selected  for  this  purpose  was  the  dividing  ridge 
between  Great  and  Little  Rocky  Creeks.  Here,  in  the  summer  of  1773, 
these  pious  Covenanters  might  be  seen  from  day  to  day,  felling  trees 
and  clearing  a  space  of  ground  upon  which  they  reared  a  large  log 
meeting  house,  many  of  them  living  in  tents  at  home,  till  a  place 
was  provided  in  which  they  could  assemble  for  religious  service.  A 
number  of  log  cabins  soon  rose  in  the  neighborhood,  each  with  a 
patch  of  ground  in  which  Indian  corn  was  planted.  The  Irish 
emigrants  were  ignorant  of  the  manner  of  cultivating  this  grain  ;  but 
the  first  settlers,  or  "  country-borns "  were  ready  to  offer  assistance 
and  took  pains  to  instruct  them  in  its  culture.  The  wants  of  small 
families  were  supplied  with  small  crops,  for  corn  was  only  then  used 
for  making  bread,  the  woods  affording  abundant  supplies  of  grass 
cane  and  wild  pea  vines  to  serve  their  horses  and  cattle  for  provender 
the  whole  year  round.  The  streams  abounded  in  shad  and  various 
other  fish  in  their  season,  and  the  trusty  rifle  that  hung  upon  the 
rack  over  the  door,  was  never  brought  back  without  having  performed 
its  duty  in  slaying  the  deer,  or  whatever  small  game  might  be  sought 
in  the  forest.  Often  have  the  old  men  who  lived  in  that  day  spoken 
of  the  abundance  that  prevailed  ;  a  good  hunter,  when  he  chose, 
could  make  five  dollars  a  day  in  deer  skins  and  hams,  while,  if 
generous,  he  might  give  away  the  remainder  of  the  venison  to  the 
poor.  The  hams  and  skins  were  sent  to  Charleston  and  exchanged 
for  powder,  lead,  and  other  necessary  articles.  The  wealth  of  these 
primitive  Covenanters  consisted  in  stock,  their  labors  in  tilling  the 
earth,  felling  the  woods  and  fencing  their  fields,  while  they  were 
disturbed  by  none  of  the  wants  or  cares  created  by  a  more  advanced 
state  of  civilization.  Such  was  the  condition  of  the  Covenanters,  who 
had  left  their  native  Ireland,  for  the  religious  liberty  found  in  the 
wilds  of  America.  During  seven  years  after  their  settlement  in  the 
woods,    they   enjoyed   a  life   in   which    nothing    of    earthly   comfort    was 


wanting.     Year   after  year   the    patch    enlarged,    the    field    becoming    to 
-the   respectable   dimensions   of  ten   acres,   and  then   a   good   clearing  for 
a     farm.      Every     Sabbath     morning     the     parents,    in     their    "  Sunday 
clothes,"   with    their    neatly   dressed   and  well-behaved    little   ones,    might 
be  seen    at    the    log  meeting-house  ;    their   pocket    Bibles  containing    the 
old  Psalms  in    their   hands,    and,    turning  over    the    leaves,    they    would 
follow    the    preacher    in    all    the    passages  of   Scripture  cited  by  him,  as 
he   commented  upon    the    verses.     Their    simple,    trustful     piety     caused 
ihe   wilderness  to    rejoice..     But    this    happiness    could    not    be    lasting. 
The   rumour  of  war  which    had  gone  over  the   land,    was  heard  even  in 
this   remote   section,    and   these   refugees    who    had    found    peace    could 
not   but   sympathize   with    their   oppressed   brethren.     Some,    it    is    true, 
from   the   vicinity,  had   been  out   in   what  was  called    "  the   Snow   Cam- 
paign,"   an   expedition   undertaken    towards    the    close    of   1775    against 
the  fierce   Cherokee   Indians   and   certain   loyalists  in  the  upper  regions ; 
and   some   had  been   present  at   the   attack    on  Sullivan's  Island  in   1776, 
and   brought  a   report    to    those    remaining    at    home.      The    desolation 
that   raged  in   the   North    ere   long    took    its    way    Southward,    and    the 
families  which    were   unmolested,    and    had    enjoyed  the  pure  ordinances 
of    the     gospel,     were    now    disturbed.       This     immunity    was    of    short 
duration.     John    McClure,    of  Fishing    Creek,    came    home    and   brought 
the   intelligence  of   the  surrender    of   Charleston,    and    his   own  defeat  at 
Monk's    Corner.     Still    worse  news   came    from    across  the    river — of   the 
inhuman    massacre    of  Buford's  command    by  Tarleton's   corps    at   Wax- 
haws.     This    event    gave    a    more    sanguinary    character    to    the    war. 
Directly   after  this   appalling   announcement,   spread   the   rumour   that   a 
strong   party    of   British  was   posted   at    Rocky    Mount,    that    the    people 
of  Wateree   were    flocking   to  take  protection    as  loyal  subjects,  and  that 
the  conquerers   were  sending   forces   in    every    direction    to    reduce    the 
Province   to  subjection.     Such  was   the   aspect  of  affairs  up  to  a  certain 
Sabbath   in  June,    1780.     On    the   morning    of   this    memorable    Sabbath, 
ihe   different  paths   leading   up   to   the   log   meeting  house    were   unusu- 
ally crowded.     The    old    country    folk    were    dressed    with    their    usual 
neatness,   especially   the   women,    whose    braw    garments,    brought    from 
Ireland,    were  carefully    preserved,    not    merely    from     thrift,    but    as    a 
memorial    of   the  green  isle  of  their  birth.     Their  dresses  of  silk,  chintz, 
or    Irish    calico — fitted    each    wearer    with    marvelous    neatness,    and    the 
collars   or   ruffles   of   linen,    white  as   snow,    and    the    high-heeled   shoes. 
They    wore    fur   hats    with    narrow    rims    and    large    feathers  ;    their  hair 


neatly  braided,  hanging  over  the  shoulders  or  fastened  by  the  black 
ribbon  band  around  their  heads,  comprised  their  holiday  attire.  It 
was  always  a  mystery  to  the  dames,  who  had  spent  their  lives  or 
many  years  in  the  country,  how  the  gowns  of  the  late  comers  could 
be  made  to  fit  so  admirably  ;  their  own,  in  spite  of  every  effort, 
showing  a  sad  deficiency  in  this  respect.  The  men,  on  their  part, 
appeared  not  less  adorned  in  their  coats  of  fine  broadcloth,  with  their 
breeches,  large  knee  buckles  of  pure  silver,  and  hose  of  various  colors. 
They  wore  shoes  fastened  with  a  large  strap  secured  with  a  buckle, 
or  white  topped  boots,  leaving  exposed  three  or  four  inches  of  the 
hose  from  the  knee  downward.  It  must  be  acknowledged  that  these 
people,  so  strict  in  their  religious  principles,  were  somewhat  remarkable 
in  their  fondness  for  dress.  They  considered  it  highly  irreverent  to  ap- 
pear at  church  not  clad  in  their  best  clothes,  and  though  when  engaged 
in  labor  during  the  week,  they  conformed  to  the  customs  of  their  neigh- 
bors, wearing  the  coarse  homespun  of  their  own  manufacture,  and  on  the 
Sabbath  it  was  astonishing  to  see  how  much  of  decent  pride  there  was  in 
the  exhibition  of  the  fine  clothes  brought  from  beyond  the  seas.  As  the 
years  rolled  on  many  of  the  dresses  and  coats  began  to  show  marks  of 
decay;  but  careful  repairing  preserved  the  hoarded  garments,  linked 
with  such  endeared  associations,  and  only  a  few,  who  had  married  with 
the  "country-born,"  had  made  any  alteration  in  them.  The  peculiarity 
of  dress  gave  the  congregation,  assembled  for  worship  in  that  rude 
sanctuary,  a  strange  and  motely  appearance — European  finery  being 
contrasted  with  the  homespun  gowns,  hunting  shirts  and  moccasins  of 
the  country  people.  It  was  always  insisted  upon  as  a  point  of  duty  by 
Covenanters,  that  children  should  be  brought  to  church  with  parents.' 
The  little  ones  sat  between  the  elders,  that  they  might  be  kept  quiet 
during  Divine  service,  and  also  to  be  ready  at  the  appointed  hour  to 
say  the  Catechism.  The  strict  deportment  and  piety  of  this  people  had 
already  done  much  to  change  the  customs  formerly  prevalent.  Men 
and  women  who  used  to  hunt  or  fish  upon  the  Sabbath  day,  now 
went  regularly  to  meeting,  and  some  notorious  ones  whose  misconduct 
had  been  a  nuisance  to  the  community,  now  left  the  neighborhood. 
The  Stroudes,  Kitchens  and  Morrisses,  formerly  regarded  as  the  Phil- 
istines of  the  land,  were  regular  in  their  attendance  upon  Divine  service. 
Upon  this  particular  Sabbath,  the  whole  neighborhood  seemed  to  have 
turned  out,  and  every  face  wore  an  expression  of  anxiety.  Groups  of 
men    might    be    seen    gathered    together    under     shade    trees    in    every 


direction,  talking  in  loud  and  earnest  tones,  some  laying  down  plans  for 
the  assent  of  their  friends;  some  pale  with  alarm  and  listened  to  others 
telling  the  news;  and  some,  transported  with  indignation,  stamped  the 
ground  and  gesticulated  vehemently  as  they  spoke.  Everywhere  the 
women  mingled  with  the  different  groups,  and  appeared  to  bear  an 
active  part  in  what  was  going  on.  At  eleven  o'clock,  precisely,  the 
venerable  form  of  William  Martin,  the  preacher,  came  in  sight.  He 
was  about  sixty  years  of  age,  and  had  a  high  reputation  for  learning 
and  eloquence.  He  was  a  large  and  powerful  man,  with  a  voice  that 
might  have  been  heard  at  the  distance  of  half  a  mile.  As  he  walked 
from  the  place  where  he  hitched  his  horse,  towards  the  stand  (it  being 
customary  when  the  congregation  was  too  large  to  be  accommodated 
in  the  meeting-house,  to  have  the  service  in  the  open  air),  the  loud 
and  angry  words  of  the  speakers  must  have  reached  his  ears.  The 
voices  ceased  as  he  approached,  and  the  congregation  was  soon  seated 
in  silence  upon  the  logs  surrounding  the  stand.  When  he  arose  to 
speak  every  eye  was  fixed  upon  him.  Those  who  had  been  most  noisy 
expected  a  reproof  for  their  desecration  of  the  Sabbath,  for  their 
faithful  pastor  was  never  known  to  fail  of  rebuking  those  whose  deport- 
ment was  unsuited  to  thfe  solemnity  of  the  day.  But  at  this  time  he 
also  seemed  absorbed  with  the  great  subject  that  agitated  every  bosom. 
"My  hearers,"  he  said,  in  his  broad,  distinct  Irish  dialect,  "talk  and 
angry  words  will  do  no  good.  We  must  fight!  As  your  pastor,  in 
preparing  a  discourse  suited  to  this  time  of  trial,  I  have  sought  for  all 
light;  I  have  examined  the  Scriptures  and  other  helps  in  ancient  and 
modern  history,  and  have  especially  considered  the  controversy  between 
the  United  Colonies  and  the  mother  country.  Sorely  have  our 
countrymen  been  dealt  with,  till  forced  to  their  declaration  of  indepen- 
dence. Our  forefathers  in  Scotland  made  a  similar  one,  and  maintained 
that  declaration  with  their  lives.  It  is  now  our  turn,  brethren,  to 
maintain  this  at  all  hazards."  After  the  prayer,  and  singing  of  the 
Psalms,  he  calmly  opened  his  discourse.  He  cited  many  passages  of 
Scripture  to  show  that  a  people  may  lawfully  resist  wicked  rulers;, 
pointed  to  historical  examples  of  princes  trampling  upon  the  rights  of 
the  people;  painted  in  vivid  colors  the  rise  and  progress  of  the  Refor- 
mation in  Scotland;  and  finally  applied  the  subject  by  fairly  stating 
the  merits  of  the  revolutionary  controversy.  Giving  a  brief  sketch  of 
the  events  of  the  war,  from  the  first  shedding  of  blood  at  Lexington,, 
and,   warming   with    the    subject   as    he   proceeded,   his   address   became': 


eloquent  with  the  fiery  energy  of  a  Demosthenes.  In  a  voice  like 
thunder,  frequently  striking  with  his  clenched  first  the  clapboard  pulpit, 
he  appealed  to  the  excited  concourse,  exhorting  them  to  fight  valiantly 
in  defence  of  their  liberties.  As  he  dwelt  upon  the  recent  horrid 
tragedy — the  butchery  of  Buford's  men,  cut  down  by  the  British 
dragoons  while  crying  for  mercy — his  indignation  reached  its  height. 
Stretching  out  his  hand  toward  Waxhaws — "  Go  see,"  he  cried,  "  the 
tender  mercies  of  Great  Britain  1  In  that  church  you  may  find  men, 
though  still  alive,  hacked  out  of  the  very  semblance  of  humanity;  some 
■deprived  of  their  arms,  some  with  one  arm  or  leg,  some  with 
both  legs  cut  oflf,  and  others  with  mutilated  trunks.  Is  not  this  cruelty 
.a  parallel  to  the  history  of  our  Scottish  forefathers,  driven  from  their 
•conventicles,  and  hunted  as  beasts  of  the  forest  ?  Behold  the  godly 
youth,  James  Nesbit,  chased  for  days  by  the  British  for  the  crime  of 
being  seen  on  his  knees  upon  the  Sabbath  morning,  etc!"  To  this 
stirring  sermon  the  whole  assembly  responded.  Hands  were  clenched 
and  teeth  set  in  the  intensity  of  feeling;  every  uplifted  face  expressed 
the  same  determination,  and  even  the  women  were  filled  with  the 
•spirit  that  threatened  vengeance  upon  the  invaders.  During  the  interval 
of  Divine  worship,  they  went  about  professing  their  resolution  to  do 
their  part  in  the  approaching  contest;  to  plough  the  fields,  and  gather 
the  crops  in  the  absence  of  the  men,  aye,  to  fight  themselves  rather 
than  submit.  In  the  afternoon  the  subject  was  resumed  and  discussed 
■with  renewed  energy,  while  the  appeals  of  the  preacher  were  answered 
by  even  more  energetic  demonstrations  of  feeling.  When  the  worship 
was  concluded,  and  the  congregation  separated  to  return  homeward, 
the  manly  form  of  Captain  Ben  Land  was  seen  walking  among  the 
people,  shaking  hands  with  every  neighbor,  and  whispering  in  his  ear 
the  summons  to  the  next  day's  work.  As  the  minister  quitted  the 
■stand,  William  Stroud  stepped  up  to  him.  This  man,  with  his  sons, 
was  noted  for  strength  and  bravery.  They  were  so  tall  in  stature, 
that  like  Saul,  they  overlooked  the  rest  of  the  congregation.  "He 
doubted  not,"  he  said,  "that  Mr.  Martin  had  heard  of  his  'whipping 
the  pets.'"  "I  rather  think,"  he  continued,  "some  people  will  be  a 
little  on  their  guard  how  they  go  to  Rocky  Mount  for  'tection  papers! 
Yesterday  I  was  down  at  old  deaf  Lot's  still  house,  and  who  do 
you  think  was  there  ?  John  and  Dick  Featherston.  John  said  he  had 
been  to  Rocky  Mount  to  see  the  fine  fellows,  and  they  were  so  good 
to   him    as    to    give   him  'tection.     "  Do,  John,  tell    me    what    that    is,"  I 


asked.     He  said  "it  was  a  paper,  and  whoever   had  one  was  safe;  not  a 
horse,  cow  or  hog  would  the  British  take  without  paying  two  prices  for 
it.     So  John,  says    I,  I    know   now    who    told    the    British    about   James 
Stinson's  large  stock  of  cows  which  they  drove    off    yesterday — knocking 
down  Mrs.  Stinson  for  putting  up  old  brindle  in  the  horse  stable,  so  as 
to    keep    one    cow    to    give    milk  for  th«    children  !     Now,  John,  as    you 
have    British    'tection,  I    will    give    you    Whig   "tection."     "With    that    I 
knocked  him  down.     Dick  came  running  up,  and  I  just  give  him  a  kick 
and  doubled    him  up.     John    got    up    and  ran,  and    Dick    begged    like  a 
whipped  boy.     I  told    him    he  might  carry    the  news    that  'tection  paper- 
men    should  be    whipped,  and    have  their   cows  taken    from  them  to  pay 
James  Stinson  for  his.     I    think  this  is  what  you  call  the  law  of  Moses. 
And  as  for  these  Britishers,  if  I  don't  make  old  Nelly  take  in  their  ears, 
and  be  dad  to  them  !"     "  Excuse  me  for  swearing  this  time,  if  you  please. 
Now,   Mr.  Martin,    here   is    old    Bill — that    is    two;    then    here   is    young 
Will,    Tom,    Jack,    Hamp,    Erby,  Ransom  and   Hardy."     The  manner    in 
which    this    characteristic    speech  was   delivered  may   be  imagined.     Mr. 
Martin  showed  his  acceptance  of  the  proffered  help  by  taking  William's 
hand  and  introducing  him  to  Captain  Land.     As  they  passed  away  from 
the  stand,  and  on  their  way  home  from   the  meeting,  one  of  the  sturdy 
Covenanters,  William  Anderson,  was  unusually  silent,  as  if  some  weighty 
matter    engaged    his    thoughts.     His    wife    spoke    first,    after    reflecting. 
"I   think,  William,  little  Lizzie   and    I   can  finish   the   crop,   and   gather 
it  in   if  need    be,  as   well    as  take  care   of  the    stock."     "I   am    glad    of 
that,  Nancy,"  was   the  reply.     "I  was   silent,  for    I    did   na  ken    how    to 
let    you   know    it,   but   to-morrow    morning    I    leave    home.     The    way    is 
now  clear;    the  Word   of   God  approves,  and    it  shall   ne'er  be   said    that 
the  Covenanters,  the    followers  of   the    Reformers  of   Scotland,  would  na 
lend    a    helpin'    hand    to    the    renewal    of   the    Covenant  in    the    land    of 
America !     Now,    Nancy,    Captain    Land    will    be   out    before   day,   giving 
notice    that    up  at    the  cross   roads  hard    by,  he  will    drill  the  men  who 
are   willing   to    fight;    this   was   agreed   upon    as    I    left   meeting."     They 
journeyed    home    and    ate    their  dinner.     As    they    arose   from  the    table, 
Mrs.    Anderson   said,    "William,    were    you   out    at   the    Kirk    in    Bally- 
money,  upon  that  Sabbath  when  Mary  Martin,  our  minister's  first  wife, 
lay    a    corpse    in    his    house  ?     No    one     thought    he    could    attend    to 
preaching    in    his    sore   distress;    but    precisely    at    the   striking    of    the 
hour,  he  was  seen  walking  down   the  long  aisle    to  the  pulpit.     I  never 
shall   forget    the    sermon !     There    was    not    a    dry    eye    in   the    whole 


congregation;  old  men  and  women  fairly  cried  out.  I  thought  of 
that  to-day  when,  after  the  sermon,  old  Stroud  went  up  to  him 
as  if  he  had  been  one  of  the  elders.  Did  you  see  the  man  of 
God  clap  Stroud  on  the  shoulder  ?  Our  minister  is  a  wonderful 
man;  he  can  persuade  people  to  almost  anything."  Mr.  Anderson- 
looked  up  quietly  and  asked,  "  Did  he  persuade  you  to  marry  him,. 
Nancy,  when  he  went  to  your  father's  a  courting  ?"  "Na,  indeed,. 
William,  I  could  na  think  of  an  old  man  when  I  had  you 
fairly  in  my  net.  But  I  did  a  good  turn  in  letting  him  know  that 
Jenny  Cheny  was  setting  her  cap  for  him,  and  sure  enough  he  took 
my  advice  and  they  married."  The  Sabbath  evening  wore  away  amid 
the  accustomed  religious  services,  but  the  conversation  frequently 
turned  upon  the  war.  Early  upon  Monday  morning,  the  plough  was 
left  standing  in  the  furrow,  and  the  best  horse  was  bridled  and  saddled 
and  left  standing  at  the  door.  Mrs.  Anderson  had  been  up  since  a 
little  after  midnight,  making  hoe  cakes  upon  the  hoe,  and  corn  dodger 
in  the  oven,  and  while  the  cooking  of  meats  was  going  on,  she  was 
busily  plying  the  needle  sewing  up  sacks  and  bags  to  hold  provisions 
for  man  and  horse  upon  a  long  journey.  As  soon  as  he  had  taken 
his  breakfast,  William  bade  his  wife  farewell,  mounted  and  rode  off. 
The  effect  of  Mr.  Martin's  eloquence  was  speedily  apparent.  At  an 
early  hour  upon  Monday  morning,  many  of  the  conscientious  Cove- 
nanters were  seen  drilling  on  the  muster-ground  seven  miles  from 
Rocky  Mount,  under  the  brave  Captain  Ben  Land,  while  two  miles 
above  this,  at  the  shop  of  a  negro  blacksmith,  half  a  dozen  more  were 
getting  their  horses  shod.  Those  at  the  muster-ground  were  charged 
upon  by  a  party  of  British  dragoons,  having  no  previous  notice  of 
their  approach,  and  were  dispersed.  The  man  who  carried  to  the 
enemy  the  tidings  of  Mr.  Martin's  sermon  and  the  meeting  of  the  Cove- 
nanters to  drill,  did  not  die  in  his  bed.  Their  Captain  being  overtaken 
and  surrounded  by  the  dragoons,  who  attacked  him  with  their  broad 
swords,  defended  himself  with  his  sword  to  the  last,  and  wounded 
severely  several  of  his  enemies  before  he  fell.  The  party  at  the  black- 
smith shop  was  also  surprised,  and  one  man  killed.  The  dragoons  then 
crossed  Rocky  Creek,  and  soon  found  their  way  to  the  rude  stone  hut 
which  was  the  dwelling  of  Mr.  Martin.  They  found  the  old  divine  in 
his  study  preparing  a  sermon,  which  was  to  be  a  second  blast,  and 
made  him  their  prisoner,  and  carried  him  like  a  felon  to  Rocky  Mount. 
There  he  and  Thomas  Walker  were  bound  to  the  floor  in  one  of  the 
log  huts.  The  enemy  knew  well  what  reason  they  had  to  dread  the 
effect  of  Martin's  stirring  eloquence. 


This  colony  expected  to  settle  down  close  together, 
but  the  situation  necessitated  them  to  select  lands  at 
a  distance  from  one  another.  Among  those  who 
came  with  Mr.  Martin  in  this  first  colony  were 
Andrew  and  James  Stevenson  (Stinson)  ;  William  And- 
erson and  his  wife  Nancy ;  Alexander  Brady  and  his 
wife  Elizabeth ;  the  several  families  of  the  Linns  and 
Kells,  and  others.*  They  took  up  bounty  land  which 
entitled  them  to  one  hundred  acres  for  each  head  of 
the  family,  and  fifty  for  each  member  thereof.  Mr. 
Martin  bought  a  plantation  one  mile  square  of  six 
hundred  and  forty  acres,  upon  which  he  built  a  stone 
house.  The  first  log  church  erected  by  Covenanters 
was  in  the  spring  of  1774,  and  was  situated  on  the 
same  road  as  the  "Catholic"  church,  and  two  miles 
east  of  it.  It  was  burned  by  the  Tories  in  1780. 
The  hands  and  hearts  of  the  Covenanters  were  in 
the  trying  scenes  of  the  Revolution.  The  men 
shouldered  the  musket  and  went  to  the  defence  of  the 
country,  while  the  women  remained  at  home  and 
attended  to  the  farms.  Mr.  Martin  was  their  leader, 
and  did  much  for  the  cause  of  the  country  in  arous- 
ing all  the  inhabitants  of  Chester  to  their  duty  as 
citizens.  As  a  zealous  Whig,  and  an  eloquent  preacher, 
Mr.  Martin  threw  all  his  influence  on  the  side  of  the 
Colonists,  for  which  he  was  apprehended  in  June,  1780, 
and  imprisoned  at  Rocky  Mount  and  Camden  by  the 
British.  Here  he  was  confined  for  over  six  months. 
In  December,  1780,  and  on  the  day  of  his  trial 
before    Lord    Cornwallis    at    Winnsboro,    he    stood  before 

*  Sketch  by  D.  G.  Stinson  per  R.  B.  Elder.  Guthriesville.  S.  C. 


Tiim  erect,  with  his  grey  locks  uncovered,  his  eyes 
fixed  upon  his  lordship,  his  countenance  marked  with 
frankness  and  benevolence.  "You  are  charged,"  said 
Lord  Cornwallis,  "with  preaching  rebellion  from  the 
pulpit.  You,  an  old  man,  and  a  minister  of  the 
gospel  of  peace,  are  charged  with  advocating  rebellion 
against  your  lawful  sovereign  King  George  the  III. 
What  have  you  to  say  in  your  defence  ? "  Nothing 
daunting,  Mr.  Martin  replied,  "  I  am  happy  to  appear 
before  you.  For  many  months  I  have  been  held  in 
chains  for  preaching  what  I  believe  to  be  the  truth. 
As  to  King  George  I  owe  him  nothing  but  good  will. 
I  am  not  unacquainted  with  his  private  character.  I 
was  raised  in  Scotland  ;  educated  in  her  literary  and 
theological  schools  ;  settled  in  Ireland,  where  I  spent 
the  prime  of  my  days,  and  came  to  this  country 
some  eight  years  ago.  As  a  King,  he  was  bound  to 
protect  his  subjects  in  the  enjoyment  of  their  rights. 
Protection  and  allegiance  go  together,  and  when  the 
one  fails,  the  other  cannot  be  exacted.  The  Declara- 
tion of  Independence  is  but  a  reiteration  of  a  princi- 
ple which  our  Covenanted  fathers  have  always  main- 
tained, and  have  lead  this  nation  to  adopt.  I  am 
thankful  you  have  given  me  liberty  to  speak,  and 
will  abide  your  pleasure  whatever  it  may  be."*  After 
his  release  by  Lord  Cornwallis,  Mr.  Martin  went  over 
to  Mecklenberg,  North  Carolina,  where  he  preached 
for  some  time.  It  was  here  he  baptized  Isaac  Grier, 
the  first  Presbyterian  minister  born  in  Georgia  and 
the    grandfather    of    William    Moffat    Grier,    President    of 

*  Howe's  History  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  South  Carolina. 


Erskine  College,  Due  West,  South  Carolina.  When 
the  news  came  to  him  that  the  British  had  evacuated 
Charleston,  Mr.  Martin  carried  the  word  to  the 
neighborhood,  adding  the  comment,  "the  British 
have  taken  shipping,  and  may  the  d — 1  go  with 
them."  In  the  Fairfield  District  there  lived  one 
John  Phillips,  who  was  a  man  of  wealth  and  talent. 
During  the  war,  however,  he  became  a  rank  Tory  and 
was  called  "Tory  Colonel  Phillips."  He  betrayed  the 
cause  of  the  Covenanters,  and  those  who  had  often 
saved  his  life  when  he  cast  himself  upon  the  mercy  of 
the  Whigs.  He  accompanied  Tarleton  to  Little  Rocky- 
Creek,  where  he  took  Archibald  McClurkin  from  his 
bed,  when  he  was  lying  at  the  point  of  death  with 
small-pox,  and  hanged  him  to  a  tree  by  the  roadside. 
This  barbarous  act  so  aroused  the  righteous  indignation 
of  the  Covenanters,  that  their  military  aid  in  behalf  of 
the  Colonists  was  thereby  greatly  increased.  Many 
cold  blooded  deeds  were  attributed  to  this  traitor 
Phillips.  After  the  war  he  returned  to'  Ireland,  but  was 
not  there  safe  from  the  vengeance  he  had  provoked  in 
South  Carolina.  He  was  shot  on  the  street  in  Bally- 
money  by  one  of  McClurkin 's  brothers,  but  not  fatally 
injured.  He  lived  in  constant  fear  of  the  avenger  of 
blood  and  died  a  drunkard,  himself  in  despair,  and  his 
family  wholly  destitute.*  In  1781,  Mr.  Martin  returned 
to  Rocky  Creek  and  resumed  his  labors  among  the 
Covenanters,  preaching  in  the  "  Catholic "  meeting-house. 
He  was  dismissed  for  intemperate  habits,  in  1785,  but  did 
not    cease    preaching.     He    frequently    preached    at    the 

*Mrs.  Ellet's  "Women  of  the  Revolution." 


house  of   Edward  McDaniel,  at  Jackson's  Creek,  in  Fair- 
field   District,    at    the    house    of    Richard    Gladney,    and 
across    the     Catawba    river,     at    the    house    of    William 
Hicklin.     A   small  society  built  him  a  church,  two  miles 
east    of   the    site    of    the    one    burnt    by    the    Tories,  and 
he  continued  to   preach  there  for  many    years.      In    1804, 
his    stone  house  was  burnt,  and  the    rest  of    his  days   he 
lived    in    a    log    cabin.     He    continued    his    intemperate 
habits    and    died  in    1806.     In    the  summer  of    1789,  the 
Rev.    James    Reid,    of    Scotland,    came    on     a    missionary 
tour    to    America,    and     visited    the    societies     in     South 
Carolina.     He    set  in    order  the  affairs  of    the  Church    as 
the     representative     of     the     Scottish     Presbytery,     and 
dispensed  the   sacraments.     At    that  time  he  also  organ- 
ized the  Rocky  Creek  congregation,  and  the  elders  were 
Samuel    Loughridge,  Adam    Edgar,  John   Wyatt,  Thomas 
Morton    and    James    McQuiston.      Soon    afterwards,  John 
Kell,    David     Stormont,    John     Rock,     Robert     Hemphill, 
Hugh    McMillan    and    Archibald    Coulter   were    added    to 
the  session.     They  represented    the  different    societies  in 
Chester,    York     and     Fairfield     Districts.*     In     1791,    the 
Rev.  James  McGarragh    was    sent    out    by  the    Reformed 
Presbytery    of     Ireland,    and    some     members     came    with 
him.      He    settled    in    the    Beaver  Dam    society,  a  branch 
of    the    Rocky    Creek    congregation.     In    1792,    the    Rev. 
William    King    arrived,    having    been     sent     out     by    the 
Scottish    Presbytery.     After     an    extended    tour     through 
the  North  and  East,  he  settled  on  the  south  side  of  the 
Beaver  Dam,  near  the  Mount  Prospect  church.     In    1793, 
Revs.   McGarragh    and    King  constituted  a   Committee  to 

*  Sketch  by    Rev.  D.  S.  Paris,  in  A'.  P.   &-  C,    1876,  p.    51. 


judicially  manage  the  affairs  of  the  Church  in  America. 
They  restored  Mr.  Martin  and  the  affairs  of  the  Church 
began  to  wear  a  regular  appearance.*  The  membership 
was  large  and  scattered,  and  required  all  the  time  of 
the  three  ministers.  The  majority  of  the  Covenanters 
in  America  were  settling  in  the  South,  as  the  lands 
were  cheap  and  adapted  to  farming  and  grazing.  Mr. 
McGarragh  had  fallen  into  intemperate  habits,  and  was 
suspended  by  the  Committee  in  1795.  Mr.  King  died 
in  August,  1798,  and  Mr.  Martin  was  again  left  alone 
in  the  exercise  of  the  ministry.  In  the  spring  of  1798, 
the  Reformed  Presbytery  was  re-organized  in  America, 
at  Philadelphia,  and  the  Revs.  James  McKinney  and 
S.  B.  Wylie  were  sent  upon  a  commission  to  South 
Carolina  to  rectify  disorders,  and  to  banish  slaveholders 
from  the  pale  of  the  Covenanter  Church.  This  com- 
mission was  constituted  at  the  Rocky  Creek  meeting 
house,  (widow  Edgar's)  January  28,  1801,  by  Revs. 
James  McKinney  and  S.  B.  Wylie,  with  Mr.  Thomas 
Donnelly,  licentiate,  who  had  been  preaching  here  for 
over  a  year,  and  elders  John  Kell  and  David  Stormont. 
During  the  sittings  of  this  court,  Thomas  Donnelly 
was  ordained  and  installed  pastor  of  the  societies  ;  S. 
B.  Wylie  was  called  as  his  colleague ;  William  Martin 
was  deposed  for  holding  slaves  and  becoming  habitually 
intemperate  ;  James  McGarragh's  suspension  was  con- 
tinued, and  James  Harbison,  Alexander  Martin,  Hugh 
McQuiston,  John  Cunningham,  David  Smith,  John  Mc- 
Ninch,  John  Cooper,  William  Edgar,  James  Montgomery 
and  Robert  Black  were  chosen  ruling  elders.f  At  this 
*  Historical  part  of  Testimony,     f  Minutes  of  Reformed  Presbytery. 


time  the  communion  was  dispensed,  of  which  all  the 
Covenanters  partook.  Mr.  Wylie  declined  the  call,  and 
Mr.  Donnelly  entered  upon  the  work  of  supplying  all 
the  societies  as  best  he  could.  In  1802,  the  Rev, 
James  McKinney  was  translated  from  Galway,  New 
York,  and  took  charge  of  the  "  Brick  Church  "  society. 
He  died  in  a  few  months  after  his  settlement.  Mr. 
Donnelly  was  again  left  alone  to  minister  to  the 
scattered  societies.  He  bought  a  farm,  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Big  Rocky  Creek,  from  Stephen  Harman, 
and  for  eleven  years  was  the  sole  Covenanter  minister 
exercising  his  functions  in  South  Carolina.  In  181 3, 
Mr.  Donnelly  received  assistance  in  the  settlement  of 
the  Rev.  John  Reilly  over  the  Little  Rocky  Creek 
and  Beaver  Dam  congregations.  Mr.  Reilly  died  in 
1820.  For  two  years  Mr.  Donnelly  was  again  left 
alone,  and  his  congregation  was  divided.  In  June, 
1822,  the  Rev.  Campbell  Madden  was  ordained  and 
installed  pastor  of  the  Richmond  society,  and  also 
preached  at  the  tent  of  John  Orr,  and  taught  a  school 
at  Glendon's  Grove.  At  the  same  time,  the  Rev.  Hugh 
McMillan  took  charge  of  the  Brick  Church,  in  which 
he  also  conducted  a  classical  school.  Dr.  Madden  died 
in  August,  1828,  and  Hugh  McMillan  emigrated  to  Ohio 
with  many  of  his  congregation.  About  this  time 
emigration  to  the  northern  free  States  set  in,  and 
during  the  next  ten  years  the  cause  in  the  South 
became  very  weak  on  account  of  the  prevalence  of 
human  slavery.  Mr.  Donnelly  remained  and  preached 
to  the  scattered  societies  until  his  death  in  November, 
1847.     He    was    the    last     Covenanter     minister     in    the 


South,  and  soon  the  cause  became  extinct.  At  one 
time  there  were  over  five  hundred  Covenanters  in  South 
Carolina,  and  they  composed  the  congregations  of  Rocky 
Creek,  Big  Rocky  Creek,  Little  Rocky  Creek,  Beaver 
Dam  and  Bethesda.  Among  the  names,  not  heretofore 
mentioned  as  members  of  the  Church  in  South  Carolina, 
are  the  different  families  by  the  names  of  McMillan, 
Cooper,  McKelvy,  Hemphill,  Woodbourne,  Montford, 
Nesbit,  and  others,  of  the  Brick  Church  ;  those  of 
Ewin,  McHenry,  Erwin,  Todd,  Kell,  Rock,  Linn,  Little, 
McFadden,  McClurkin  and  Simpson,  of  the  Beaver  Dam 
congregation  ;  those  of  Martin,  Dunn,  Wright,  Hood, 
Sproull,  Henry,  Stormont,  Cathcart,  Robinson,  McMillin 
and  Richmond,  of  the  Richmond  or  Big  Rocky  Creek 
Church  ;  those  of  McNinch  and  Crawford  dwelt  at  the 
McNinch  meeting  house  ;  those  of  Smith,  Paris,  Mc- 
Donald, Coulter,  Wright,  Willson,  Orr,  Wylie,  Black, 
jHenkle,  Hunter,  Boyd,  Neil  and  McDill  at  the  Little 
Rocky  Creek  congregation.  Li  the  old  Brick  Church 
•:graveyard  lie  the  remains  of  the  Revs.  William  King, 
James  McKinney,  John  Reilly  and  Thomas  Donnelly. 
Rev.  Dr.  Campbell  Madden  was  buried  at  Winnsboro, 
James  McGarragh  in  Paul's  graveyard,  and  William  Martin 
in  a  private  burying  ground  near  his  humble  abode.  The 
inscriptions  upon  some  of  the  tombstones  which  mark 
these  sacred  graves  are  here  inserted,  that  the  names 
of  these  worthy  fathers  may  be  kept  iji  remembrance. 
It  is  understood  that  the  inscriptions  on  the  stones 
of  Revs.  King,  McKinney,  Reilly  and  Madden  were 
prepared    by    Mr.    Donnelly. 


Sacred  to    the 
Memory  of  the  Rev'd. 
William  King  ;  who  departed 
this  life  Aug'st  24th,  A.   D.   1798,  aged 
about  50  years. 
Within  this  humble  tomb  pale  Death  has  laid 
A  King  who  mortal  sceptre  never  swayed, 
But  he  himself  did  rule  by  Jesus'  laws  ; 
In  grace  and  Holy  life  a  pattern  was. 
In  love  to  God  and  man  he  shone  conspicuously, 
And  walked  with  God  in  deep  humility. 
In  faithfulness  and  zeal  for  Jesus'  cause 
Few  of  his  fellows  to  him  equal  was, 
But  zeal  in  him  so  mixed  with  moderation, 
Made  even  foes   him  view  with  admiration. 
Tho'  deeply  skilled  in  human  learning,  he 
Taught  truths  divine  with  great  simplicity, 
That  perfect   God  might  make  his  saints  thereby. 
And  through  his  means  Christ's  body  edify. 
The  Pastor's,  Husband's,  Parent's  care  he  shew'd. 
While  he  in  earthly  house  did  make  abode. 
His  loss  by  all  bewail'd,  tho'  felt  by  none 
So  much  as  by  this  people  left  alone. 
His  clay  here  lies,  his  soul  to  heaven  is  fled  ; 
His  people  he  left  on  God  for  to  be  fed. 

Sacred  to   the 
Memory  of 
The  Rev.  Jas.  McKinney, 
Who  departed  this   life  Sept.   i6th, 
A.  D.  1802,  aged  about  45  years. 
Death's  hand,  tho'  cold,  strikes  a  most  certain  blow 
In  wafting  Zion's  sons   from   toil   below, 
To  place  them  in  the  Father's  house  above, 
To  see  him  in  the  fullness  of  his  love. 
Ecclesia  wails  her  noble  champion  laid, 
In  this  low  tomb  to  Death  his  tribute's  paid. 
A  husband  kind,  a  tender  parent  he, 
To  friend  and  foes  a  friend  he  wish'd  to  be. 


Tho'  few  in  letters,  human  or  divine, 

Or  grace  or  nature's  gifts  did  so  much  shine, 

Yet,  hated  by  unworthy  world,  he 

By  God  was  thought  above  its  company  ; 

Amidst  its  threats  his  clay  in  quiet  lies. 

While  his  immortal  part  has  reach'd  the  skies. 

Truth's  foes  rejoiced  to  see  her  Hero  fall. 

That  to  their  idols  they  may  join  withal. 

Spare  boasts,  truth's  foes,  tho'  whirling  winds  to  heaven 

Elijah  bore,  Elisha  soon  was  given, 

By  him  who  in  the  greatest   love  can  raise 

Another  champion  in  McKinney's  place. 

Sacred  to  the  Memory  of 
The  Revd.  John  Riley, 
Who  departed  this^ife 
25th  August,  1820, 
Aged  50  years. 
This  tomb  contains  his  dust ;  no  more 
His  voice  is  heard  where  it  was  heard  before. 
His  wife,  his  people,  mourn  his  labors'  end, 
And  friendly  neighbors  a  departed  friend. 
His  gain  their  loss,  his  life  by  death  secure 
In  endless  mansions,  where  joys  are  pure. 
Ye  mourners  look  to  Zion's  sovereign  Lord, 
Who  can  to  you  another  guide  afford. 

Sacred  to  the  Memory  of 
Rev.  C.  Madden, 
Who  departed  this  life  August  12,   1828, 
Aged  33  years. 
Insatiate  death  !  thou  sparest  none  ; 
To  thy  vast  kingdom  all    must  come. 
Didst  thou  regard  the  widow's   tears, 
The  orphans'  helpless  state  and  years  ; 
Didst  thou  respect  a  lettered  mind, 
Formed  to  benefit  mankind  ; 
Didst  thou  regard  a  temper  meek. 


By  grace  refined  his  God  to  seek  ; 

Didst  thou  regard  Mount   Sion's  peace, 

Her  cries  to  God  for  gospel  grace  ; — 

Our  Madden  had  with  us  remained, 

And  peace  and  joy  to  us  proclaimed. 

What  hast  thou  done  ?  thou  wast  his  friend  ; 

Him  to  his  Father's  house  didst  send, 

Where  he  will  sing  to  endless  days 

The  triumph  and  the  Saviour's  praise. 

His  family,  his  flock,  his  friend. 

To  heavenly  grace  he  did   commend. 

In  the  Chief  Shepherd's  hand  they're  safe 

As  long  as  they  do  live  by  faith. 

In  Memory  of 

Rev.  Thomas  Donnelly, 

Who  departed  this  life 

The  28th  November,  1847, 

In  the  76th  year  of  his  age. 

And  the  46th  of  his  ministry. 

He  was  a  native  of  Ireland, 

And  for  many  years 

Pastor  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church 

In   this   vicinity. 

"For  him  to  live  was  Christ — 

To  die,  gain." 

The  descendants  of  the  South  Carolina  Covenanters- 
are  now  generally  found  in  Ohio,  Indiana  and  Illinois,, 
whither  they  migrated,  and  are  in  connection  with 
both  branches  of  the  Church.  The  few  who  lived  in 
the  South  after  the  death  of  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Donnelly,  went  into  the  Associate  Reformed  and  Pres- 
byterian Churches.  To  Covenanters,  South  Carolina  is 
sacred      ground ;      and     within     her      borders     are      the 


sepulchres  of  many  worthy  fathers.  Chester  District 
and  Rocky  Creek,  where  many  a  patriotic  Covenanter 
fought  for  the  preservation  of  his  home  and  country, 
and  maintained  a  faithful  testimony  for  the  rights  of 
King  Jesus,  are  places  fraught  with  both  tender  and 
sad  associations.  Those  Covenanter  fathers  either 
voluntarily  forsook  comforts  beyond  the  ocean  or  were 
compelled  to  "  flee  to  the  land  of  the  free,  and  the 
home  of  the  brave "  for  their  civil  and  religious 
liberty,  and  attained  it  at  any  cost.  They  maintained 
the  purity  of  the  Church,  and  left  the  comforts  of  the 
South  on  account  of  the  evil  influence  of  slavery. 
Rather  than  give  up  their  principles  they  gave  up 
their  homes ;  and  while  not  a  single  Covenanter  is 
found  in  that  country  to-day,  "they  being  dead"  yet 
speak  from  the  scores  of  flourishing  congregations  of 
the  North-West  where  their  works  have  followed  them, 
and  where  their  children  rise  up  and  call  them 



Adamsville  :  Jainestoivn,  Mercer  County,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  November  14, 
1873.     Disorganized,    October    13,    1874, 

AiNSWORTH :  Ainsworth,  Washington  County,  loiva. 
Organized  by  Iowa  Presbytery,  December  17,  1867. 
Disorganized,   October    7,    1873. 

Albany  :  Albany,  Neiv  York.  Organized  by  Northern 
Presbytery,  June  6,  181 5.  James  Christie,  June  12, 
1822,  to  May  17,  1830.  J.  R.  Willson,  September  17, 
1830,  to  May  19,  1833.  David  Scott,  June  7,  1836, 
to    May    8,    1842.     Disorganized,    May    24,    1849. 

Allegheny  :  Allegheny  City,  Pennsylvania.  Organized 
as  Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery, 
September  9,  1833,  afterwards  Allegheny  and  Pittsburgh, 
and  since  October  17,  1865,  is  Allegheny.  Thomas 
Sproull,  May  12,  1834,  to  October  13,  1868.  D.  B. 
Willson,  .  November  29,  1870,  to  October  13,  1875. 
J.  R.  W.  Sloane,  June  6,  1877,  to  May  31,  1884. 
J.    R.    J.    Milligan    since    October    15,    1885. 

Ballibay  :  Caniptozvn,  Bradford  Co2mty,  Pennsylvania. 
■Organized  by  Southern  Presbytery  as  Wyalusing, 
December  16,  1832.  Disorganized,  May  24,  1837. 
Re-organized  by  New  York  Presbytery  as  Ballibay, 
August    28,    1875.     Disorganized,    June    5,    1886. 


Baltimore:  Baltimore,  Maryland.  Society  formed  in 
1797.  S.  B.  Wylie,  1803,  to  1806.  Organized  by 
Middle  Presbytery,  December  15,  18 18.  John  Gibson, 
December  15,  1818,  to  August  7,  1833.  W.  L. 
Roberts,  January  15,  1835,  to  October  9,  1837.  C.  B. 
McKee,  December  2,  1846,  to  December  4,  1852. 
John  Crawford,  November  15,  1853,  to  September  3, 
1856.     W.    W.    McMillan,    December    26,    1859,    to    May 

5,  1863.       W.    P.    Johnston,     AugUst    4,     1864,    to    July 
13,   1873.     John    Lynd,  December  4,    1873,  to   November 

6,  1877.     A.    D.    Crowe,    October     10,    1878,    to    August 
12,    1884.     W.    M.    Glasgow    since    November    26,     1885.- 

BarnesvillE:  Barnesville,  Kings  Comity,  Nezv  Bruns- 
wick. Organized  by  the  New  Brunswick  and  Nova 
Scotia  Presbytery  in  1846.  J.  R.  Lawson,  1846,  to- 
October  17,  1856.  J.  R.  Lawson,  October  24,  1857, 
to  April   12,   1882.     Thomas  Patton  since  May  26,    1887. 

Barnet  :  West  Barnet,  Caledonia  County.  Vermont. 
Organized  by  New  York  Presbytery,  July  9,  1872^ 
D.    C.    Paris    since    June    25,    1873. 

Bear  RIjn  and  Mahoning  :  Marchand,  Indiana  County,. 
Pennsylvania.  Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,, 
October  15,  1870.  J.  F.  Crozier  since  November  18, 

Beaver  Dam  :  Chester,  Chester  County,  South  Carolina. 
Organized  by  Scottish  Committee  in  1792.  William 
King,  1793,  to  August  24.  1798.  Thomas  Donnelly,, 
supply.  John  Reilly,  October  8,  18 13,  to  August  27, 
1820.  Campbell  Madden,  June  18,  1822,  to  August 
12,    1828.      Disorganized    in     1833. 


Beaver  Falls  :  Beaver  Falls,  Pennsylvania.  Organized 
by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  November  10,  1874.  R.  J. 
George    since    June    15,    1875, 

Beech  Woods  :  Morning  Sun,  Preble  County,  Ohio. 
Organized  by  Middle  Committee  in  1805,  and  supplied. 
John  Kell,  April  3,  18 16,  to  October  6,  18 19.  Gavin 
McMillan,  May  7,  1823,  to  October  7,  1836.  Josiah 
Dodds,  October  6,  1847,  to  October  10,  1865,  when 
attached    to    Garrison. 

Belle  Centre  :  Belle  Centre,  Logan  County,  Ohio. 
'Organized  by  Lakes  Presbytery,  April  10,  1877.  John 
Lynd,  January  5,  1879,  to  April  14,  1885.  J.  J.  Huston 
since    April    30,    1886. 

Bellefontaine  :  Bellefontaine,  Logan  Comity,  Ohio. 
■Organized  by  Lakes  Presbytery,  October  11,  1876. 
F.  M.  Foster,  May  13,  1880,  to  August  23,  1887. 
J.   J.    Huston,    supply. 

Bethel:  Sparta,  Randolph  County,  Lllinois.  Organized 
by  Western  Presbytery,  June  19,  1821.  Samuel  Wylie, 
June  19,  1821,  to  August  7,  1833.  Hugh  Stevenson, 
August  16,  1840,  to  May  15,  1846.  James  MilHgan, 
October  14,  1848,  to  May  24,  1855.  D.  S.  Faris 
since    October    7,    1857. 

Bethesda:  Chester,  Chester  County,  South  Carolina. 
Organized  by  Southern  Presbytery,  October  10,  18 17. 
Thomas  Donnelly,  October  10,  18 17,  to  November  i, 
1847.     Disorganized,    1848. 

Beulah:  Beulah,  Webster  County,  Nebraska.  Organized 
by  Kansas  Presbytery,  September  8,  1881.  W.  S. 
Fulton    since    March    27,    1885. 


Big  RoCKV  Creek  :  Cluster,  CJiester  County,  South 
Carolina.  Organized  by  Scottish  Committee  in  1792. 
William  King,  1792,  to  August  24,  1798.  Thomas 
Donnelly,  March  3,  1801,  to  April  10,  18 16.  Dis- 
organized   in    1 81 7. 

Big  Spring  :  Neiwille,  Cumberland  County,  Penn- 
sylvania. Society  formed  in  1753.  John  Cuthbertson, 
1753,  to  1774.  Matthew  Linn,  March  10,  1774,  to 
November    i,    1782,    when    disorganized. 

Bloomington  :  Bloomington,  Monroe  County,  Indiana. 
Organized  by  Western  Presbytery,  October  10,  1821. 
James  Paris,  November  22,  1827,  to  May  20,  1855. 
D.    J.    Shaw    since    May    22,    1856. 

Boston,  First  :  Boston,  JSIassacJiusetts.  Organized  by 
New  York  Presbytery,  July  12,  1854.  J.  R.  Lawson, 
November  20,  1856,  to  October  22,  1857.  William. 
Graham    since    July    12,    i860. 

Boston,  Second  :  Boston,  Massachusetts.  Organized 
by  New  York  Presbytery,  November  21,  1871.  David 
McFall    since    July     11,    1873. 

BOVINA  :  Bovina  Centre,  Delaware  County,  Neiv  York. 
Organized  by  Northern  Presbytery  in  18 14.  M.  B. 
Williams,  April  15,  1820,  to  October  17,  1823.  James 
Douglas,  April  15,  1825,  to  March  15,  1857.  J.  T. 
Pollock,  July  II,  1 86 1,  to  March  10,  1864.  Joshua 
Kennedy,  January  11,  1865,  to  May  20,  1885.  O.  B. 
Milligan    since    June    22,    1887. 

Broad  Albin  :  Broad  Albin,  Fulton  County,  New  York. 
Organized  by  Northern  Presbytery,  May  10,  181 8.  S. 
M.  Willson,  October  14,  1821,  to  May  16,  1827.  J. 
N.     McLeod,     December     29,     1829,    to    June     19,    1832. 


A.  S.  McMaster,  April  4,  1833,  to  August  7,  1833. 
Disorganized,    October    10,    1838. 

Brookland:  Ingleside,  Westmoreland  Coi'mty,  Penn- 
sylvania. Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  May  9, 
1822.  Jonathan  Gill,  October  23,  1823,  to  August  7, 
1833.  Hugh  Walkinshaw,  April  15,  1835,  to  April  19, 
1843.  Oliver  Wylie,  June  24.  1846,  to  October  14, 
1851.  Robert  Reed,  June  21,  1854,  to  April  ii, 
1882.  Attached  to  Parnassus  under  J.  C.  McFeeters 
since    November    16,    1886. 

Brooklyn:  Brooklyn,  New  York.  Organized  by  New 
York  Presbytery,  June  15,  1857.  J.  M.  Dickson, 
November  18,  1857,  to  May  20,  1862.  J.  H.  Boggs, 
December  14,  1864,  to  November  29,  1880.  S.  J. 
Crowe,  December  7,  1881,  to  October  28,  1884.  J. 
F.    Carson    since    May    20,    1885. 

Brownsville:  Jolly,  Monroe  County,  Ohio.  Organized 
by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  July  12,  1854.  Oliver  Wylie 
supply,  July  12,  1854,  to  October  24,  1856.  J.  A.  Thomp- 
son, August  31,  1859,  to  June  10,  1865.  Armour 
McFarland,  supply.  S.  R.  McClurkin,  September  13, 
1876,    to    October    17,    1877. 

Brush  Creek  :  Locust  Grove,  Adams  County,  Ohio. 
Organized  by  Middle  Presbytery  as  Chillicothe,  May 
8,  18 1 2.  Robert  Wallace,  October  12,  1 814,  to  October 
6,  1820.  C.  B.  McKee,  August  7,  1821,  to  September 
10,  1822.  James  Blackwood,  April  12,  1827,  to  April  9, 
1829.  David  Steele,  June  6,  1831,  to  September  18,  1840. 
Robert  Hutcheson,  September  29,  1842,  to  May  21, 
1856.      Disorganized,    May    21,     1856.        Re-organized    by 


Lakes  Presbytery,  November  i6,  1881.  William  Mc- 
Kinney,  R.  J.  Sharpe,  T.  C.  Sproull,  and  others,  supplies. 
Buffalo  :  Buffalo,  New  York.  Organized  by  Western 
Presbytery,  November  17,  1838.  Disorganized,  May 
26,    1854. 

BURDETT  :  Burdett,  Pawnee  County,  Kansas.  Organ- 
ized   by    Kansas    Presbytery,    July    13,    1887. 

Carleton  Place  :  Carleton  Place,  Ontario,  Canada. 
Organized  by  Northern  Presbytery,  September  9,  1830, 
as  a  part  of  Ramsey.  Distinct  congregation,  August 
29,    1837.     Mission    Station. 

Carlisle  :  Carlisle,  Cwjiberland  County,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  in  1751,  John  Cuthbertson  1751,  to  1774. 
Matthew  Linn,  March  10,  1774,  to  November  i,  1782, 
when    disorganized. 

Cedar  Lake  :  Ray,  Steuben  County,  Indiana.  Organ- 
ized by  Lakes  Presbytery,  April  19,  1841.  John 
French,  September  23,  1850,  to  October  3,  1880. 
R.    C.    Wylie    since    October    31,    1884. 

Cedarville  :  Cedarville,  Green  County,  Ohio.  Organ- 
ized by  Middle  Presbytery  as  Massie's  Creek,  June  19, 
1 8 10.  John  Kell,  supply.  Jonathan  Gill,  May  14, 
1816,  to  April  6,  1823.  Gavin  McMillan,  supply. 
Hugh  McMillan,  September  7,  1829,  to  August  7, 
1833.  Disorganized,  August  18,  1841.  Re-organized 
as  Cedarville  by  Lakes  Presbytery,  June  i,  1850.  H.  H. 
George,  June  23,  1858,  to  August  4,  1866.  Samuel 
Sterrett,  May  16,  1868,  to  October  20,  1878.  P.  P. 
Boyd,  May  22,  1872,  to  July  20,  1871.  T.  C.  Sproull 
since    June    10,    1881. 


Central  Allegheny  :  Allegheny  City,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  October  24,  1870. 
J.    W.    Sproull    since    April    24,    1871. 

Centreville  :  Centfeville,  Mercer  County,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  September  18, 
1879.  S.  J.  Crowe,  September  18,  1879,  to  April  12, 
1 88 1.  J.  R.  Wylie,  July  3,  1882,  to  November  8, 

Church  Hill  :  Coultersville,  Randolph  County,  Illinois. 
Organized  by  Illinois  Presbytery,  October  10,  1854. 
W.  F.  George,  March  5,  i860,  to  May  17,  1871. 
J.  M.  Paris,  June  19,  1873,  to  May  30,  1884.  John 
Teaz    since    July   8,    1885. 

Cincinnati  :  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Organized  by  Western 
Presbytery,  October  16,  1816.  Archibald  Johnston, 
supply.  Samuel  Robinson,  October  10,  1818,  to  August 
20,  1821.  C.  B.  McKee,  November  18,  1822,  to  October 
17,  1 83 1.  Disorganized,  August  7,  1833.  Re-organized 
\>Y  Lakes  Presbytery,  August  22,  1844.  J.  R.  Willson, 
supply.  Disorganized,  October  6,  1852,  Re-organized, 
February  24,  1853.  H.  H.  George,  June  23,  1858,  to 
August  18,  1872.  R.  M.  Sommerville,  supply,  one 
year.  J.  M.  Foster,  December  29,  1877,  to  April  14, 

Clarinda  :  Clarinda,  Page  County,  Iowa.  Organized 
by  Illinois  Presbytery,  December  17,  1855.  Joseph 
McCracken,  July  6,  1857,  to  October  16,  1858.  David 
McKee    since    September    20,    1862. 

Clarksburgh  :  Clarksburgh,  Indiana  County,  Penn- 
sylvania. Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  October 
8,    1867.      J.    A.     Black,    November    18,    1868,  to    April 


II,    1882.     J.    J.    McClurkin,    stated     supply,    since     May 

16,  1884. 

COLDENHAM  :  Coldettkam,  Orange  County,  Neiv  York. 
Society  formed  by  John  Cuthbertson  in  1753.  Organized 
by  the  Reformed  Presbytery,  as  Wallkill,  August  10, 
1798.  Alexander  McLeod,  July  6,  1801,  to  September 
8,  1803.  James  Milligan,  June  10,  1812,  to  April  17, 
18 1 7.     J.    R.    Willson,   August    10,    18 17,    to     September 

17,  1830.  J.  R.  Willson,  November  21,  1833,  to  June 
26,  1840.  J.  W.  Shaw,  May  29,  1844,  to  October  26, 
1881.     R.  H..McCready,  March  6,  1884,  to  May  22,  1888. 

CONOCOCHEAGUE  :  Fayetteville,  Franklin  County,  Penn- 
sylvania. Society  formed  in  175 1,  by  John  Cuthbertson. 
Matthew  Linn,  March  10,  1774,  to  November  i,  1782. 
Organized  by  Middle  Committee,  June  16,  1802. 
Robert  Lusk,  August  12,  1816,  to  October  15,  1823. 
S.  W.  Crawford,  August  26,  18^4,  to  May  lO,  183 1. 
Thomas  Hanna,  December  8,  1842,  to  October  29,  1844. 
Joshua    Kennedy,    November    5,    1845,    to    May    i,   i860. 

CORNWALLIS :  Somerset,  Kings  County,  Nova  Scotia. 
Organized  by  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia  Presby- 
tery, September  13,  1843.  William  Sommerville,  1835, 
to  September  28,  1878.  Thomas  McFall  since  August 
25,    1881. 

Craftsbury  :  East  Craftslmry,  Orleans  County,  Ver- 
mont. Organized  by  Northern  Presbytery,  September 
14,  1816.  James  Milligan,  September  26,  1817,  to 
August  6,  1829.  S.  M.  Willson,  May  19,  1833,  to  May 
10,  1845.  R.  Z.  Willson,  November  17,  1846,  to 
December  18,  1855.  J-  M.  Armour,  September  23,  1857, 
to    October    31,    1865.     A.     W.     Johnston,     August      5, 


1868,  to  October  31,   187 1.     J.   C.  Taylor  since  December 

17,    1873. 

Davenport  :  Davenport,  Iowa.  Organized  by  Iowa 
Presbytery,  September  14,  1864.  Disorganized,  May  26, 

Detroit  and  Novi  :  Detroit,  Michigan.  Organized 
by  Lakes  Presbytery,  April  16,  1854.  Boyd  Mc- 
Cullough,  September  19,  1855,  to  May  14,  1871.  Dis- 
organized, May  14,  1 87 1.  Mission  Station  until  May 
27,    1880. 

DuanESBURGH  :  Duanesbtirgh,  Schenectady,  County,  New 
York.  Organized  under  Reformed  Presbytery  of  Ireland 
in  1794.  James  McKinney,  May,  1798,  to  April  4, 
1802.  Gilbert  McMaster,  August  8,  1808,  to  August  7, 
1833.     Disorganized,    October,    1836. 

East  End,  Pittsburgh  :  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  November  24,  1887. 

ECKLEY  :  BeulaJi,  Webster  Cotinty,  Nebraska.  Organ- 
ized by  Kansas  Presbytery,  November  13,  1878.  W. 
S.  Fulton    since    March    10,    1885. 

Elkhorn  :  Oakdale,  Washington  County,  Illinois. 
Organized  by  Western  Presbytery,  July  30,  1834. 
Samuel  McKinney,  April  15,  1835,  to  May  24,  1840. 
William  Sloane,  September  13,  1840,  to  May  9,  1858. 
A.  C.  Todd,  July  i,  1859,  to  May  17,  1871.  D.  G. 
Thompson    since    October    9,    1872. 

Elliota  :  Canton,  Fillmore  County,  Minitesota.  Organ- 
ized by  Iowa  Presbytery,  November  5,  1868.  J.  S. 
Buck,  1867,  to  October  13,  1870.  J.  W.  Dill,  April 
26,  1878,  to  May  25,  1 88 1.  Robert  Clyde  since 
February    12,    1886. 


EsKRiDGE :  Eskridge,  Wabaunsee  County,  Kansas. 
Organized  by  Kansas  Presbytery,  April  15,  1884.  N. 
M.    Johnston    since    August    4,    1886. 

Evans  :  Evans,  Weld  County,  Colorado.  Organized 
by  Illinois  Presbytery,  August  10,  187 1.  A.  C.  Todd 
since    August    21,    1874. 

Fairgrove  :  Fairgrove,  Tuscola  County,  Michigan. 
Organized  by  Lakes  Presbytery,  December  7,  1878. 
J.  Ralston  Wylie,  November  i,  1879,  to  October  12, 

Gal  WAY  :  West  Galway,  Fulton  County,  New  York. 
Organized  as  a  part  of  Duanesburgh,  in  1794.  James 
McKinney,  May,  1798,  to  April  4,  1802.  Gilbert  Mc- 
Master,  August  8,  1808,  to  May  10,  18 18.  Organized 
as  Galway  distinct.  May  10,  18 18.  S.  M.  Willson, 
October  14,  182 1,  to  May  16,  1827.  J.  N.  McLeod, 
December  29,  1829,  to  June  19,  1832.  A.  S.  McMaster, 
April  4,  1833,  to  August  7,  1833,  when  disorganized. 
Re-organized  by  Western  Presbytery,  November  9,  1835. 
Disorganized,    April,    1842. 

Garrison  :  Glenwood,  Fayette  County,  Indiana.  Organ- 
ized by  Middle  Committee  in  1805.  John  Kell,  April 
3,  1816,  to  October  6,  18 19.  Gavin  McMillan,  May  7. 
1823,  to  October  7,  1836.  Josiah  Dodds,  October  6 
1847,  to  October  10,  1865.  T.  P.  Robb,  May  16,  1871 
to  April  12,  1874.  J.  J.  McClurkin,  August  14,  1880 
to    March    13,    1884.      Disorganized,    September    9,    1884 

Greenfield  :  Greenfield,  Harrison  Coimty,  Ohio.  Organ- 
ized by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  October  16,  1822. 
William    Sloane,    November     16,    1829,    to     October     23, 


1838.     James    Love,    June '29,    1839,    to    May    11,    1847. 
Disorganized,  May  24,    1849. 

Greensburgh  :  Greensbm-gh,  Westmoreland  Coimty, 
Pennsylvania.  Organized  by  Middle  Presbytery  in  181 3, 
John  Cannon,  September  16,  1816,  to  February  2,  1836. 
James  Milligan,  November  23,  1839,  to  October  16,  1841. 
S.  O.  Wylie,  May  17,  1843,  to  November  18,  1844. 
R.  B.  Cannon,  May  5,  1847,  to  April  4,  1854.  A.  M. 
Milligan,  May  6,  1856,  to  April  10,  1866.  Attached  to 
New  Alexandria,  October  8,    1867. 

Grove  Hill  :  Grove  Hill,  Bremer  County,  Iowa. 
Organized  by  Illinois  Presbytery,  October  2,  1861. 
Robert  Hutcheson,  April  17,  1863,  to  May  8,  1867. 
Disorganized,    May  26,   1869. 

Hebron  :  Idana,  Clay  County,  Kansas.  Organized  by 
Kansas  Presbytery,  November  9,  1871.  J.  S.  T.  Milligan, 
supply.  S.  M.  Stevenson,  October  30,  1874,  to  April 
17,  1876.  Matthew  Wilkin,  November  11,  1876,  to  July 
12,    1880.     J.  R.  Latimer    since  August    18,   1882. 

Hephzibah  :  Fayetteville,  Lincoln  County,  Tennessee. 
Organized  as  Elk  by  Southern  Presbytery,  June  12, 
18 12.  Supplied  by  John  Kell,  Thomas  Donnelly,  Robert 
McKee,  and  others.  Ebenezer  Cooper,  1828,  to  1832. 
Disorganized,' August  7,   1833. 

Hickory  Grove  :  Avery,  Monroe  County,  Iowa.  Organ- 
ized by  Iowa  Presbytery,  October  13,  1865,  as  Albia. 
James  Love,  April  16,  1866,  to  September  14,  1881.. 
J.  A.  Thompson  since  September   17,  1882. 

HOLMWOOD  :  Mankato,  Jeivell  County,  Kansas.  Organ- 
ized   by  Kansas  Presbytery,  September   i,    1881. 

HOPKINTON :  Hopkinton,  Delaware  County,  Iowa.    Organ-^ 


ized  by  Illinois  Presbytery,  April  lO,  1856,  as  Maquo- 
keta.  W.  L.  Roberts,  May  9,  i860,  to  December  7, 
1864.  D.  H.  Coulter,  April  18,  1867,  to  October  14, 
1874.  R.  C.  Wylie,  June  15,  1875,  to  Ootober  3,  1882. 
T.   H.  Acheson  since   September   23,    1886. 

HORTON :  Grand  Pre,  Hants  County,  Nova  Scotia. 
Organized  by  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia  Pres- 
bytery, May,  1835.  William  Sommerville,  May  16,  1835, 
to  September  28,  1878.  Thomas  McFall,  August  25, 
188 1,  to  June   5,    1886,  when    disorganized. 

HOULTON :  Hoiilton,  Aroostook  County,  Maine.  Organ- 
ized by  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia  Presbytery, 
May  16,  1859.  Supplied  occasionally.  J.  A.  F.  Bovard, 
April   12,   1880,  to  March   10,   1884. 

Indianapolis  :  Indianapolis,  Indiana.  Organized  by 
Lakes  Presbytery,  May  lo,  1867.  John  Crozier  stated 
supply.      Disorganized,   May   25,    1870. 

Jewell  :  Rubens,  Jewell  County,  Kansas.  Organized 
hy  Kansas  Presbytery,  July   15,   1885. 

Jonathan's  Creek  :  White  Cottage,  Muskingum  County, 
■  Ohio.  Organized  by  Lakes  Presbytery,  August  23,  1853, 
as  Eden  and  Irville.  Armour  McFarland,  August  23, 
1853,  to  April  12,  1876.  T.  C.  Sproull,  supply.  R.  B. 
Cannon   since    September  9,    1886. 

Junkin  Tent  :  Kingston,  Cumberland  County,  Penn- 
sylvania. Society  formed  in  1750.  John  Cuthbertson, 
175 1,  to  1774.  Matthew  Linn,  March  10,  1774,  to 
^November  i,  1782.  A  part  of  Conococheague,  1802, 
$0    i860. 

Kortright  :  West  Kortright,  Delaivare  County,  New 
York.     Organized    by    Northern    Presbytery  in    18 14.     M. 


B.  Williams,  April'  15,  1820,  to  August  31,  1831. 
James  Douglas,  supply.  S.  M.  Willson,  October  22, 
1845,  to    January    21,    1864.     J.    O.    Bayles  since  January 

10,  1866. 

Kossuth  :  Kossuth^  Des  Moines  County,  Io7va.  Organ- 
ized by  Iowa  Presbytery,  September  9,  1865.  Robert 
Johnson,  January  7,  1868,  to  July  27,  1875.  Dis- 
organized,   April    30,    1879. 

Lake  Eliza  :  Le  Roy,  Lake  County,  Indiana. 
Organized  by  Lakes  Presbytery,  September  6,  1852. 
P.'H.  Wylie,  May  14,  1855,  to  October  9,  i860.  R. 
M.  Thompson,  September  9,  '  1865,  to  September  13, 
1 88 1.  Robert  Clyde,  supply  in  1884.  Disorganized, 
June    I,    1887. 

Lake  Reno  :  Glenwood,  Pope  County,  Minnesota, 
Organized  by  Iowa  Presbytery,  October  29,  1869.  E. 
G.    Elsey    since    July    17,    1882. 

Lansingburgh  :  Lansingburgh,  Rensselaer  County, 
Nezo  York.  Organized  by  Northern  Presbytery,  June 
17,  .1828.  Robert  McKee,  December  29,  1830,  to  May 
26,    1835.     Disorganized,    October    16,    1848. 

LiND  Grove  :  Mediapolis,  Des  Moines  County,  lozva. 
Organized    by    Illinois    Presbytery,    September    10,    1856. 

C.  D.  Trumbull,  January  29,  1864,  to  April  i,  1874. 
'M.  A.  Gault,  May  20,  1875,  to  October  4,  1877.  J- 
W.    Dill,    July    6,    1881,    to    September    19,    1887. 

Lisbon  :  Flackville,  St.  Lawrence  County,  New  York. 
Organized  as  a  society  in  1823.  Disorganized,  August 
7,  1833.  Re-organized  by  Rochester  Presbytery,  October 
5,    1840.     John    Middleton,    February     8,    1844,    to   April 

11,  1854.       James     McLachlane,      July      16,      1856,      to 


November    19,    1864.       William     McFarland     since    May 
II,    1871. 

Little  Beaver  :  New  Galilee,  Beaver  County,  Penn- 
sylvania. Organized  by  Middle  Presbytery,  May,  18 14. 
Robert  Gibson,  September  6,  18 19,  to  October  16, 
1830.  George  Scott,  April  19,  183 1,  to  August  7, 
1833.  James  Blackwood,  May  24,  1834,  to  October 
10,  1838.  J.  W.  Morton,  November  27,  1845,  to  June 
3,  1847.  Samuel  Sterrett,  June  21,  1848,  to  May  16, 
i860.  N.  M.  Johnston,  April  14,  1864,  to  June  3, 
1886.     J.    R.    Wylie    since    May    18,  1888.  * 

Little  Rocky  CreeIc  :  Chester,  Chester  County, 
Sotith  Carolina.  Settled  in  1772,  by  William  Martin 
and  a  colony  from  Ireland.  William  Martin,  1772,  to 
1789.  James  McGarragh,  1791,  to  1795.  William  King, 
1795,  to  Aijgust  24,  1798.  James  McKinney,  May  10, 
1802,  to  September  4,  1802.  Thomas  Donnelly,  supply. 
John  Reilly,  February  23,  1813,  to  August  27,  1820. 
Campbell  Madden,  June  18,  1822,  to  August  12,  1828. 
Disorganized,    1832. 

LOCHIEL :  Brodie,  Ontario,  Canada.  Society  formed 
with  Ramsey  in  18 16.  Organized  by  Rochester  Presby- 
tery, July  14,  1 861,  as  Glengary.  Robert  Shields,, 
supply,  1865,  to  1883.  R.  C.  Allen  since  October  18,. 

Londonderry  :  Londotidei-ry,  Gtiemsey  County,  Ohio. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  October  16,  1822, 
Robert  Wallace,  supply.  William  Sloane,  November 
16,  1829,  to  October  23,  1838.  James  Love,  June  27,. 
1839,  to  October  5,  1864.  J.  A.  Thompson,  October 
3,  1866,  to  September  i,  1875.  J.  R.  Latimer,  May 
19,  1880,    to    May    27,    1882. 


Long  Branch  :  BlancJiard,  Page  County,  lozva. 
Organized  by  Kansas  Presbytery,  April  16,  1877.  M. 
A.  Gault,  supply.  M.  A.  Gault,  October  i,  1880,  to 
October  25,  1882.  B.  M.  Sharp  since  October  13,. 

Lower  Chanceford  :  Chanceford,  York  County,. 
Pennsylvania.  Society  formed  in  175 1.  John  Cuthbert- 
son,    1751,    to    1782,  when    disorganized. 

Macedon  :  Macedon,  Mercer  County,  Ohio.  Organized 
by  Lakes  Presbytery,  July  5,  1852.  W.  F.  George, 
Septembor  26,  1853,  to  April  20,  1858.  P.  H.  Wylie, 
November  14,  i860,  to  March  I,  1887.  Disorganized,- 
June  2,    1888. 

Mansfield  :  Mansfield,  Ohio.  Organized  by  Ohio 
Presbytery,  October  11,  1878.  S,  A.  George  since 
November  20,   1878. 

McKeesport  :  McKeesport,  Pennsylvania.  Organized 
by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April  27,  1882.  J.  H.  Wylie, 
June    30,   1885,  to  June  27,   1887. 

Miami,  First  :  Northwood,  Logan  Comity,  Ohio^ 
Organized  by  Western  Presbytery,  October  16,  1831. 
J.  B.  Johnston,  June  10,  1834,  to  November  10  1858. 
J.  C.  K.  MilHgan,  July  i,  1853,  to  April  20,  1858. 
J.  L.  McCartney,  November  12,  1861,  to  September  i,. 
1875,  Consolidated  into  United  Miami,  April  14,  1877. 
Miami,  Second  :  Northtvood,  Logan  County,  Ohio. 
Organized  by  Synod  under  Lakes  Presbytery,  August  9; 
1851.  William  Milroy,  October  12,  1854,  to  November 
15,    1876.     Consolidated     into    United    Miami,    April    14,. 


MiDDLETOWN  :    Hooker,    Butler     County,    Pennsylvania. 


Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  Noveniber  i6,  1886, 
and  was  known  as  the  North  Washington  Branch  of 
Brookland    congregation,  since    1825. 

Middle  Wheeling  :  Roneys  Point,  Ohio  County, 
West  Virginia.  Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery, 
April  26,  i860,  and  formerly  supplied  by  pastors  of 
Miller's  Run.  Armour  McFarland,  April  4,  1866,  to 
April  12,  1873.  S.  R.  McClurkin  since  September  13, 

Miller's  Run  :  Venice,  Washington  County,  Pemisyl- 
vania.  Organized  by  Middle  Committee,  October  19, 
1806,  as  Canonsburgh.  John  Black,  supply.  William 
Gibson,  October  23,  18 17,  to  May  26,  1826.  G.  T. 
Ewing,  October  23,  ■  1827,  to  May  16,  1830.  John 
Crozier,  May  12,  1834,  to  October  9,  1842.  William 
Slater,  May  24,   1843,  to    April    14,   1887. 

Milton  :  Milton,  Northumberland  County,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Philadelphia  Presbytery,  October  13,  1830. 
William  Wilson,  August  6,  1832,  to  August  7,  1833, 
when    passed  into  New  School   body. 

Moncton  :  Moncton,  New  Brunsu'ick.  Organized  by 
New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia  Presbytery,  September 
15,   1885. 

Monongahela  :  Elizabeth,  Allegheny  County,  Pennsyl- 
vania. Society  formed  in  1794.  John  Black,  supply. 
Organized  by  Middle  Committee,  October,  1806.  William 
Gibson,  October  23,  18 17,  to  May  26,  1826.  G.  T. 
Ewing,  October  23,  1827,  to  May  16,  1830.  John 
Crozier,  May  12,  1834,  to  April  12,  1865.  J.  W. 
Sproull,  April  10,  1866,  to  April  ir,  1871.  T.  C. 
Sproull,     October    3,     1871,     to    May     26,    1876.     W.     J. 


Coleman,  June  13,  1879,  to  July  5,  1881.  John  M. 
Wylie,  April  27,  1883,  to  April  9,  1884.  Robert  Reed, 
supply,   1885,  to    1887. 

Morning  Sun  :  Morning  Sun,  Louisa  County,  Iowa. 
Organized  by  Iowa  Presbytery,  July  9,  1873.  C.  D. 
Trumbull  since  April   14,    1874. 

Muddy  Run:  McCaWs  Ferry,  York  County,  Pennsyl- 
vania. Formed  into  a  society  in  1743.  John  Cuthbertson, 
1751,  to   1782. 

Muskingum  and  Tomica  :  Dresden,  Muskingnm  County. 
Ohio.  Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  October  9 
1831.  John  Wallace,  April  14,  1833,  to  April  4,  1855 
J.  C.  K.  Paris,  December  6,  1865,  to  April  13,  1871 
W.  S.  Fulton,  December  5,  1877,  to  April  11,  1883 
John  M.  Wylie  since  January  21,    1885. 

New  Alexandria  :  New  Alexandria,  Westmoreland 
Connty,  Peilnsylvania.  Organized  by  the  Pittsburgh 
Presbytery,  July,  1822.  John  Cannon,  18 19,  to  February 
2,  1836.  James  Milligan,  November  23,  1839,  to  October 
14,  1848.  A.  M.  Milligan,  November  24,  1848,  to  October 
4,  1853.  A.  M.  Milligan,  May  6,  1856,  to  April  10, 
1866.  T.  A.  SprouU,  June  17,  1868,  to  April  8,  1878. 
J.  L.  Pinkerton,  May  17,  1881,  to  October  9,  1883. 
J.   F.   Carlisle,  June   20,    1884,    to  January  26,    1888. 

Newark  :  Neivark,  New  Jersey.  Organized  by  New 
York  Presbytery,  June  17,  1874.  D.  H.  Coulter, 
December  10,  1874,  to  October  27,  1875.  Disorganized, 
October  30,   1878. 

Newburgh,  First  :  Neivburgh,  Neiv  York.  Society 
formed,  November  8,  1802.  Organized  by  Northern 
Presbytery,    February     16,    1824.     J.     R.    Johnston,    Sep- 


tember  6,  1825,  to  October  17,  1829.  Moses  Roney,. 
June  8,  1830,  to  October  10,  1848.  Samuel  Carlisle, 
November   15,    1849,  to    July   3,    1887. 

Newburgh,  Second  :  Newburgh,  New  York.  Organ- 
ized by  New  York  Presbytery,  December  13,  1854.  J.  R. 
Thompson    since    December    19,    1855. 

New  Castle  :  New  Castle,  Pennsylvania.  Organized 
by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  January  9,  1871.  S.  J. 
Crowe,  May  21,  1872,  to  April  12,  1881.  J.  Milligan 
Wylie,  June  22,  1883,  to  December  26,  1887.  W.  R.  Laird 
since    May    10,    1888. 

New  Concord  :  New  Concord,  Muskingum  County,. 
Ohio.  Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  June  13, 
182 1,  as  Salt  Creek.  Robert  Wallace,  October  9,  1823, 
to  July  19,  1849.  H.  P.  McClurkin,  October  15,  1850, 
to  October  8,  1856.  H.  P.  McClurkin,  December  2, 
1858,  to  October  4,  1882.  J.  M.  Paris  since  July  3,. 

New  Hartford  :  New  Hartford,  Oneida  County,  New- 
York.  Organized  by  Southern  Presbytery,  October  lO,. 
1837.     Disorganized,    May    15,    1843. 

New  York,  First  :  New  York  City,  New  York. 
Organized  by  Rev.  William  Gibson,  December  26,. 
1797.  Alexander  McLeod,  July  6,  1801,  to  February 
17.  1833.  James  Christie,  November  16,  1836,  to 
October*  15,  1856.  J.  C.  K.  Milligan  since  June  1 6, 

New  York,  Second  :  New  York  City,  New  York. 
Organized  by  Northern  Presbytery,  June  11,  1830. 
Robert    Gibson,    May     31,    183 1,    to    December   22,   1837. 


Andrew    Stevenson,     November    14,    1 839,     to    May     17, 
1875.      R-     M.    Sommerville    since    December    14,    1875 

New  York,  Third  :  New  York  City,  New  York. 
Organized  by  New  York  Presbytery,  March  I4,  1 848. 
John  Little,  June  5,  1849,  to  April  20,  1852.  J.  R. 
W.  Sloane,  May  26,  1856,  to  October  27,  1 868.  David 
'Gregg,  February  23,  1870,  to  October  28,  1885 
David  Gregg,  December  6,  1885,  to  January  25,  1887 
P.    M.    Foster    since    September    7,    1887. 

New  York,  Fourth  :  Neiv  York  City,  New  York. 
'Organized  by  New  York  Presbytery,  February  21,  1870 
James    Kennedy    since    November    13,    1870. 

North  Cedar  :  North  Cedar,  Jackson  Cotmty,  Kansas 
'Organized  by  Kansas  Presbytery,  October  23,  187 1 
J.    S.    T.    Milligan    since    October    8,    1872. 

North  Salem  :  Sugar  Tree,  Guernsey  County,  Ohio. 
Organized  by  Ohio  Presbytery,  April  2,  1879.  J.  R 
Latimer,    October    10,    1880,    to    May    27,    1882. 

North  Union  :  Valencia,  Butler  County,  Pennsylvania. 
'Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April  11,  1870, 
from  Union  and  Pine  Creek,  and  John  Galbraith  has 
since    continued    pastor. 

Oakland  :  Oakland,  Califoiniia.  Organized  by  Synod 
under  Kansas  Presbytery,  August  28,  1879,  as  a 
mission  congregation  with  N.  R.  Johnston  in  charge. 
Disorganized,    May    21,    1885. 

OCTORARA :  Octorara,  Lancaster  County,  Pennsylvania. 
Society  formed  in  1740.  Alexander  Craighead,  1743, 
to  1749.  John  Cuthbertson,  August  11,  1751,  to  Nov- 
ember   I,    1782,    when     disorganized. 

Oil    City  :    South    Oil   City,   Pejinsylvania.      Organized 


by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  August  19,  1865.  David 
McFall,  May  8,  1871,  to  April  8,  1873.  J.  A.  F. 
Bovard    since    June    11,    1884, 

Oil  Creek  :  Titusville,  Crazvfoj-d  County ^  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  February  14,  i860, 
Daniel  Reid,  December  19,  1861,  to  March  31,  1875. 
J.    A.    F.    Bovard    since    June    12,    1884. 

Olathe  :  Olathe,  jfohnston  County,  Kansas.  Organized 
by  Illinois  Presbytery,  April  16,  1865.  W.  W.  McMillan,. 
March  10,  1866,  to  October  14,  1885.  J.  H.  Wylie 
since    October    21,    1887. 

Old  Bethel  :  Houston,  Randolph  Coiinty,  Illinois. 
Organized  by  Western  Presbytery,  October  15,  1836. 
James  Wallace,  August  16,  1840,  to  May  15,  1867. 
W.  J.  Gillespie,  October  13,  1869,  to  August  6,  1870. 
P.  P.  Boyd,  July  20,  1874,  to  December  12,  1887. 
Parnassus  and  Manchester  :  Parnassus,  Penn- 
sylvania. Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  June  20,. 
1870.  J.  M.  Johnston,  June  15,  1871,  to  January  3,, 
1873.     J.    C.    McFeeters    since    June    19.    1874. 

Paterson  :  Paterson,  New  Jersey.  Organized  by 
Northern  Presbytery,  October  10,  18 18.  W.  L.  Roberts,, 
May  19,  1824,  to  December  18,  1825.  William  Gibson,, 
1826,    to    1832.     Disorganized,    October    7,    1836. 

Paxtang  :  Paxton,  Dauphin  County,  Pennsylvania.- 
Society  formed  in  1 740.  John  Cuthbertson,  August 
15,  175 1,  to  March  10,  1774.  Matthew  Linn,  March 
10,  1774,  to  November  i,  1782,  when  disorganized. 
Pequea  :  Pequea,  Lancaster  County,  Pennsylvania. 
Society  formed  in  1750.  John  Cuthbertson,  August  14, 
175 1,  to    November    i,    1782,  when   disorganized. 


Perth,  First  :  Perth,  Ontario,  Canada.  Organized 
under  Scottish  Synod,  April  29,  1836.  James  McLach- 
lane,  August  29,  1837,  to  October  8,  1855,  when  dis- 
organized. Re-organized  by  Rochester  Presbytery,  July 
14,  1 86 1.  Robert  Shields,  supply,  July  13,  1865,  to 
August     28,    1883. 

Perth,  Second  :  Perth,  Ontario,  Canada.  Organized 
by  Rochester  Presbytery,  June  12,  1852.  John  Middle- 
ton,  October  19,  1854,  to  October  8,  1856,  when  dis- 

Philadelphia,  First  :  PJiiladelphia,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Rev.  William  Gibson,  January  28,  1798- 
Samuel  B.  Wylie,  November  20,  1803,  to  August  7, 
1833.  J-  M.  Willson,  November  27,  1834,  to  October, 
28,    1862.     T.    P.    Stevenson   since    May    5,    1863. 

Philadelphia,  Second  :  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.. 
Organized  by  Southern  Presbytery,  August  10,  1842. 
S.  O.  Wylie,  December  5,  1844,  to  August  22,  1883. 
J.    K.    McClurkin,    October  9,    1884,  to  August  25,   1887. 

Philadelphia,  Third  :  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  New  York  Presbytery,  January  16,  1851. 
A.  M.  Milligan,  December  8,  1853,  to  October  14, 
1855.  John  Middleton,  November  18,  1856,  to  May 
17,  1862.  R.  J.  Sharpe,  April  6,  1866,  to  April  10, 
1879.  J.  M.  Crozier,  May  6,  1880,  to  September  7, 
1 88 1.     R.    C.    Montgomery    since    March    27,    1883. 

Philadelphia,  Fourth  :  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  New  York  Presbytery,  July  13,  1853. 
David  McKee,  July  5,  1854,  to  August  4,  1859,  when 


Pine  Creek  and  Union  :  Valencia,  Butler  County, 
Pennsylvania.  Society  organized  in  1806,  as  a  part  of 
Ohio  congregation.  Matthew  Williams,  1807,  to  1 81 5. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  October  8,  181 5. 
Matthew  Williams,  October  8,  18 15,  to  October  16, 
1825.  T.  C.  Guthrie,  April  26,  1826,  to  August  7, 
1833.  Hugh  Walkinshaw,  April  15,  1835,  to  October 
16,  1841.  John  Galbraith,  June  29,  1843,  to  April  II, 
1870.      Alexander    Kilpatrick    since    May    17,    1876. 

Pittsburgh  :  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania.  Organized 
by  Middle  Committee,  December  18,  1800,  as  Ohio. 
John  Black,  December  18,  1800,  to  August  7,  1833,  when 
disorganized.  Re-organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery, 
October  17,  1865.  A.  M.  Milligan,  May  14,  1866,  to 
May  7,   1885.     David  McAllister  since  October  20,   1887. 

Pleasant  Ridge:  Olathe,  Johnston  Coimty,  Kansas. 
Organized  by  Illinois  Presbytery,  April  16,  1865.  W. 
W.  McMillan,  March  10,  1866,  to  August  n,  1871. 
Matthew  Wilkin,  May  8,  1874,  to  July  12,  1880.  R. 
M.    Thompson    since    October    12,    1881. 

Poland  and  North  Jackson  :  Canfield,  Mahoning 
County,  Ohio.  Organized  by  Middle  Presbytery,  May  17, 
1 8 14,  as  Austintown,  and  attached  to  Little  Beaver 
until  its  separate  existence.  May  16,  i860.  Samuel 
Sterrett,  May  16,  i860,  to  October  7,  1867.  R.  J. 
George,  May  19,  1870,  to  April  14,  1875.  T.  C. 
Sproull,  July  8,  1876,  to  April  8,  1879.  Changed  to 
Youngstown,    October    12,    1885. 

Princeton  :  Princeton,  Gibson  County,  Indiana. 
Organized  by  Middle  Presbytery,  October  14,  18 13. 
John"  Kell,    June    21,    1820,    to  August  7,    1833.     Robert 


Lusk,  supply.  J.  J.  McClurkin,  June  2,  1843,  to  May 
22,  1849.  John  Stott,  October  13,  1851,  to  June  2, 
1868,  when  disorganized.  Re-organized  by  Illinois 
Presbytery,  April  21,  1869.  D.  C.  Martin,  November 
7,    1872,    to    April    12,    1888. 

PrincetOWN  :  Princetoivn,  Schenectady  County,  New 
York.  Organized  by  James  McKinney,  in  1794,  as  a 
part  of  Duanesburgh.  James  McKinney,  May,  1798, 
to  April  4,  1802.  Gilbert  McMaster,  August  8,  1808, 
to   August    7,    1833,    when    disorganized. 

QuiNTER :  Quinter,  Gove  County,  Kansas.  Organized 
by   Kansas    Presbytery,    July    7,    1887. 

Ramsey  :  Almonte,  Ontario,  Canada.  Organized  by 
James  Milligan,  September  9,  1830.  Disorganized, 
August  7,  1833.  Re-organized  by  James  McLachlane, 
October  9,  1833.  James  McLachlane,  October  9,  1833, 
to  October  8,  1856,  when  disorganized.  Re-organized 
hy  Rochester  Presbytery,  July  14,  1861.  Robert  Shields, 
July  13,  1865,  to  August  28,  1883.  E.  M.  Coleman 
since    May    9,    1888. 

Rehoboth  :  Marchand,  Indiana  Cotmty,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  November  16, 
1847,  as  Warsaw  and  Montgomery.  R.  J.  Dodds,  June 
18,  1852,  to  May  24,  1856.  T.  M.  Elder,  May  11, 
1859,  to  April  10,  1866.  J,  F.  Crozier  since  November 
18,    1874. 

Rehoboth  :  Wyman,  Louisa  County,  Iowa.  Organized 
by  Illinois  Presbytery,  October  19,  1854.  R.  B.  Cannon, 
December  14,  1854,  to  December  17,  1867.  E.  G. 
Elsey,  August  14,  1874,  to  April  12,  188 1.  J.  A.  Black 
since    February  9,   1886. 


Rochester  :  Rochester,  New  York.  Organized  by 
Southern  Presbytery,  July  2i,  1831.  John  Fisher,  July 
21,  1831,  to  April  17,  1835.  C.  B.  McKee,  May  14, 
1837,  to  August  29,  1842.  David  Scott,  July  11,  1844^ 
to  July  19,  1862.  R.  D.  Sproull,  May  14,  1863,  to 
October    6,    1880.     John    Graham    since    June    22,    1881. 

Rochester  :  Rochester,  Kingman  County,  Kansas. 
Organized     by    Kansas    Presbytery,    December    4,    18,86. 

Rock  Creek  :  Gettysburgh,  Adams  Count}',  Pemisyl- 
vania.  Society  formed  in  1742,  as  Marsh  Creek.  John 
Cuthbertson,  1751,  to  1774.  Alexander  Dobbin,  March 
10,    1774,  to  November   i,   1782,  when  disorganized. 

Rocky  Creek  :  Chester,  Chester  County,  South  Carolina. 
The  parent  society  in  the  South,  formed  about  1750. 
In  1770,  called  "Edgar's  Meeting  House."  William 
Martin,  1772,  to  1789.  William  King,  1792,  to  1798. 
Thomas  Donnelly,  March  3,  1801,  to  April  10,  1816. 
Hugh  McMillan,  June  18,  1822,  to  April  6,  1829,  when 

Rocky  Spring  :  Chamber sburgh,  Franklin  Coimty, 
Pennsylvania.  Original  of  Conococheague,  formed  in  175 1. 
John  Cuthbertson,  August  31,  1751,  to  March  10,  1774. 
Matthew  Linn,  March  10,  1774,  to  November  i,  1782. 
Organized  as  Conococheague,  June   16,   1802, 

Round  Prairie  :  Round  Prairie,  Todd  County,  Minne- 
sota.    Organized  by  Iowa  Presbytery,  May  12,   1873. 

RUSHSYLVANIA :  Rzishsylvania,  Logan  County,  Ohio. 
Organized  by  Lakes  Presbytery,  November  17,  1853. 
J.  R.  W.  Sloane,  January  13,  1855,  to  May  21,  1856. 
P.  H.  Wylie,  November  13,  i860,  to  May  25,  1876. 
H.    H.    George,    May    3,   1878,    to    May    18,    1880.     John 


Lynd,  August  12,  1880,  to  April  14,  1885.  J,  J.  Huston, 
July   30,    1886,  to  April  9,   1888. 

Ryegate  :  Ryegate^  Caledonia  County,  Vermont.  Organ- 
ized by  Reformed  Presbytery,  October,  1798.  William 
Gibson,  July  10,  1799,  to  April  13,  181 5.  James 
Milligan,  September  26,  1817,  to  May  17,  1839.  J-  M. 
Beattie,  June  20,  1844,  to  May  17,  1882.  H.  W.  Reed, 
January   19,    1883,  to    September   2i,   1886, 

Saint  John  :  Saint  John,  Neiv  Brunswick.  Society 
formed.  May,  1821.  Organized  by  Alexander  Clarke, 
March,  1828.  Alexander  Clarke,  August,  1827,  to  April 
25,  1832.  A.  M.  Stavely,  August  16,  1841,  to  July  26, 
1879.     A.  J.  McFarland    since  August  4,   1882. 

Saint  Johnsbury  :  Saint  Johnsbury,  Caledonia  County, 
Vermont.  Organized  by  New  York  Presbytery,  July  29, 
1879.     W.    R.    Laird,   June    15,    1880,    to    May    i,    1888. 

Saint  Louis  :  Saint  Louis,  Missouri.  Organized  by 
Illinois  Presbytery,  April  2,  1846.  A.  C.  Todd,  July  29, 
1852,  to  April  12,  1857.  Joseph  McCracken,  October  14, 
1859,  to  September  2,  1874.  J.  R.  Hill,  September  28, 
1877,  to  April  15,  1885.  E.  M.  Smith  since  May  16, 

Salem  :  Stanton,  Jefferson  County,  Pennsylvania.  Organ- 
ized by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  October  31,  i860.  A.  J. 
McFarland,  February  5,  1862,  to  April  11,  1882.  H.  W. 
Temple  since  July   14,    1887. 

Sandusky  :  Crestline,  Crawford  County,  Ohio.  Organ- 
ized by  Lakes  Presbytery,  October  10,  1843.  J.  C. 
Boyd,  May  13,  1847,  to  November  6,  1867.  Disorganized, 
April   12,   1876. 


Schenectady  :  Schenectady,  Neio  York.  Organized  in 
1794,  with  Duanesburgh.  James  McKinney,  May,  1798, 
to  April  4,  1802.  Gilbert  McMaster,  August  8,  1808,  to 
May  16,  183 1,  when  received  separate  organization.  John 
McMaster,  January  25,  1832,  to  August  7,  1833,  when 

Selma  :  Selina,  Dallas  County,  Alabama.  Organized  by 
Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  May  21,  1875,  as  a  mission  con- 
gregation. Lewis  Johnston,  May  21,  1875,  to  November 
14,   1876.     G.  M.  Elliot  since    December   14,    1877. 

Sharon  :  Linton,  Des  Moines  County,  Iowa.  Organized 
by  Illinois  Presbytery,  September  26,  1846.  J.  M.  Mc- 
Donald, May  17,  185 1,  to  June  19,  1872.  T.  P. 
Robb    since  July    6,    1874. 

Shenango  and  Neshannock  :  Neshannock  FallSy 
Lawrence  County,  Pennsylvania.  Organized  by  Pittsburgh 
Presbytery,  October  25,  1829.  A.  W.  Black,  January 
18,    1832,    to    August    7,    1833,    when  disorganized. 

Slippery  Rock  and  Portersville  :  Rose  Point, 
Lawrence  Coimty,  Pe^insylvattia.  Society  formed  in  1806, 
and  a  part  of  Little  Beaver.  Organized  by  Pittsburgh 
Presbytery,  April  12,  1834.  James  Blackwood,  May 
24,  1834,  to  October  8,  1851.  Thomas  Hanna,  Novem- 
ber 17,  1852,  to  October  29,  1861.  J.  C.  Smith  since 
April    16,     1863. 

SOUTHFIELD  :  Birmingham,  Oakland  Coimty,  Michigan. 
Organized  by  Ohio  Presbytery,  May  10,  1834.  James 
Neill,  May  18,  1843,  to  October  6,  185 1.  J.  S.  T. 
Milligan,  November  11,  1853,  to  April  11,  187 1.  J.  R. 
Hill,  May  10,  1872,  to  May  25,  1876.  Joseph  Mc- 
Cracken    since    June    15,    1878. 


Springfield  :  Balm,  Mercer  County,  Pennsylvania. 
Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  August  4,  1852. 
J.  J.  McClurkin,  September  8,  1854,  to  October  14, 
1873.  J.  Renwick  Wylie,  June  29,  1877,  to  April  10, 

Staunton  :  Staunton,  Macoupin  County,  Illinois.  Organ- 
ized by  Illinois  Presbytery,  July  14,  1863.  John  Middle- 
ton,  May  23,  1865,  to  August  9,  1870.  W.  F.  George, 
May  13,  1872,  to  April  14,  1880.  E.  M.  Smith  since 
May    12,    1887. 

Sterling  :  Sterling  Valley,  Cayuga  County,  Neiv  York. 
Organized  by  Northern  Presbytery,  November  17,  1823. 
W.  L.  Roberts,  November  16,  1826,  to  October  6, 
1830.  W.  L.  Roberts,  October  19,  1837,  to  May  26, 
1855.  Matthew  Wilkin,  October  23,  1856,  to  October 
2,  1867.  S.  R.  Galbraith,  July  7,  1870,  to  October  i, 
1871.  T.  J.  Allen,  November  11,  1875,  to  June  i, 
1887.     J.    C.    B.   French    since   January    12,     1888. 

Sterling  :  Sterling,  Rice  Cojinty,  Kansas.  Organized 
by  Kansas  Presbytery,  November  5,  1877.  J.  M. 
Armour,  April  i,  1877,  to  May  26,  1885.  P.  H, 
Wylie    since    April    15,    1887. 

Superior  :  Superior,  Nuckolls  County,  Nebraska. 
Organized  by  Kansas  Presbytery,  September  i,  1881,. 
R.  C.  Allen,  December  8,  1882,  to  October  15,  1884. 
Disorganized,  May  22,  1885.  Re-organized,  August  27, 
1885.     P.    P.    Boyd    since    March    16,    1888. 

Sylvania  :  Sylvania,  Dade  County,  Missouri.  Organ- 
ized by  Illinois  Presbytery,  August  10,  1871.  Josiah 
Dodds    since    May  9,    1878. 


Syracuse  :  Syracuse,  Neiv  York.  Organized  by- 
Rochester  Presbytery,  October  lo,  1849.  John  Newell, 
May  7,  1851,  to  May  26,  1853.  J.  M.  Johnston,  May 
13,  1859.  to  August  II,  1866.  J.  M.  Armour,  June 
8,  1867,  to  September  9,  1873.  S.  R.  Wallace  since 
December    8,    1874. 

Tabor  :  Clay  Centre,  Clay  County,  Kansas.  Organized 
by  Kansas  Presbytery,  October  12,  1873.  S.  M. 
Stevenson    since    October    30,    1874. 

ToPSHAM  :  Topsham,  Orange  County,  Vermont.  Organ- 
ized by  Northern  Presbytery,  September  6,  18 18. 
William  Sloahe,  October  14,  1820,  to  April  17,  1829. 
N.  R.  Johnston,  November  10,  1852,  to  May  16,  1865. 
J.  M.  Paris,  September  i,  1869,  to  May  22,  1872.  J. 
C,    K.    Paris    since    December    2,    1874. 

Toronto  :  Toronto,  Canada.  Organized  by  Rochester 
Presbytery,  May  27,  1851.  Robert  Johnson,  November 
4,  1852,  to  November  7,  1859.  Disorganized,  May  27, 
j868.  Re-organized,  January  23,  1872.  Disorganized, 
May    26,    1875. 

Troy  :  Troy,  New  York.  Organized  by  Northern 
Presbytery,  June  17,  1828.  Robert  McKee,  December 
29,  1830,  to  May  26,  1835.  Disorganized,  April  13, 

United  Miami  :  NortJiwood,  Logan  County,  Ohio. 
Organized  by  Lakes  Presbytery,  April  14,  1877,  by 
consolidation  of  Pirst  and  Second  Miami.  George 
Kennedy,  May  23,  1878,  to  June  15,  1882.  Ruther 
Hargrave    since    May    27,    1886. 

Utica  :  Utica,  Licking  County,  Ohio.  Organized  by- 
Middle     Presbytery,     October      12,      18 14,     as      Licking. 


Robert  Wallace,  October  12,  1814,  to  May  10,  1820. 
Armour  McFarland,  October  5,  1837,  to  May  23,  1855. 
J.  C.  Boyd,  November  26,  1856,  to  October  4,  1882. 
W.  J.  Coleman,  April  15,  1886,  to  November  17, 

Utica  :  Utica,  New  York.  Organized  by  Southern 
Presbytery,  October  10,  1837.  Disorganized,  October 
13.    1840. 

Vernon  :  Waukesha,  Waukesha  County,  Wisconsin. 
Organized  by  Rochester  Presbytery,  October  18,  1848, 
as  Waukesha.  Disorganized,  November  8,  1850.  Re- 
organized by  Illinois  Presbytery,  September  16,  1856, 
as  Vernon.  Robert  Johnson,  November  7,  1859, 
to  December  17,  1867.  R.  B.  Cannon,  September  13, 
1872,  to  May  28,  1878.  Isaiah  Faris  since  November 
22,    1878. 

Wahoo  and  Fremont  :  Wahoo,  Saunders  County^ 
Nebraska.  Organized  by  Kansas  Presbytery,  December 
19,  1 87 1.  J.  A.  Thompson,  October  18,  1877,  to  May 
18,    1880.       H.    P.    McClurkin    since    February    29,    1884. 

Walnut  City  :  Walnut  City,  Appanoose  County,  loiva. 
Organized  by  Iowa  Presbytery,  March  18,  1868. 
Isaiah  Faris,  September  21,  1870,  to  May  23,  1877. 
Disorganized,    April    9,    1884. 

Walnut  Ridge  :  Salem,  Washington  County,  Indiana. 
Organized  by  Western  Presbytery,  May  13,  1822. 
Robert  Lusk,  October  7,  1824,  to  August  10,  1825. 
Robert  Lusk,  May  9,  1835,  to  September  18,  1840. 
J.  J.  McClurkin,  June  2,  1843,  to  April  10,  1851. 
Disorganized,    May    28,    1862. 


Walton:  Walton,  Delaxvare  County,  New  York.  Organ- 
ized by  New  York  Presbytery,  June  ii,  i86i.  David 
McAllister,  December  i6,  1863,  to  September  6,  1871. 
David  McAllister,  June  23,  1875,  to  October  24,  1883.- 
S.    G.    Shaw    since    July    8,    1884. 

Washington:  Washington,  Washington  County,  loiua. 
Organized  by  Iowa  Presbytery,  November  27,  1863. 
S.  M.  Stevenson,  February  15,  1865,  to  October  4, 
1871.  W.  P.  Johnston,  October  10,  1873,  to  August 
4,    1 88 1.      T.    A.    H.    Wylie    since    December   7,    1882. 

West  Hebron:  West  Hebron,  Washington  County, 
Neiv  York.  Society  formed  in  1764.  Organized  by 
Northern  Presbytery,  October,  18 14,  as  Argyle.  J.  W.. 
Stewart,  October  13,  1825,  to  April  5,  1832.  Dis- 
organized, May  24,  1862,  Re-organized  by  New  York 
Presbytery,  August  29,  1866,  as  West  Hebron.  J.  A. 
Speer   since    July    28,    1875. 

White  Lake  :  White  Lake,  Sullivan  County,  New  York. 
Organized  by  Northern  Presbytery,  April  15,  1820. 
M.  B.  Williams,  April  15,  1820,  to  May  16,  1821.  J. 
B.  Williams  since    November  14,   1850. 

WiLKlNSBURGH  :  Wilkinsburgh,  Allegheny  Cotinty,  Penn- 
sylvania.  Organized  by  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  July  14, 
1848.  Thomas  Hanna,  supply,  Joseph  Hunter,  April 
13,  1852,  to  September  9,  1882.  W.  W.  Carithers  since 
June  20,   1883. 

Wilmington  :  Wilmington,  Delaware.  Organized  by 
Philadelphia  Presbytery,  December  25,  1832,  S.  M. 
Gayley,  December  25,  1832,  to  August  7,  1833.  ^^^' 
organized,  October,   1834. 


WiLMOT :  Wilmot,  Annapolis  County,  Nova  Scotia. 
Organized  by  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia  Pres- 
bytery, November   13,   1849.     Robert  Stewart,  November 

13,  1849,  to  May  28,   1881. 

Winchester  :  Winchester,  Jefferson  Coimty,  Kansas. 
Organized  by  Iowa  Presbytery,  September  7,  1868. 
Josiah  Dodds,  November  7,  1868,  to  October  17,  1876. 
D.  H.  Coulter  since  August    17,    1877. 

Xenia  :  Xenia,  Ohio.  Organized  by  Middle  Presbytery,- 
June   19,   1 8 10.     John    Kell,  supply.     Jonathan    Gill,  May 

14,  1816,  to  April  6,  1823.  Gavin  McMillan,  supply. 
Hugh  McMillan,  September  7,  1829,  to  August  7,  1833. 
Disorganized,  August   18,    1841. 

York  :  York,  Livingstone  County,  New  York.  Organ- 
ized by  Northern  Presbytery,  November  ly,  1823.  W. 
L.  Roberts,  November  16,  1826,  to  October  6,  1830. 
John  Fisher,  July  21,  1831,  to  July  22,  1845.  Samuel 
Bowden,  December  31,  1846,  to  November  21,  1876. 
W.  C.  Allen  since  September  26,   1882. 

YOUNGSTOWN  :  Yoiingstown,  Ohio.  Organized  by  Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery,  October  12,  1885,  as  remnant  of 
Poland  and  North  Jackson.  H.  W.  Reed  since  May  4,. 


The  Ministry. 


Son  of  John  and  Nancy  (Caskey)  Acheson,  was 
born  in  New  Galilee,  Beaver  County,  Pennsylvania, 
August  lo,  1861.  He  received  his  early  education  in 
the  schools  of  his  native  town,  and,  in  due  time,  entered 
Westminster  College,  where  he  remained  until  his 
junior  year,  and  graduated  from  Geneva  College  in 
1882.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Semi- 
nary, and  was  licensed  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery, 
April  15,  1885,  and  labored  for  six  months  in  Kansas 
and  Nebraska.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Iowa  Pres- 
bytery, and  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation  of 
Hopkinton,  Delaware  County,  Iowa,  September  23, 
1886,  where  he  is  in  charge.  He  married  Miss  Minnie  Hill, 
of  Crystal  Park,  Colorado,  August  24,  1886.  In  1880, 
he  became  an  editor  of  the  College  Cabinet  for  two 


Son  of  William  and  Margaret  (Graham)  Acheson, 
was  born  in  the  city  of  New  York,  July  28,  18 15. 
He  was  early  furnished  with  the  opportunity  of  acquir- 
ing a  liberal  education  in  the  best  schools,  and  grad- 
uated   from    the    University    of^  the    City    of    New    York 


in  1836.  He  engaged  in  teaching,  and  other  employ- 
ments, for  several  years.  He  studied  theology  under 
the  direction  of  the  Rev.  James  Christie,  D.  D.,  and 
also  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was  licensed 
by  the  New  York  Presbytery,  December  3,  1847.  He 
travelled  generally  throughout  the  Church,  but  especially 
supplied  the  vacancies  in  the  South  and  West,  where 
his  labors  were  very  acceptable.  While  on  his  way  to 
Princeton,  Indiana,  he  was  attacked  with  cholera,  and 
.died  in  three  days  thereafter,  in  Evansville,  Indiana, 
November  26,  1850.  He  never  married.  Few  young 
men  possessed  a  more  robust  constitution,  and  the 
abilities  which  are  peculiarly  adapted  to  missionary 
work.  He  was  endowed  with  a  fine  mind,  and  the 
.  elements  of  a  popular  preacher.  He  was  warm  in  his 
attachments,  easy  in  his  manners,  kind  in  his  deport- 
ment, and  unaffected  in  his  devotion  to  the  cause  of 
.  Christ. 


Son     of     Cochran     and     Elizabeth     (Willson)     Allen, 
was      born      in     Balm,     Mercer      County,     Pennsylvania, 
•  October    20,    1857.     He  received    his  preparatory   course 
.  of    literary    training    in     Grove    City    College,    and    grad- 
uated   from    Westminster    College    in    1882.     He    studied 
theology    in    the    Union    Seminary    of    New    York    City, 
and    was    licensed    by    the    New    York    Presbytery,    May 
20,    1885.     He,  preached  in  but  a  few    of  the  vacancies, 
and    connected     with     the     Presbyterian    Church,     being 
received    by    the    Presbytery    of   the    City   of    New  York, 
February    8,     1886.       He     was    ordained    by    the    West 
.Chester    Presbytery    of   that    body,    and    installed   pastor 


of  Throgg's  Neck  congregation,  West  Chester,  West 
Chester  County,  New  York,  May  13,  1886,  where  he 
is    in    charge. 

NATHANIEL   ALLEN,    M.    D. : 

Son  of  Robert  and  Ann  (Gillespie)  Allen,  was 
born  near  Andes,  Delaware  County,  New  York,  June 
14,  1 8 10.  In  early  life  he  was  cast  upon  his  own 
resources,  and,  with  great  difficulty,  obtained  a  liberal 
education,  and  taught  school  in  Orange  County,  New 
York,  with  marked  success  for  many  years.  He  pursued 
his  classical  studied  in  the  Academy  of  Coldenham,  New 
York,  under  the  Rev,  J.  R.  Willson,  D.  D.,  and  grad- 
uated from  the  Oneida  Institute,  Whitesboro,  New 
York,  in- 1838.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Coldenham 
and  Allegheny  Seminaries,  and  was  licensed  by  the 
Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  June  29,  1843.  He  preached 
within  the  bounds  of  this  Presbytery  for  two  years, 
and,  when  transferred  to  the  Lakes  Presbytery  in 
1845,  ^^  ■^^s  refused  appointments  and  complained  to 
Synod.  For  the  want  of  that  aptness  to  teach  which 
is  essential  in  the  ministry,  his  license  was  withdrawn 
by  the  authority  of  Synod,  May  31,  1847.  In  1848, 
he  entered  the  Ohio  Medical  College,  Cincinnati,  com- 
pleted the  three  years'  course,  and  settled  in  Princeton,. 
Indiana,  where  he  practiced  medicine  as  a  successful 
physician  for  several  years.  In  1855,  he  memorialized 
the  Synod  to  consider  his  case,  but  failed  to  receive 
his  license  to  preach,  and  returned  to  Princeton,. 
Indiana,  where  he  died  of  hemorrhages  of  the  lungs,. 
March  29,  1857.  He  married  Miss  Eliza  J.  Reid,  of 
Rushville,    Indiana,    March    18,    1846.     He   was  a  skilled 


physician  and  sympathetic  to  every  trouble.  He  was 
a  good  man,  a  true  Covenanter,  scrupulously  conscien- 
tious in  the  discharge  of  all  religious  duties  and 
persevering  in  his  purpose,  but  failed  to  attain  the 
grand  object  of  his  desires — the  Christian  ministry. 
He  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Medicine  from 
the  Ohio  Medical  College  in  1851.  He  published  a 
sermon,    ''The    Help    of    the    Church,"    185 1,    pp.    16. 


Son  of  Samuel  and  Mary  (Gilmore)  Allen,  was 
born  in  Balm,  Mercer  County,  Pennsylvania,  May  4, 
1848,  He  received  his  elementary  literary  training  in 
what  is  now  Grove  City  College,  graduated  from 
Westminster  College  in  1875,  and  engaged  in  teaching. 
He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and 
-was  licensed  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April  8, 
1879,  and  labored  in  the  far  West,  under  the  direction 
of  the  Central  Board  of  Missions.  He  was  ordained  by 
the  Kansas  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the 
■congregation  of  Superior,  Nuckolls  County,  Nebraska, 
December  8,  1882,  and  was  released  October  15,  1884. 
He  was  installed  pastor  of  the  Lochiel  congregation, 
Brodie,  Ontario,  Canada,  October  18,  1887,  where  he  is 
in  charge.  He  married  Miss  Lizzie  S.  Little,  of  West 
Fairfield,  Pennsylvania,  June  28,   1878. 


Son  of  Robert  and  Jane  (Willson)  Allen,  was  born 
-in  Findley,  Mercer  County,  Pennsylvania,  July  18,  1848. 
He  received  his  early  education  in  what  is  now  Grove 
City  College,  and  graduated  from  Westminster  College 
in     1 87 1.       He     studied      theology     in     the     Allegheny 


Seminary,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery, 
April  15,  1874.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Rochester 
Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation  of 
Sterling,  Cayuga  County,  New  York,  November  ii,  1875, 
and  resigned  this  charge,  June  i,  1887,  and  removed  to 
Balm,  Pennsylvania.  Recently  he  has  engaged  in 
evangelistic  work  with  fruitful  results.  He  married  Miss 
Nannie    Ramsey,   of    Oakdale,    Illinois,    August  28,    1877. 


Son  of  Cochran  and  Elizabeth  (Willson)  Allen, 
was  born  in  Balm,  Mercer  County,  Pennsylvania, 
November  7,  1854.  He  received  his  rudimentary 
literary  education  in  what  is  now  Grove  City  College, 
and  graduated  from  Westminster  College  in  1877.  He 
studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was 
licensed  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April  13,  1881,, 
and  labored  for  some  time  in  Lake  Reno  and  Round 
Prairie,  Minnesota.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Rochester 
Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation  of 
York,  Livingston  County,  New  York,  September  28, 
1882,  where  he  is  in  charge.  He  married  Miss  Jeanie 
A.  Black,  of    London,  Pennsylvania,  June   i,   1882. 

JOHN  Mclaughlin  armour: 

Son  of  Thomas  G.  and  Mary  A.  (Cathcart)  Armour, 
was  born  in  Sparta,  Randolph  County,  Illinois,  October 
9,  1825.  He  received  his  early  education  in  the  schools 
of  his  native  village,  and  in  the  city  of  St.  Louis, 
Missouri,  and  graduated  from  Geneva  College  in  1852. 
He  studied  theology  in  the  Cincinnati  Seminary,  and  at 
the  same  time  with  his  literary  course  in  the  Northwood 
Seminary,    and    was    licensed    by    the    Lakes    Presbytery,, 


April  1 6,  1852.  He  was  ordained  by  the  New  York 
Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation  of 
Craftsbury,  Orleans  County,  Vermont,  September  23, 
1857,  and  resigned  October  31,  1865,  and  took  charge 
of  the  Freedmen's  Mission  in  Washington,  D.  C.  He 
was  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation  of  Syracuse, 
New  York,  June  8,  1867,  and  resigned  September  9, 
1873.  He  removed  to  Northwood,  Logan  County,  Ohio, 
and  was  a  supply  for  three  years.  He  took  charge  of 
the  congregation  of  Sterling,  Rice  County,  Kansas, 
April  I,  1877,  and  resigned  May  26,  1885.  He  removed 
to  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  where  he  is 
devoting  himself  to  the  work  of  an  author  and  supplying 
vacant  pulpits.  He  married  Miss  Mary  E.  Sudborough, 
of  Hamilton,  Canada,  March  21,  1856.  Among  his 
publications  are:  "Atonement  and  Law,"  1885,  pp.  240, 
three  editions.  "The  Divine  Method  of  Life,"  1887, 
pp,  250. 


Son  of  Stephen  and  Martha  (McVey)  Bayles,  was 
born  in  Cherry  Fork,  Adams  County,  Ohio,  February  4, 
1835.  He  received  his  early  education  in  that  vicinity, 
and  with  the  family  removed  to  Northwood,  Logan  . 
County,  Ohio,  where  he  graduated  from  Geneva  College 
in  1857.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary 
and  was  licensed  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April 
25,  i860.*  He  supplied  vacant  congregations  and  mission 
stations,  and,  in  the  spring  of  1864,  took  charge  of  the 
Freedmen's  Mission  in  Washington.  D.  C.  He  was 
ordained  by  the  New  York  Presbytery,  and  installed 
pastor    of    the    Kortright    congregation.    West   Kortright,. 


Delaware  County,  New  York,  January  lO,  1866,  where 
he  is  in  charge.  He  married  Miss  Martha  B.  Floyd,  of 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  November   30,   1865. 

JOSEPH    BEATTIE,    D.    D.: 

Son  of  John  and  Eliza  (McKinney)  Beattie,  was 
born  in  Saint  Andrews,  Orange  County,  New  York, 
October  17,  1830.  His  mother  was  a  daughter  of  the 
Rev.  James  McKinney,  and  his  father  a  pious  Cove- 
nanter and  an  elder  in  the  Coldenham  congregation. 
He  pursued  his  preparatory  literary  studies  in  the 
schools  of  his  native  county  and  graduated  from  Union 
College  in  1852.  He  studied  theology  in  Philadelphia, 
under  the  direction  of  the  Rev.  James  M.  Willson,  D. 
D.,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Philadelphia  Presbytery, 
May  26,  1856.  The  next  week  he  was  chosen  by 
.Synod  as  a  Missionary  to  Syria.  Accepting  this  appoint- 
ment, he  was  ordained  si7te  titiilo  by  the  New  York 
Presbytery,  September  23,  1856,  and,  with  Dr.  R.  J. 
Dodds  and  others,  sailed  for  that  foreign  land,  October 
16,  1856.  He  first  settled  in  Damascus,  where  he 
pursued  his  studies  in  the  Arabic  language,  and  became 
a  proficient  scholar  in  that  tongue.  After  exploring 
many  parts  of  the  Holy  Land,  he  finally  settled  in 
Latakia  in  1859,  where  suitable  buildings  were  subse- 
quently erected,  and  where  he  spent  the  rest  of  his 
life  in  the  proper  work  of  a  Missionary.  He  visited 
the  United  States  three  times — in  1863,  1876  and  1878, 
and  in  those  visits  he  lectured  through  all  parts  of 
the  Church  and  awakened  an  interest  in  the  Foreign 
Mission.  Upon  his  last  visit  he  left  his  wife  to  educate 
his  children  in  this  country,  but  scarcely  had  he'  reached 



the  sacred  soil  of  Syria,  when  he  received  the  distress- 
ing intelligence  of  her  death,  and  he  immediately 
returned  to  his  motherless  children.  He  soon  after- 
wards returned  to  Syria,  and,  in  1880,  opened  a  Theo- 
logical School  for  the  training  of  a  native  ministry. 
He  died  at  his  home  in  Latakia,  Syria,  of  gastric  fever, 
October  8,  1883.  He  was  a  man  of  fine  personal 
appearance,  of  ripe  experience  and  of  sound  judgment, 
to  whom  the  missionaries,  as  well  as  the  native  scholars, 
looked  for  counsel  and  direction.  He  was  a  faithful 
minister,  a  most  judicious  teacher,  and  one  universally 
beloved  for  his  kindness  to  his  fellow-teachers  and 
sympathy  for  the  distressed  heathen.  He  was  a  man 
firm  in  his  convictions  and  unyielding  in  his  fidelity 
to  truth  and  duty.  He  did  yeoman  service  in  establish- 
ing the  Syrian  Mission,  and  was  instrumental  in 
bringing  many  souls  to  a  saving  knowledge  of  Christ. 
He  married  Miss  Martha  E.  Lord,  of  Camden,  Delaware, 
September  16,  1856.  He  was  honored  with  the  degree 
of  Doctor  of  Divinity  by  Union  College  in  1878.  He 
was    Moderator    of    the    Synod    of    1876. 


Son  of  John  and  Sarah  (Haines)  Beattie,  was  born 
in  Saint  Andrews,  Orange  County,  New  York,  Septem- 
ber 24,  181 1.  He  was  a  half-brother  to  Rev.  Joseph 
Beattie,  D.  D.,  and  received  an  equally  strict  religious 
training  in  the  home  of  his  pious  parents.  He  received 
his  preparatory  literary  studies  in  the  Coldenham 
Academy  of  his  native  County,  and  graduated  from 
Union  College  in  1834.  He  studied  theology  in  the 
Coldenham    Seminary    under  the  Rev.  James  R.  Willson, 


D.  D.,  one  year.  In  1840,  he  went  to  Scotland  and 
studied  theology  in  the  Paisley  Seminary,  and  was 
licensed  by  the  Paisley  Presbytery,  of  the  Covenanter 
Church,  April  13,  1843.  He  returned  to  this  country 
the  same  year,  was  ordained  by  the  New  York  Presby- 
tery, May  29,  1844,  and  installed  pastor  of  the  united 
congregations  of  Ryegate  and  Barnet,  Caledonia 
County,  Vermont,  June  20,  1844.  At  the  organization 
of  the  Barnet  congregation,  he  resigned  that  branch,. 
May  24,  1872,  and  on  account  of  declining  strength 
he  was  released  from  Ryegate,  May  17,  1882.  For 
two  years  he  endured  much  severe  suffering  of  the 
body,  and  died  at  his  home  in  Ryegate,  Caledonia 
County,  Vermont,  March  9,  1884.  He  married  Miss 
Margaret  S.  Nelson,  of  Ryegate,  Vermont,  December 
25,  1855.  He  was  a  sound  theologian,  an  instructive 
preacher,  and  a  faithful  shepherd  of  the  flock  which 
Christ  gave  him.  He  was  studious  in  his  habits, 
reserved  in  his  manners,  and  exemplary  in  his  deport- 
ment. He  was  peculiarly  gifted  in  prayer,  conscienti- 
ously regular  in  the  performance  of  Christian  duties,^ 
and    thoroughly    devoted    to    the   work    of    the   Master. 

ANDREW    WATSON    BLACK,    D.   D. : 

Son  of  Rev.  Dr.  John  and  Elizabeth  (Watson) 
Black,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania, 
April  24,  1808.  He  received  a  strict  religious  training 
in  the  home  of  his  distinguished  father,  pursued  his 
preparatory  literary  course  in  the  Pittsburgh  Academy 
under  Dr.  Robert  Bruce,  and  graduated  from  the 
Western  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1826.  He  studied 
theology  in  the  Philadelphia  Seminary,  and  was  licensed 


by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  February  10,  1828.  He 
itinerated  throughout  the  vacancies  and  travelled 
extensively  through  Tennessee  and  South  Carolina. 
He  was  ordained  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  and 
installed  pastor  of  the  united  congregations  of  Shenango, 
Mercer  and  Neshannock,  Neshannock  Falls,  Lawrence 
County,  Pennsylvania,  January  18,  1832.  In  August, 
1833,  he,  and  the  majority  of  the  congregation,  became 
identified  with  the  New  School  branch  of  the  Cove- 
nanter Church.  He  resigned  his  congregation  August 
10,  1838,  and  removed  to  the  city  of  Pittsburgh.  He 
was  installed  pastor  of  a  colony  of  his  father's  con- 
gregation in  the  city  of  Allegheny,  Pennsylvania,  May 
16,  1839,  and  also  performed  the  duties  of  Chaplain 
in  the  Western  Penitentiary.  In  1855,  he  resigned 
these  charges,  and  became  agent  for  the  American 
Bible  Society.  In  May,  1858,  he  was  chosen  by  his 
Church  to  the  chair  of  theology  in  the  Philadelphia 
Seminary,  and,  while  preparing  to  enter  upon  the  duties 
of  this  important  office,  he  was  taken  with  dysentery, 
and  died  very  suddenly  at  his  home  in  Sewickleyville, 
in  Allegheny  County,  Pennsylvania,  September  10, 
1858.  He  was  a  fine  scholar,  a  forcible  writer,  and 
a  popular  preacher.  He  took  a  prominent  part  in  all 
Church  work,  and  was  interested  in  many  literary 
institutions  and  benevolent  societies  of  his  native  city. 
He  married  Miss  Margaret  Roseburgh,  of  Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania,  January  i,  1835.  He  was  honored  with 
the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity  by  Rutgers  College 
in  1852.  He  was  Moderator  of  the  General  Synods 
of    1842    and    1853. 


JOHN    B-LACK,    D.  D. : 

Son  of  John  and  Margaret  (McKibbin)  Black,  was 
born  in  Ahoghill,  County  Antrim,  Ireland,  October  2, 
1768.  He  received  the  rudiments  of  a  classical  educa- 
tion in  the  schools  of  his  native  country,  and  grad- 
uated from  the  University  of  Glasgow,  Scotland,  in 
1790.  He  returned  to  Ireland  where  he  engaged  in 
teaching,  and  also  began  the  study  of  theology.  He 
came  to  America  in  the  fall  of  1797,  as  an  exile  for 
liberty  at  the  time  of  the  Irish  insurrection.  He  was 
employed  for  some  time  as  a  teacher  of  the  classics 
near  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  and  sub- 
sequently in  connection  with  the  University  of  Penn- 
sylvania. He  resumed  his  theological  studies,  and  was 
licensed  by  the  Reformed  Presbytery,  at  Coldenham, 
Orange  County,  New  York,  June  24,  1799.  Being 
assigned  by  this  court  to  labor  in  Western  Penn- 
sylvania, he  soon  afterwards  gathered  the  Ohio  con- 
gregation, centering  in  Pittsburgh,  and  including  all 
the  societies  of  Covenanters  west  of  the  Allegheny 
mountains.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Reformed  Pres- 
bytery, and  installed  pastor  of  this  extensive  con- 
gregation, December  18,  1800.  In  1806,  the  congrega- 
tion was  divided  into  three  parts,  and  he  remained 
pastor  of  the  portion  in  and  around  the  city  of 
Pittsburgh,  which  soon  became  a  large  and  influential 
charge.  He  also  was  engaged  as  a  classical  teacher, 
and,  in  1820,  was  elected  Professor  of  Latin  and 
Greek  in  the  Western  University  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
resigned  in  1832,  when  he  visited  Europe.  He  was 
President     of     Duquesne     College     one     year.       At     the 



division    of    the    Church     in    August,     1833,    he    became 
identified    with    the    New    School    branch    of    the    Cove- 
nanter   Church.     He    remained    pastor    of    a    majority    of 
his  former  congregation  until  his  death,  at    his  residence 
in     Pittsburgh,     Pennsylvania,     October    25,      1849.       He- 
was    a    remarkably    proficient    scholar,    especially    in     the' 
languages,     and     spent     most     of    his    life     in    teaching. 
He     was     identified     with     almost     all     the    literary    and 
charitable    institutions    of    his    adopted    city,    and    was    a 
zealous    advocate    of    every    reform.       He    was    the    first 
Covenanter     minister     settled     west     of     the     Allegheny 
mountains,  and  the  pioneer  missionary  in  the  new  West, 
During     the     suspension      of     the    Theological    Seminary 
after     1828,    he     taught     a    class     in     theology     in     con- 
nection  with    his    other    duties.       He    was    a  great    man. 
His     preaching     talents     were     of    a     high     order.       He 
possessed     a    lively     imagination    and     dwelt    largely    in 
allegory,    sometimes    enrapturing    his    audience    with  de- 
scriptions   of   Scripture    figures    and    scenery.     He   was  a 
ready     and     forcible      extemporaneous     speaker     on     all 
subjects,    and     never    refused    an     invitation    to    preach. 
His    life    was    too    busy    with    collegiate    and    ministerial 
duties    to    effect    much    as    an    author,    yet    he    published 
some     valuable     articles     in    the     newspapers    and    maga- 
zines   of   the    Church    in    his    day.      Among    his    publica- 
tions   are:    "Church    Fellowship,"   1819,    pp.    109'     "The 
Bible     against     Slavery,"     1839,    pp.     36.       "The    Baptist 
Controversy,"    1846,     pp.     52.       "The     Duration    of    the 
Mediatorial    Dominion,"    1848,    pp.    32.     The    "Directory 
of   Worship"    is    from    his  pen,    and   he    wrote  the  Latin 
Introduction     to    Rabbi     Leeser's     issue    of    the     Hebrew 


Jiiblc.  lie  married  Miss  IClizabcth  Watson,  of  Titts- 
burj,^h,  I'cnnsylvania,  in  1802.  He  was  honored  with 
the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity  by  Washington 
College  in  1824.  He  was  Moderator  of  the  Reformed 
Presbytery  in  1801,  and  previous  to  1833,  the  stated 
Clerk  of  Synod  for  many  years.  He  was  Moderator 
of    the    General    Synod    in    1837. 

JOHN   IH.ACK,  Jr.: 

Son  of  Rev.  Dr.  John  and  l^lizabeth  (Watson)  Black, 
was  born  in  the  city  of  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania,  April 
9,  1806.  He  received  his  preparatory  course  of  literary 
training  in  the  Pittsburgh  Academy  under  Dr.  Robert 
Bruce,  and  graduated  from  the  Western  University  of 
I'ennsylvania  in  1825.  He  studied  theology  in  the 
Philadelphia  Seminary,  and  also  under  the  direction  of 
Jlis  distinguished  father,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery,  April  22,  1 828.  His  trial  discourses 
■were  the  last  he  delivered,  for  at  that  time  he  was 
greatly  reduced  by  consumption,  from  which  disease  he 
-died  at  the  house  of  his  uncle,  the  Rev.  Dr.  S.  B. 
Wylie,  in  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  August  15,  1828. 
He  was  unmarried.  He  was  a  large  and  exceedingly 
muscular  man,  and  possessed  a  commanding  appearance. 
His  scholarly  attainments  and  natural  endowments  gave 
ample  promise  that,  had  he  been  spared,  he  would 
have    become    a   powerful    preacher    and    an    able    divine. 


Son  of  Samuel  and  Elizabeth  (lk-11)  Black,  was 
born  near  Dromore,  County  Down,  Ireland,  *  *  * 
He  came  with  his  parents  to  America  in  1841,  and  settled 
in  the  city  of  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania,  where  he  received 


his  early  education  in  the  public  schools,  and  graduated 
from  Allegheny  City  College  in  1862.  lie  studied  theology 
in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery,  May  23,  1867.  He  was  ordained  by  the 
same  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation 
of  Clarksburgh,  Indiana  County,  Pennsylvania,  November 
18,  1868,  and  resigned  this  charge,  April  11,  1882.  In 
the  fall  of  1882,  he  accepted  the  Presidency  of  the 
Polytechnic  Institute,  Allegheny  City,  Pennsylvania, 
which  position  he  occupied  three  years.  He  was 
installed  pastor  of  the  Rehoboth  congregation,  Wyman, 
Louisa  County,  Iowa,  February  9,  1886,  where  he  is  in 
charge.  He  married  Miss  Tirzah  M,  Cannon,  of  New 
Alexandria,  Pennsylvania,  June  8,    1876. 


Son  of  Thomas  and  Martha  (Akin)  Blackwood,  was 
born  in  Ardstraw,  County  Tyrone,  Ireland,  August  14, 
1793-  He  was  early  dedicated  to  the  work  of  the 
gospel  ministry,  and  received  his  preparatory  course  of 
study  in  the  schools  of  his  native  County.  In  1811, 
he  entered  the  University  of  Glasgow,  Scotland,  where 
he  remained  three  years,  and  then  engaged  in  teaching. 
In  18 1 8,  he  repaired  to  Belfast,  Ireland,  where  he 
resumed  his  literary  and  theological  studies,  and  was 
licensed  by  the  Southern  Presbytery,  Ireland,  May  10, 
1822.  He  came  to  America  in  1824,  with  other 
members  of  the  family,  and  settled  in  Belmont  County, 
Ohio,  and  missionated  throughout  Western  Pennsylvania 
and  Ohio  for  several  years.  To  fully  meet  the 
exigencies  of  his  work,  he  was  ordained  sine  titulo  by 
the     Pittsburgh     Presbytery,     May     8,      1826.     He     was 


installed  pastor  of  the  Brush  Creek  congregation,  Locust 
Grove,  Adams  County,  Ohio,  April  12,  1827,  and  was 
released  April  9,  1829.  He  remained  unsej:tled  for 
nearly  five  years,  during  most  of  which  time  he  was 
actively  engaged  in  missionary  work.  He  was  installed 
pastor  of  the  united  congregations  of  Little  Beaver, 
Austintown,  Camp  Run,  Slippery  Rock.  Greenville  and 
Sandy  Lake,  principally  in  Beaver  and  Lawrence 
Counties,  Pennsylvania,  May  24,  1834.  In  1838,  Little 
Beaver,  Austintown  and  Greenville,  and  in  1850,  Sandy 
Lake,  became  separate  congregations,  and  he  confined 
his  labors  to  Slippery  Rock  and  Camp  Run  until  his 
death.  In  1850,  his  health  began  to  decline,  and,  at 
times,  he  was  unable  to  fully  attend  to  his  ministerial 
duties.  His  sufferings  were  often  intense,  and  his  disease 
took  the  form  of  dropsy,  from  which  he  died  at  his 
home  near  Portersville,  Pennsylvania,  October  8,  185 1. 
He  was  a  clear  and  instructive  preacher,  a  faithful 
pastor,  and  a  rigid  disciplinarian.  He  possessed  an 
ardent  temperament,  and  was  strong  in  his  attachments 
as  well  as  decided  in  his  antipathies.*  With  strangers 
he  was  somewhat  formal  and  distant,  but,  when  he 
discovered  in  them  true  manhood,  honesty  and  piety^ 
they  were  received  into  his  friendship.  He  was  exceed- 
ingly tender  in  his  feelings,  and  peculiarly  sympathetic 
to  those  in  suffering  or  in  sorrow  from  bereavements 
He  was  social  and  lively  in  his  disposition,  and  made 
the  hour  of  relaxation  teem  with  pleasantry.  He  was 
a  good  Presbyter,  and  was  not  absent  from  a  meeting 
of  Synod  during  his  ministry,  where  his  opinion  upon 
*Sprague's  Annals,  p.  78,  by  Rev.  Dr.  T.  Sproull. 


ecclesiastical  questions  was  highly  regarded.  He  married 
Miss  Jemima  Calderwood,  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania, 
August  18,  1833.     He  was  Moderator  of  the  Synod  of  1838. 


Son  of  John  and  Annabella  (Haslett)  Boggs,  was 
born  in  the  city  of  Allegheny,  Pennsylvania,  December 
7,  1837.  He  received  his  preparatory  course  of  study 
in  the  public  schools  of  his  native  city,  and  graduated 
from  Allegheny  City  College  in  i860.  He  studied 
theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was  licensed 
by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April  12,  1864.  He  was 
ordained  by  the  New  York  Presbytery,  and  installed  • 
pastor  of  the  congregation  of  Brooklyn,  New  York,. 
December  14,  1864,  and  resigned  this  charge, 
November  19,  1880.  He  connected  with  the  Presby- 
terian Church,  and  was  received  by  the  Philadelphia 
Presbytery  of  that  body,  April  6,  1881.  He  was  installed 
pastor  of  the  Hermon  congregation,  Frankford,  near 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  April  26,  1881,  and  resigned 
June  4,  1887.  He  spent  some  time  in  California  for 
his  health,  with  the  expectation  of  returning  to  the 
East.  He  married  Miss  M.  A.  Taylor,  of  Allegheny 
City,  Pennsylvania,  January  6,  1865.  He  was  an  editor 
of  Our  Banner  from  1874,  to  1880.  He  published  "Why 
Covenanters    do    not   Vote,"    1872,    pp.    15. 


Son  of  George  and  Jane  (Finley)  Bovard,  was  born 
in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  March  7, 
185 1.  In  early  life  his  parents  removed  to  Lake 
County,  Indiana,  where  he  received  his  early  education 
in  the  schools  of  Hebron  and  Crown  Point.     He  resumed 


his  classical  studies  in  Geneva  College,  and  graduated 
from  the  State  Normal  School,  Valparaiso,  Indiana,  in 
1877.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary, 
and  was  licensed  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April  13, 
1880.  He  was  ordained  sine  titulo  by  the  New  Bruns- 
wick and  Nova  Scotia  Presbytery,  as  a  missionary  to 
Houlton,  Maine,  July  28,  1881,  where  he  labored 
three  years.  He  was  installed  pastor  of  the  united 
congregations  of  Oil  Creek  and  Oil  City,  Pennsylvania, 
June  12,  1884,  where  he  is  in  charge.  He  married 
Miss  Mary  J.  Jamison,  of  Allegheny  City,  Pennsylvania, 
January    15,    1880. 


Son  of  Andrew  and  Rose  (Witherspoon)  Bowden, 
was  born  in  the  city  of  New  York,  New  York, 
August  26,  1822.  He  received  his  preparatory  literary 
training  in  the  private  schools  of  his  native  city,  and 
graduated  from  Columbia  College  in  1840.  He  studied 
theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was  licensed 
by  the  New  York  Presbytery,  October  29,  1844.  He 
was  ordained  by  the  Rochester  Presbytery,  and  installed 
pastor  of  the  congregation  of  York,  Livingston  County, 
New  York,  December  31,  1846,  and  resigned  this 
•charge,  November  21,  1876.  He  withdrew  from  the 
communion  of  the  Covenanter  Church,  October  6,  1880, 
and  connected  with  the  Presbyterian  Church,  being 
received  by  the  Rochester  Presbytery  of  that  body, 
April  19,  1 88 1,  He  took  charge  of  the  congregation 
of  Tonawanda,  Wyoming  County,  New  York,  May  6, 
1883,  and  resides  in  Le  Roy,  Genesee  County,  New 
York.     He    was    twice    married.     First     to     Miss     Maria 



O.  Beattie,  of  St.  Andrews,  New  York,  October  24, 
1848  ;  and  second  to  Miss  Mary  E.  Donnan,  of  York, 
New  York,  April  20,  1864.  He  was  Moderator  of  the 
Synod    of     1864. 


Son  of  Robert  and  Mary  (McMaster)  Boyd,  was 
born  in  the  city  of  Steubenville,  Ohio,  June  27,  18 14. 
His  father  was  an  accomplished  scholar  and  teacher, 
and  his  mother  was  distinguished  for  her  piety  and  traits 
of  Christian  character.  His  religious  and  literary  train- 
ing early  fitted  him  for  becoming  a  teacher  of  others, 
and  in  this  occupation  he  began  in  Utica,  Licking 
County,  Ohio,  where  he  became  a  successful  teacher 
and  prosecuted  his  classical  studies.  In  1840,  he  entered 
Miami  University,  where  he  remained  two  years.  He 
studied  theology  under  the  Rev.  Armour  McFarland, 
and  also  in  the  Cincinnati  Seminary,  and  was  licensed 
by  the  Lakes  Presbytery,  May  7,  1846.  He  was 
ordained  by  the  same  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor 
of  the  Sandusky  congregation,  Cresline,  Crawford 
County,  Ohio,  May  13,  1847,  and  also  of  the  congrega- 
tion of  Utica,  Licking  County,  Ohio,  November  26, 
1856.  He  resigned  the  Sandusky  branch,  November  6, 
1867,  and  devoted  his  whole  time  to  Utica.  He 
resigned  this  charge  on  account  of  impaired  health, 
October  4,  1882,  and  supplied  throughout  the  Ohio 
Presbytery  as  his  health  would  permit.  He  died  at 
his  home  in  Utica,  Ohio,  of  nervous  chills  and  typhoid 
fever,  June  3,  1886.  He  married  Miss  Jane  McCune, 
of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  May  30,  1850.  He  was 
a    well-read     theologian     of     the     old     school,     a    most 


logical  reasoner,  and  an  instructive  preacher.  He  was- 
a  fearless  advocate  of  the  cause  of  the  slave,  hazarded 
his  interests  and  even  his  life  for  the  overthrow  of 
human  slavery,  and  bore  constant  testimony  against  the 
evils  of  both  Church  and  State.  He  was  well  grounded 
in  the  truth  of  the  Word  of  God,  most  decided  in  his 
convictions,  and  punctual  in  the  performance  of  all 
religious  duties.  He  was  recognized  in  Church  courts 
for  his  clear  discussion  and  sound  judgment  on 
questions  pertaining  to  the  good  of  Zion.  He  was 
highly  esteemed  in  the  community  where  he  labored, 
and  the  quiet,  yet  exemplary,  life  which  he  lived,  was 
a  strong  testimony  to  the  power  of  the  gospel  which 
he  so  successfully  preached.  He  published  some 
sermons  and  articles  of  importance  in  the  papers  and 
magazines    of    the   Church. 


Son  of  James  and  Jane  (Speer)  Boyd,  was  born  near 
Londonderry,  Guernsey  County,  Ohio,  August  2,  1842. 
In  1852,  his  parents  removed  to  Oskaloosa,  Iowa,  and 
were  devoted  members  of  the  Associate  Church,  in 
which  he  was  reared.  Here  he  received  his  early 
education  in  Oskaloosa  College,  and  in  1865,  entered 
Muskingum  College,  where  he  graduated  in  1868.  He 
studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was 
licensed  by  the  Ohio  Presbytery,  April  12,  1871.  He  was 
ordained  by  the  Lakes  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor 
of  the  congregation  of  Cedarville,  Greene  County,  Ohio, 
May  22,  1872,  and  resigned  this  charge,  April  8,  1874.. 
He  was  installed  pastor  of  the  Old  Bethel  congregation, 
Houston,    Randolph    (bounty,  Illinois,  July    20,   1874,  and 


resigned  this  charge,  December  12,  1887.  He  was 
installed  pastor  of  the  congregation  of  Superior,  Nuckolls 
County,  Nebraska,  March  16,  1888,  where  he  is  in 
charge.  He  married  Miss  Laura  C.  Foster,  of  Cedar- 
ville,  Ohio,  October    17,   1872, 


Was  born  in  Penpont,  Dumfries  Shire,  Scotland, 
July  18,  1 812.  He  received  his  early  education  in  the 
best  schools  of  his  native  village,  and  graduated  from 
the  University  of  Glasgow,  Scotland,  in  1835.  He 
studied  theology  in  the  Seminary  of  Paisley,  Scotland, 
under  the  direction  of  the  Rev.  Andrew  Symington, 
and  was  licensed  by  the  Paisley  Presbytery,  April  28, 
1840.  He  preached  with  a  good  degree  of  success  in. 
that  country  for  many  years.  He  came  to  America  in 
the  fall  of  1855,  ^^^^  preached  for  several  years  in  the 
vacancies.  He  returned  to  Scotland,  and  was  for  some 
years  a  Chaplain  to  an  institution  in  Edinburgh,  and 
finally  was  lost  sight  of  by  the  Church,  and  ceased 
preaching.  In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  returned 
to  his  native  Shire  of  Dumfries,  where  he  died,  Sep- 
tember 8,  1883.  He  was  a  good  man,  a  fair  scholar, 
but,  upon    the  whole,  unappreciated    as  a  preacher. 


Son  of  John  and  Jane  (Stewart)  Buck,  Avas  born 
near  De  Kalb,  Richland  County,  Ohio,  June  24,  1835. 
His  parents  were  members  of  the  Associate  Reformed 
Church,  with  which  he  also  connected  in  his  nineteenth 
year.  He  began  his  classical  studies  in  Oberlin  College, 
resumed  them  in  Hayesville  Academy,  of  his  native 
■County,  and,  in   1857,  entered  Jefferson  College,  but  was 


not  permitted  to  complete  the  full  course  on  account 
of  failing  health.  In  1858,  he  removed  to  New  GaUlee, 
Beaver  County,  Pennsylvania,  where  he  opened  an 
Academy.  Not  being  satisfied  with  the  Associate- 
Reformed  Church  as  to  her  position  on  civil  government,, 
he  acceded  to  the  Covenanter  Church  in  the  fall  of 
i860.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,, 
and  was  licensed  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April 
23,  1864,  He  missionated  in  Oil  City,  Pennsylvania, 
and  other  parts  of  the  Church,  until  frequent  and  severe 
hemorrhages  of  the  lungs  compelled  him  to  cease 
preaching.  After  a  much  needed  rest,  he  was  ordained 
sine  titulo  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  May  21,  1867, 
and  sent  by  the  Central  Board  of  Missions  as  a 
missionary  to  the  North-West  region.  He  soon  after- 
wards settled  in  Elliota,  Fillmore  County,  Minnesota, 
where  he  labored  amid  many  discouragements  and  much 
weakness  of  body  for  nearly  three  years.  While  on  his 
way  to  Synod  in  May,  1870,  his  strength  failed,  and 
he  was  but  able  to  reach  the  home  of  his  father-in-law, 
near  Rose  Point,  Lawrence  County,  Pennsylvania,  where 
he  lingered  a  few  months,  and  died  from  consumption, 
October  13,  1870.  He  married  Miss  M.  J.  Davis,  of 
Rose  Point,  Pennsylvania,  in  1859.  He  was  an  able, 
studious  and  conscientious  preacher  of  the  gospel  ;  a 
humble,  unassuming  Christian,  and  from  a  rich  experience 
declared  the  truth  to  dying  men.  He  was  most  diligent 
and  prayerful  in  his  work,  kind  and  attentive  to  all 
the  members  of  his  congregation,  cheerful  and  hopeful 
in  every  trial.  In  appearance  he  was  tall,  slender,  bent, 
and  emaciated  with  disease.     He  often  spoke  with  great 


difficulty,  leaning  upon  the  pulpit  or  sitting  upon  a 
chair,  and  his  discourses  were  highly  evangelical  and 
deeply  impressive.  Among  his  publications  are  numerous 
letters  to  the  Mission  Board,  and  a  posthumous  tract, 
"Position  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church,"  1871,. 
pp.    16. 


Son  of  Hugh  and  Mary  (Thompson)  Cannon,  was 
born  in  Dungiven,  County  Londonderry,  Ireland,  Nov- 
ember 19,  1784.  His  parents  were  exemplary  mem- 
bers of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  who  emigrated  to 
America  in  1787,  and  settled  in  Westmoreland  County, 
Pennsylvania.  Becoming  dissatisfied  with  the  use  of 
human  psalmody  in  the  worship  of  God,  the  family 
connected  with  Associate  Reformed  Church  in  1788. 
He  received  his  early  literary  instructions  under  private 
teachers,  and  graduated  from  Jefferson  College  in  1810. 
During  his  college  course  he  espoused  the  principles 
of  the  Covenanter  Church,  and  decided  to  study  for 
the  ministry.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Philadelphia 
Seminary,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Middle  Presbytery^ 
May  23,  181 5.  He  was  ordained  by  the  same  Pres- 
bytery, and  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation  of 
Greensburgh,  Westmoreland  County,  Pennsylvania,  Sep- 
tember 16,  18 16,  where  he  continued  to  labor  until 
his  death.  During  the  unpleasant  controversy  and 
division  of  the  Church  in  1833,  he  stood  firm  to  the 
Covenanted  cause,  and  was  chosen  Moderator  of  that 
notable  Synod,  showing  the  high  esteem  and  confi- 
dence which  his  brethern  placed  in  him.  For  a  num- 
ber   of    years    before     his    death,    he     labored     under    a 


disease  of  the  liver,  which  was  aggravated  by  the 
fatigue  and  exposure  which  he  was  called  upon  to 
endure  in  reaching  his  places  of  preaching.  His  last 
public  ministrations  were  during  the  communion  season 
in  August,  1835,  when  his  disease  exhibited  the  symp- 
toms of  dropsy,  and  he  gradually  declined  until  his 
death,  at  his  home  near  Greensburgh,  Pennsylvania, 
February  2,  1836.  He  married  Miss  Martha  Brown  of 
Greensburgh,  Pennsylvania,  May,  18 18.  In  appearance 
he  was  of  medium  size,  well  proportioned,  dark  com- 
plexion, and  possessed  a  grave  and  pleasing  counte- 
nance. He  was  a  very  acceptable  preacher,  and  his 
pastoral  labors  were  signally  blessed  in  the  gathering 
of  several  societies  which  are  now  flourishing  con- 
gregations. He  was  apt  to  teach,  practical  in  apply- 
ing truth,  and  prudent  in  managing  difficult  cases  of 
discipline.  He  possessed  a  noble  generosity  of  spirit, 
firmness  of  purpose,  and  amiability  of  manners.  He 
was    Moderator    of    the    Synods    of    18 19    and    1833. 

ROBERT    BROWN    CANNON,    D.  D. : 

Son  of  Rev.  John  and  Martha  (Brown)  Cannon, 
was  born  near  Greensburgh,  Westmoreland  County, 
Pennsylvania,  October  4,  1821.  He  received  his  early 
education  under  the  direction  of  his  father,  studied  the 
classics  under  the  Rev.  Hugh  Walkinshaw,  finished  the 
classical  course  in  the  Greensburgh  Academy,  and 
graduated  from  the  Western  University  of  Pennsylvania 
in  1842.  He  was  Principal  of  the  Darlington  Academy 
one  year.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  and 
Cincinnati  Seminaries,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Lakes 
Presbytery,    May     7,    1846.        He    was    ordained    by    the 


Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the 
united  congregations  of  Greensburgh,  Westmoreland 
County,  and  Clarksburgh,  Indiana  County,  Pennsylvania, 
May  5,  1847,  ^rid  resigned  this  charge,  April  4,  1854. 
He  was  installed  pastor  of  the  Rehoboth  congregation, 
Wyman,  Louisa  County,  Iowa,  December  14,  1854, 
and  resigned  December  17,  1867.  He  was  installed 
pastor  of  the  congregation  of  Vernon,  Waukesha  County, 
Wisconsin,  September  13,  1872,  and  resigned  May  28, 
1878.  He  removed  to  Cameron,  Clinton  County,  Missouri, 
and  labored  under  appointment  of  the  Central  Board 
of  Missions,  and  also  preached  for  two  years  gratui- 
tously to  the  colored  people  of  that  place.  He  was 
installed  pastor  of  the  Jonathan's  Creek  congregation. 
White  Cottage,  Muskingum  County,  Ohio,  September 
9,  1886,  where  he  is  in  charge.  He  was  twice  mar- 
ried. First  to  Miss  Juliett  H.  Willson,  of  Cincinnati, 
Ohio,  November  9,  1846;  and  second  to  Miss  Elizabeth 
Biggam,  of  New  York  City,  New  York,  June  10,  1856. 
He  was  honored  with  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity 
by    Iowa    University    in    1868. 


Son  of  Andrew  T.  and  Mary  (Reid)  Carithers, 
was  born  near  Linton,  Des  Moines  County,  Iowa, 
December  19,  1854.  He  received  his  early  education 
in  the  Academy  of  Morning  Sun,  Iowa,  and  entered 
Geneva  College,  where  he  tutored,  and  graduated  in 
1878.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary, 
and  was  licensed  by  the  Iowa  Presbytery,  April  13, 
1882.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery, 
and    installed    pastor    of    the     congregation    of    Wilkins- 



burgh,  Allegheny  County,  Pennsylvania,  June  20,  1883, 
where  he  is  in  charge.  He  married  Miss  Ella  M. 
George,    of    Venice,   Pennsylvania,    May    i,    1883. 


Son  of  Rev.  Samuel  and  Margaret  M.  (Fenton) 
Carlisle,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Newburgh,  New  York, 
September  21,  1858.  He  received  his  early  education 
in  the  public  schools,  and  also  in  the  Banks  Classical 
School  of  his  native  city,  and  graduated  from  Columbia 
College  in  1880.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny 
Seminary,  and  was  licensed  by  the  New  York  Presby- 
tery, May  16,  1883.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the  congrega- 
tion of  New  Alexandria,  Westmoreland  County,  Penn- 
sylvania, June  16,  1884,  and  resigned  this  charge, 
January    26,    1888. 


Son  of  Rev.  Samuel  and  Letitia  (Craig)  Carlisle, 
was  born  in  Ballibay,  County  Monaghan,  Ireland,  May 
4,  1828.  His  father  was  an  eminent  minister  of  the 
Covenanter  Church,  and  he  was  reared  in  the  most 
careful  manner  by  a  pious  parentage.  He  received  his 
early  education  in  the  Coleraine  Academy,  and  gradu- 
ated from  Belfast  College  in  1847.  He  studied  theology 
in  the  Seminary  of  Paisley,  Scotland,  and  was  licensed 
by  the  Northern  Presbytery,  Ireland,  May  4,  1848.  In 
the  following'  spring  he  came  to  America,  was  ordained 
by  the  New  York  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of 
the  First  congregation  of  Newburgh,  New  York, 
November  15,  1849,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of 
his    life.      On    January    4,    1887,     he     was     stricken     with 



paralysis,  which  completely  disabled  his  left  side,  and 
laid  him  prostrate  upon  his  bed.  For  a  time  his  life 
was  in  jeopardy,  but  in  the  spring  he  rallied,  and  was 
able  to  walk  out,  attended  church  and  preached  once. 
In  order  that  he  might  be  relieved  from  the  excite- 
ment of  the  meeting  of  Synod  in  iSTewburgh,  he  was 
advised  to  leave  the  city.  Accordingly,  accompanied 
by  his  wife,  he  repaired  to  Ocean  Grove,  New  Jersey, 
where  he  seemed  to  improve  and  where  everything 
was  done  for  his  comfort.  But,  as  he  expressed  it, 
"his  work  was  done."  A  second  stroke  rendered  him 
unconscious  for  four  days,  and  he  lay  motionless  until 
his  death,  at  Ocean  Grove,  New  Jersey,  July  3,  1887. 
His  body  was  taken  back  to  Newburgh  and  buried  in 
Cedar  Hill  Cemetery.  He  married  Miss  Margaret  M. 
Fenton,  of  Newburgh,  New  York,  May  10,  1853.  He 
was  an  able  preacher  of  the  gospel.  He  was  a  careful 
Bible  student,  thoroughly  conscientious  in  preparing  for 
the  pulpit,  and  consecrated  his  whole  life  to  the 
service  of  his  Master.  His  labors  met  with  general 
appreciation,  and  he  exerted  an  influence  for  good  in 
the  community  where  he  spent  the  whole  of  his 
ministerial  life.  He  possessed  a  good  physical  constitu- 
tion, a  clear  and  sonorous  voice,  and  preached  with  a 
seriousness  and  directness  that  never  failed  to  impress 
his  hearers.  He  was  pre-eminently  a  man  of  prayer. 
He  was  fearless  in  attacking  evil  and  prudent  in 
presenting  Reformation  principles.  He  identified  himself 
with  every  good  work  of  the  city  and  was  held  in 
the  highest  esteem  by  his  fellow  citizens.  The  work 
of    preaching     Christ     he     did     conscientiously,     faithfully 


and  successfully.  He  was  a  public  spirited  man.  He 
was  a  Director  of  the  Newburgh  Bible  Society,  a 
Manager  of  the  Home  of  the  Friendless,  and  prominent 
in  the  local  National  Reform  and  Temperance  move- 
ments. Among  his  publications  are  a  "  Centennial 
Sermon,"  preached  at  Washington's  Headquarters,  New- 
burgh, 1876,  pp.  20.  "A  History  of  the  Reformed 
Presbyterian  Church  of  Newburgh,  and  a  Characteristic 
sketch  of  Dr.  James  R.  Willson,"  1885,  pp.  10.  He 
was  Moderator  of  the  Synod  of  1S86. 

Son  of  William  and  Margaret  (Fleming)  Carson, 
was  born  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 
January  28,  i860.  He  received  his  early  education  in 
the  public  schools  and  in  the  West  Philadelphia 
Academy,  and  completed  a  special  classical  course  in 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  He  studied  theology 
in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was  licensed  by  the 
Philadelphia  Presbytery,  April  28,  1884.  He  was  ordained 
by  the  New  York  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of 
the  congregation  of  Brooklyn,  New  York,  May  20,  1885, 
where  he  is  in  charge.  He  married  Miss  Rebecca  Mc- 
Knight,  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  February  9,  1886. 

Son  of  Major  James  and  Mary  (Weygand)  Christie, 
was  born  in  the  city  of  New  York,  New  York,  Feb- 
ruary 20,  1786.*  His  father  was  a  distinguished 
Revolutionary  officer,  and  his  mother  a  saintly  woman 
abounding  in  deeds  of  chairty.  They  were  exemplary 
members  of  the  Associate  Reformed  Church,  with  which 
*  Sketch  by  Rev.  John  Forsythe,  D.  D.,  Newburgh,  N.  Y. 



he  also  connected  in  early  life  under  the  pastoral  care 
of  the  Rev.  John  M.  Mason,  D.  D.  He  received  a 
careful  religious  training  in  the  home,  a  thorough 
literary  education  in  the  best  schools  of  the  city,  and 
graduated  from  Columbia  College  in  1806.  He  became 
a  prosperous  merchant  in  New  York  City,  and  soon 
afterwards  connected  with  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church. 
In  1812,  he  abandoned  commercial  life  and  resolved  to 
devote  himself  to  the  work  of  the  gospel  ministry.  In 
the  autumn  of  18 12,  he  began  the  study  of  theology 
in  the  Seminary  of  the  Associate  Reformed  Church  in 
New  York,  under  Dr.  John  M.  Mason,  as  a  student  of 
the  Dutch  Reformed  Church,  and  was  licensed  by  the 
Classis  of  New  York,  April  13,  181 5.  He  was  ordained 
by  the  Classis  of  Washington,  and  installed  pastor  of 
the  congregation  of  Union  Village  (now  Greenwich)^ 
Washington  County,  New  York,  November  18,  18 16. 
In  the  spring  of  181 8,  he  connected  with  the  Associate- 
Reformed  Church,  and  was  installed  pastor  of  the  con- 
gregation of  Newburgh,  New  York,  September  6,  18 18.. 
While  laboring  in  this  charge  he  became  intimately^ 
associated  with  the  Rev.  James  R.  Willson,  D.  D.,. 
whose  influence  and  arguments  produced  a  change  iry 
his  former  views,  and  he  acceded  to  the  communion  of" 
the  Covenanter  Church,  being  received  by  the  Northern 
Presbytery,  October  12,  1821.  He  was  installed  pastor 
of  the  congregation  of  Albany,  New  York,  June  12, 
1822.  Here  he  founded  the  Albany  Grammar  School, 
which  soon  became  a  flourishing  classical  institution. 
He  resigned  the  Albany  congregation,  May  17,  1830, 
and   devoted  himself  to  teaching,  and  preached  frequently- 


in  Troy  and  Lansingburgh,  New  York.  In  the  con- 
troversy of  1833,  he  was  in  the  hottest  of  the  battle, 
and  stood  firm  and  unyielding  to  the  Covenanted  cause 
which  he  had  espoused.  He  was  installed  pastor  of  the 
First  congregation  of  New  York  City,  New  York, 
November  16,  1836,  and  resigned  this  important  charge 
October  15,  1856,  and  accepted  the  chair  of  Systematic 
Theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  where  he  con- 
tinued with  great  acceptance  for  two  years.  He  was 
deposed  from  the  ministerial  office  and  privileges  in  the 
Covenanter  Church,  on  a  charge  of  immorality,  by  the 
New  York  Presbytery,  November  3,  1858.  He  removed 
to  Brooklyn,  New  York,  and  was  afterwards  restored  to 
private  membership  in  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church,  and 
where  he  died,  November  17,  1863.  He  married  Miss 
Margaret  Nichol.son,  of  New  York  City,  in  1807.  He 
^vas  a  profoii  (i  theologian,  a  proficient  linguist,  a 
thorough  scientist,  and  an  impressive  evangelical  preacher 
of  the  gospel.  He  was  acknowledged  as  a  scholar  and 
theologian  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic.  He  was  a 
prominent  minister  of  the  Church,  deeply  interested  in 
all  her  schemes  and  missionary  operations,  and  held 
many  responsible  positions,  which  he  discharged  with 
ability  and  satisfaction.  He  published  "  Strictures  upon 
Dr.  ^laso  '  '"  i  f-^r  Sacramental  Communion  on  Catholic 
Principles,  1021,  pp.  212,  which  was  afterwards  repub- 
lished in  Europe  with  a  commendatory  preface  by  Dr. 
McCrie,  the  biographer  of  John  Knox.  He  was  also 
the  author  of  many  scientific  and  theological  articles 
published  in  the  reviews  and  magazines  of  his  day. 
He   was   honored    with   the   degree   of  Doctor  of   Divinity 


by    Jefferson    College    in     1855.     He     was    Moderator    of 
the    Synods   of    1828    and    1849. 


Son  of  William  and  Elizabeth  (Craig)  Clarke,  was 
born  near  Kilrea,  County  Londonderry,  Ireland,  July 
16,  1793."  His  parents  were  pious  Covenanters  and 
he  early  embraced  the  principles  of  that  Church,  and 
defended  them  successfully  in  several  debates.  After 
passing  through  the  accustomed  rudimentary  studies 
in  the  classical  school  of  Mr.  Ferris,  he  entered  Bel- 
fast College,  and  graduated  from  Glasgow  University, 
Scotland,  in  18 19.  He  was  chosen  by  the  Synod  of 
Ireland  to  go  as  a  missionary  to  the  North  American 
British  Provinces,  and  for  this  purpose,  after  having 
studied  theology  privately  and  at  Paisley,  Scotland, 
was  licensed  and  ordained,  May  24,  1827.  He  arrived 
in  St.  John,  New  Brunswick,  August  23,  1827,  and, 
after  some  explorations,  in  the  following  November, 
selected  Amherst,  Nova  Scotia,  as  the  centre  of  mission- 
ary operations.  He  travelled  extensively  through  all 
parts  of  the  Maritime  Provinces,  and  established  some 
fifteen  mission  stations.  In  1831,  he  was  joined  by  the 
Rev.  William  Sommerville,  and  they  were  instrumental 
in  bringing  many  souls  to  a  saving  knowledge  of 
Christ  and  to  accept  the  principles  of  the  Covenanter 
Church.  Desiring  the  liberty  and  privileges  of  citi- 
zenship in  Nova  Scotia,  Mr.  Clarke,  and  all  the  con- 
gregations he  represented,  became  identified  with  the 
New  School  branch  of  the  Covenanter  Church,  October 
14,   1847,  and  were  united  to  the  General    Synod    of  the 

*  Items  furnished  by  the  Rev.  Nevin  Woodside,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 


United  States.  He  continued  to  labor  in  Amherst, 
Nova  Scotia,  and  the  vicinity,  until  shortly  before  his 
death,  caused  by  general  debility  and  old  age,  March 
15,  1874.  He  married  Miss  Catharine  McMillan,  of 
Belfast,  Ireland,  May  22,  1821.  He  was  a  sound  theo- 
logian, a  true  philanthropist,  and  an  able  soldier  of 
the  Cross.  He  was  highly  esteemed  by  men  who  did 
not  agree  with  him  in  his  religious  beliefs,  because  of 
his  fearless  proclamation  of  the  truth  as  he  accepted  it. 
He  was  a  powerful  controversialist.  His  masterly  irony,, 
clear  and  logical  deductions  and  unanswerable  Scriptural 
arguments,  together  with  his  wonderful  memory,  com- 
mand of  language  and  versatility  of  thought,  gave  him 
a  power  over  his  opponents  seldom  surpassed.  He 
was  a  large  well-built  man,  capable  of  undergoing 
many  hardships,  and  the  type  of  a  man  adapted  in 
every  way  as  a  pioneer  missionary.  He  was  honored 
with  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity  by  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania  in  1856.  He  was  Moderator  of 
the    General    Synod    of     1856. 


Son  of  Robert  and  Nancy  (Harrison)  Clyde,  was 
born  in  Dervock,  County  Antrim,  Ireland,  May  6,  1851. 
His  parents  were  members  of  the  Presbyterian  Church 
and  connected  with  the  Covenanter  Church  in  1853, 
He  received  his  early  education  in  the  schools  of  his 
native  County.  He  came  to  America  in  1865,  and 
settled  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  where, 
in  1870,  he  connected  with  the  Reformed  Presbytery, 
and  in  1874,  he  returned  to  the  Covenanter  Church. 
He   received    his    classical    education    under   the    direction 


of  Dr.  Steele,  under  whom  also  he  studied  theology 
one  year,  prosecuted  his  studies  another  year  in  the 
New  School  Seminary,  and  two  years  in  the  Allegheny 
Seminary,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Philadelphia  Pres- 
bytery, May  27,  1879.  He  supplied  generally  through- 
out the  Church  for  several  years.  He  was  ordained 
by  the  Iowa  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the 
Elliota  congregation,  Caijton,  Fillmore  County,  Min- 
nesota, February  12,  1886,  where  he  is  in  charge. 
He  married  Miss  Bella  Dougherty,  of  Philadelphia,. 
Pennsylvania,    August    21,    1878. 


Son  of  John  M.  and  Margaret  (Brown)  Coleman, 
was  born  near  Dayton,  Armstrong  County,  Pennsyl- 
vania, July  5,  1859.  In  early  life  his  parents  removed 
to  the  neighboring  vicinity  of  Elder's  Ridge,  Indiana 
County,  Pennsylvania,  where  he  received  his  early 
education  in  the  Elder's  Ridge  Academy.  He  engaged 
in  teaching  in  South  Buffalo,  and,  in  the  fall  of  1880, 
entered  Geneva  College,  where  he  graduated  in  1883. 
He  became  Principal  of  the  Normal  Academy  at  Mc- 
Keesport,  Pennsylvania,  and  at  the  same  time  studied 
theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  was  licensed  by 
the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  April  12,  1887,  and  preached 
for  some  months  in  Canada.  He  was  ordained  by  the 
Rochester  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the 
Ramsey  congregation,  Almonte,  Ontario,  Canada,  May 
9,    1888,    where    he    is    in    charge. 


Son  of  John  and  Mary  (Glass)  Coleman,  was  born 
in    Lisbon,    St.    Lawrence    County,    New    York,    May    12^ 


185 1.  He  received  his  preparatory  course  of  literary- 
training-  in  the  Academy  of  Ogdensburgh,  New  York, 
and  graduated  from  Geneva  College  in  1875.  He 
studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was 
licensed  by  the  Rochester  Presbytery,  April  15,  1878. 
He  was  ordained  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery,  and 
installed  pastor  of  the  Monongahela  congregation,  Mc- 
Keesport,  Pennsylvania,  June  13,  1879,  and  resigned 
this  charge  April  12,  1881.  He  accepted  an  appoint- 
ment as  Secretary  of  the  National  Reform  Association, 
July  I,  1 88 1,  and  removed  his  residence  to  Beaver 
Falls,  Pennsylvania.  He  resigned  this  position,  April 
I,  1886.  He  was  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation 
of  Utica,  Licking  County,  Ohio,  April  15,  1886,  and 
resigned  this  charge,  November  17,  1887.  He  accepted 
the  chair  of  Political  Science  in  Geneva  College,  Nov- 
ember 29,  1887,  where  he  is  engaged  in  teaching. 
He  married  Miss  Lizzie  S.  George,  of  Venice,  Penn- 
sylva^nia,  May  29,  1879.  The  pages  of  the  Christian 
Statesman  and  the  CJiristian  Nation  bear  testimony  to 
his  work  as  a  lecturer,  and  he  contributed  an  exposi- 
tion   of    the   Sabbath  School    lessons  to    the   latter  paper. 


Son  of  William  and  Nancy  (George)  Conner,  was 
born  near  Midway,  Washington  County,  Pennsylvania, 
December  11,  1855.  He  received  his  early  education 
in  the  schools  of  Hickory,  and  graduated  from  Geneva 
College  in  1885.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Allegheny 
Seminary,  was  licensed  by  the  Pittsburgh  Presbytery, 
April  II,  1888,  and  preached  within  the  bounds  of 
the    Pittsburgh    Presbytery. 



Son  of  John  and  Mary  (Martin)  Cooper,  was  born 
in  the  Chester  District,  South  Carolina,  August  8, 
1795.  Giving  evidence  of  early  piety,  and  having  the 
work  of  the  ministry  in  view,  he  passed  through  the 
academical  course  of  study  in  the  classical  school  of 
Mr.  John  Orr,  and  graduated  from  South  Carolina 
College,  Columbia,  in  181 7.  He  studied  theology  in 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  under  the  direction  of  Rev. 
S.  B.  Wylie,  D.  D.,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Philadel- 
phia Presbytery,  May  4,  1822.  He  preached  for  several 
years  in  the  vacancies  with  general  acceptance,  and 
devoted  much  time  to  the  societies  in  Tennessee  and 
South  Carolina.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Northern 
Presbytery,  June  18,  1828,  and  took  charge  of 
Hephzibah  congregation,  Fayetteville,  Lincoln  County, 
Tennessee.  The  congregation  had  called  him,  but  he 
refused  to  be  installed  pastor  on  account  of  the 
prevalence  of  slavery  and  the  isolation  from  his  minis- 
terial brethren,  and,  in  1832,  he  and  the  majority  of 
the  congregation,  removed  to  Fayette  County,  Indiana. 
During  the  division  of  the  Church  in  1833,  he  became 
identified  with  the  New  School  branch  of  the  Cove- 
nanter Church.  He  continued  to  preach  in  that  body 
to  vacant  congregations  as  his  health  would  permit 
for  twenty  years.  In  the  spring  of  1857,  he  removed 
to  Cedarville,  Green  County,  Ohio,  where  he  died  of 
dropsy  on  the  chest,  November  13,  1858.  He  married 
Miss  Jane  McMillan,  of  Chester,  South  Carolina,  in 
1820.  He  Avas  a  very  mild  and  pleasing  preacher. 
He  possessed  a  most  kind  and  peaceful  disposition, 
and    was    held    in    high    esteem    for    his    integrity. 



Son  of  James  and  Mahala  (Skeggs)  Coulter,  was 
born  in  Coultersville,  Randolph  County,  Illinois,  March 
15,  1833.  He  received  his  early  education  in  the 
school  of  his  native  village,  and  also  in  Sparta 
Academy,  and  graduated  from  Geneva  College  in  1857.. 
He  taught  in  Geneva  College  before  and  after  his 
graduation  for  some  time.  He  studied  theology  in  the 
Allegheny  Seminary,  and  was  licensed  by  the  Illinois 
Presbytery,  June  28,  1864.  He  was  ordained  by  the 
Iowa  Presbytery,  and  installed  pastor  of  the  congrega- 
tion of  Hopkinton,  Delaware  County,  Iowa,  April  18, 
1867,  and  resigned  this  charge,  October  14,  1874.  He 
was  installed  pastor  of  the  congregation  of  Newark, 
New  Jersey,  December  10,  1874,  and  resigned  October 
30,  1875,  and  accepted  the  chair  of  Natural  Science 
in  Lenox  College,  Iowa.  He  was  .installed  pastor  of 
the  congregation  of  Winchester,  Jefferson  County, 
Kansas,  August  17,  1877,  where  he  is  in  charge.  He 
married  Miss  Martha  A.  Forsythe,  of  Northwood, 
Ohio,    July    10,    1856. 


Son  of  Rev.  Thomas  and  Margaret  Craighead,  was 
born  near  Donegal,  Ireland,  March  18,  1707.*  His  father 
was  a  Presbyterian  minister,  came  to  America  in  171 5, 
and  settled  in  Freetown,  Massachusetts.  In  1721,  he, 
with  his  parents,  removed  to  New  Jersey,  thence,  in 
1724,  to  White  Clay  Creek,  Delaware,  and  finally,  in 
1733.  to  Octorara,  Lancaster  County,  Pennsylvania.  He 
received  his  classical  education  under  the  direction  of 
*  Craighead  Genealogy.     Dr.  Foote's  Sketches  of  North  Carolina. 


his  father,  under  whom,  also,  he  studied  theology,  and 
was  licensed  by  the  Donegal  Presbytery  of  the  Pres- 
byterian Church,  October  i6,  1734.  He  supplied  "the 
first  congregation  over  the  river,"  at  Meeting  House 
Springs,  two  miles  north  of  Carlisle,  Pennsylvania,  and 
was  the  first  minister  to  preach  west  of  the  Susque- 
hanna river.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Donegal  Pres- 
bytery, and  installed  pastor  of  the  Middle  Octorara 
congregation,  Lancaster  County,  Pennsylvania,  November 
20,  1735.  He  was  an  earnest  fervid  preacher,  and  a 
zealous  promoter  of  revivals.  He  was  a  great  admirer 
of  Whitefield,  and  accompanied  him  upon  some  of  his 
tours.  His  zeal,  however,  was  not  always  tempered  with 
prudence,  and  he  contended  that  his  ministerial  brethren 
were  too  liberal  in  their  views  and  lax  in  the  appli- 
cation of  discipline.  He  insisted  upon  new  terms  of 
communion,  which  required  parents,  when  they  presented 
their  children  for  baptism,  to  adopt  the  Solemn  League 
and  Covenant,  as  the  Church  across  the  Atlantic  had 
always  done.  He  frequently  absented  himself  from 
Church  courts  because  of  the  failure  of  his  brethren  to 
adhere  to  the  practices  of  the  Church  of  his  fathers, 
and  for  this  cause  a  complaint  was  lodged  against  him 
in  1740,  and  the  Presbytery  met  by  appointment  in 
his  church  to  investigate  the  charges.  When  the 
members  of  the  court  came  to  the  church,  they  found 
him  preaching  from  the  text,  "  Let  them  alone,  they 
be  blind  leaders  of  the  blind."  In  the  report  to  Synod, 
the  Presbytery  spoke  of  the  sermon  as  a  "  continued 
invective  against  Pharisee  preachers,  and  the  Presbytery 
as    given    over  to    judicial   blindness    and  hardness."     At 


its  close,  the  people  and  Presbytery  were  invited  to 
repair  to  "  the  tent  "  to  hear  his  defence  read.  The 
Presbytery  declined  to  attend,  and  were  proceeding  to 
business  in  the  church  when  such  a  tumult  was  raised 
that  they  were  compelled  to  withdraw.  At  the  meeting 
the  next  day  he  appeared  and  read  his  protest,  in 
which  he  declined  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Presbytery, 
whereupon  he  was  suspended  for  contumacy,  "  directing, 
however,  that  if  he  should  signify  his  sorrow  for  his 
conduct  to  any  member,  that  member  should  notify  the 
Moderator,  who  was  to  call  the  court  together  and  take 
off  the  suspension."  With  an  ardent  love  of  personal 
liberty  and  freedom  of  opinion,  he  was  far  in  advance 
of  his  brethren;  also,  in  his  views  on  civil  government. 
These  "  advanced  views "  he  gave  to  the  public  in 
pamphlet  form,  and  attracted  so  much  attention  that 
Thomas  Cookston,  one  of  his  majesty's  justices  in 
Lancaster  County,  had  him  arraigned  for  treason,  and 
laid  the  pamphlet,  in  the  name  of  the  Governor,  before 
the  Synod  of  Philadelphia.  Though  the  publication  was 
anonymous,  its  authorship  was  very  generally  attributed 
to  Mr.  Craighead.  The  Synod  unanimously  agreed  that 
the  pamphlet  was  "  full  of  treason  and  sedition,"  and 
made  haste  to  declare  their  abhorrence  of  the  paper, 
and  with  it  all  principles  and  practices  that  tend  to 
destroy  the  civil  and  religious  rights  of  mankind,  or  to 
foment  and  encourage  sedition  or  dissatisfaction  with 
the  British  government,  or  encourage  anything  that  is 
disloyal."  At  the  meeting  of  Synod  in  May,  1741,  the 
Church  was  divided,  and  he  went  with  the  New 
Brunswick    party,    but    did    not    remain    long   with    them, 


because  they  refused  to  acknowledge  the  validity  of  the 
Solemn  League  and  Covenant  sworn  by  the  Church  in 
Scotland.  In  1742,  he  published  his  reasons  for  with- 
drawing from  the  American  Presbyterian  Church ;  the 
chief  of  which  was,  that  "neither  the  Synod  nor  the 
Presbyteries  had  adopted  the  Westminster  Standards  as 
a  public  act,"  and,  in  the  fall  of  1742,  he  joined  the 
languishing  cause  of  the  Covenanters.  They  formed  a 
General  Meeting,  over  whicn  he  presided,  and  he  was 
instrumental  in  building  them  a  church  in  Octorara. 
In  the  fall  of  1743,  he  gathered  all  the  Covenanters  of 
Eastern  Pennsylvania  together  and  they  renewed  the 
Covenants.  He  also  opened  up  a  correspondence  with 
the  Reformed  Presbytery  of  Scotland,  and  solicited 
"  helpers  who  might  come  and  assist  him  to  maintain 
the  principles  of  the  Scottish  Reformation."  He,  how- 
ever, lacked  stability.  Before  any  Covenanter  minister 
could  be  induced  to  join  him  from  Scotland,  and 
having  labored  with  great  acceptance  among  the  scattered 
societies  for  seven  years,  he  returned  to  the  Presbyterian 
Church,  and,  in  1749,  removed  to  the  Cowpasture  river, 
in  Augusta  County,  Virginia,  where  he  enjoyed  more 
freedom  in  proclaiming  his  views  of  independence  from 
the  British  government.  Here  he  remained  among  some 
families  who  had  removed  from  Octorara,  and  he 
ministered  to  their  spiritual  wants  for  six  years.  In 
1755,  on  account  of  the  disturbed  state  of  the  country 
by  Indians,  he  crossed  the  Blue  Ridge  mountains  with 
a  colony  of  his  people,  and  settled  on'  the  Catawba 
river,  in  what  is  now  Mecklenberg  County,  North 
Carolina.     He    was  installed    pastor    of   the    congregation 


•of  Rocky  River  and  Sugar  Creek,  Mecklenberg  County, 
North  Carolina,  September  19,  1758.  In  this  beautiful 
and  peaceful  valley,  the  solitary  minister  between  the 
Yadkin  and  the  Catawba,  he  passed  the  remainder  of 
his  days.  Here  he  freely  imbued  the  minds  of  his 
people  with  the  idea  of  independence,  whose  hands  and 
hearts  were  in  the  trying  scenes  of  the  Revolution. 
The  members  who  formed  the  Convention  at  Charlotte, 
North  Carolina,  and  framed  the  First  Declaration  of 
Independence  (Mecklenberg,  May,  1775),  were  all 
members  of  the  Churches  which  he  had  founded  and 
instructed,  and  incorporated  the  principles  which  he  so 
uncompromisingly  advocated.  He  died  at  his  home 
within  three  miles  of  Charlotte,  Mecklenberg  County, 
North  Carolina,  March  12,  1766,  and  was  buried  in  the 
•old  graveyard  adjoining  the  church  where  he  preached. 
Tradition  says  the  two  sassafras  trees  at  the  head  and 
foot  of  the  grave,  sprung  from  the  two  sticks  upon 
which    the  coffin    was  borne. 


Son  of  James  and  Jane  (McAuley)  Crawford,  was 
born  in  Carncullough,  County  Antrim,  Ireland,  May  27, 
1828.  In  early  life  he  evinced  decided  evidence  of  a 
literary  taste,  and  he  was  sent  to  the  school  in  Dervock, 
where  he  received  his  preparatory  training.  In  1839, 
he  began  the  study  of  the  languages  in  Derry  Keva, 
and  continued  them  in  Ballymoney.  In  1845,  he  entered 
Belfast  College,  where  he  took  several  prizes  for  pro- 
ficiency, and  engaged  in  teaching.  In  1849,  he  entered 
the  College  of  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  where  he  attended 
some    classes    and    waited    on    the    lectures    of    Dr.    Cun- 


ningham,  of  the  Free  Church  Seminary,  on  Systematic 
Theology,  and  was  for  some  time  employed  as  a 
missionary  among  the  Papists  in  Edinburgh.  He  studied 
theology  in  the  Seminary  of  Paisley,  Scotland,  one 
year,  when  his  health  failed.  Following  the  advice  of 
physicians  and  friends,  he  emigrated  to  America,  January 
15,  1852,  and  settled  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  Penn- 
sylvania, whither  his  parents  had  preceeded  him.  He 
resumed  his  theological  studies  under  the  direction  of 
Drs.  J.  M.  Willson  and  S.  O.  Wylie,  and  was  licensed 
by  the  New  York  Presbytery,  May  24,  1853.  He  was 
ordained  by  the  Philadelphia  Presbytery,  and  installed 
pastor  of  the  congregation  of  Baltimore,  Maryland, 
November  15,  1853.  A  few  weeks  preceeding  his  death, 
he  contracted  a  cold  resulting  in  a  violent  toothache, 
at  the  time  occasioning  no  alarm  ;  but  the  disease 
extended  rapidly  to  the  lungs,  causing  congestion,  from 
which  he  died,  at  the  residence  of  Mr.  James  Smith, 
in  Baltimore,  Maryland,  September  3,  1856,  and  was